Publications by authors named "Niall Galbraith"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The impact of treatment with bile acid sequestrants on quality of life in patients with bile acid diarrhoea.

BMC Gastroenterol 2022 Jul 2;22(1):325. Epub 2022 Jul 2.

The Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, Wolverhampton Road, Wolverhampton, WV10 0QP, UK.

Background: Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) can be severely debilitating and negatively affect patients' quality of life (QoL). We carried out a multi-centre prospective study exploring QoL outcomes in patients with BAD after treatment with colesevelam.

Methods: Patients with or without a positive 23-seleno-25-homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT) scan were recruited and categorised into four groups: SeHCAT negative control group (CG), idiopathic BAD, post-cholecystectomy (PC) and post-terminal ileal resection for Crohn's disease (CD). Patients with a positive SeHCAT were treated with colesevelam and dosing was titrated to symptomatic response. Patients were reviewed at 4- and 8-weekly intervals and QoL was evaluated by EQ-5D-3L, SF-36, IBDQ-32 at each visit (where relevant). Patients with a negative SeHCAT (CG cohort) completed one set of questionnaires before being discharged from the study.

Results: 47 patients (BAD = 24, PC = 12, CD = 11) completed paired QoL questionnaires before and after treatment and 30 CG patients completed a baseline questionnaire. There was a significant improvement in IBDQ-32 mean scores before and after treatment in CD patients [134.6 (95%CI 112.5-156.6) and 158.4 (136.1-180.6), respectively (p = 0.007). Following treatment, BAD patients had significantly improved mean SF-36 scores in the "Role limitation due to physical health" dimension (p = 0.02) and in the overall mental component summary (p = 0.03). Prior to starting treatment, BAD patients had the lowest scores in the 'activity' dimension of the EQ-5D-3L (p = 0.04), which improved significantly after treatment (p = 0.002). Overall, the BAD and CD cohort showed improved mean scores with treatment in all components of the SF-36 and EQ-5D-3L, while the PC cohort showed a general decline in mean scores after treatment. 55% of patients clinically responded to treatment of which 41.7%, 58.3% and 81.8% responded from the BAD, PC and CD groups respectively. Correlations between those deemed as responders with improvements on the SF-36 and EQ-5D dimensions were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate improved QoL in the BAD and CD cohort with treatment. Further larger studies are recommended specifically investigating the PC cohort and whether patients may improve with newer treatments such as FXR agonists. Trial registration Ethical approval REC Ref: 16/LO/1325.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-022-02404-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9250209PMC
July 2022

A single faecal bile acid stool test demonstrates potential efficacy in replacing SeHCAT testing for bile acid diarrhoea in selected patients.

Sci Rep 2022 05 18;12(1):8313. Epub 2022 May 18.

Clinical Chemistry, Black Country Pathology Services, The Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, Wolverhampton, UK.

This study examines the validity of measuring faecal bile acids (FBA) in a single stool sample as a diagnostic tool for bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) by direct comparison to the selenium-homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT) scan. A prospective observational study was undertaken. Patients with chronic diarrhoea (> 6 weeks) being investigated for potential BAD with SeHCAT scan provided stool samples for measurement of FBA, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were characterised into four groups: SeHCAT negative control group, post-cholecystectomy, idiopathic BAD and post-operative terminal ileal resected Crohn's disease. Stool samples were collected at baseline and 8-weeks post treatment to determine whether FBA measurement could be used to monitor therapeutic response. 113 patients had a stool sample to directly compare with their SeHCAT result. FBA concentrations (μmol/g) and interquartile ranges in patients in the control group (2.8; 1.6-4.2), BAD (3.6; 1.9-7.2) and post-cholecystectomy cohort 3.8 (2.3-6.8) were similar, but all were significantly lower (p < 0.001) compared to the Crohn's disease cohort (11.8; 10.1-16.2). FBA concentrations in patients with SeHCAT retention of < 15% (4.95; 2.6-10.5) and < 5% (9.9; 4.8-15.4) were significantly higher than those with a SeHCAT retention > 15% (2.6; 1.6-4.2); (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity using FBA cut-off of 1.6 μmol/g (using ≤ 15% SeHCAT retention as diagnostic of BAD) were 90% and 25% respectively. A single random stool sample may have potential use in diagnosing severe BAD or BAD in Crohn's patients. Larger studies are now needed to confirm the potential efficacy of this test to accurately diagnose BAD in the absence of SeHCAT testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-12003-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9117305PMC
May 2022

The roles of motivational interviewing and self-efficacy on outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a community-based exercise intervention for inactive middle-older aged adults.

Health Soc Care Community 2022 07 14;30(4):e1048-e1060. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Tiller Research Ltd., Worcestershire, UK.

Increasing physical activity (PA) among inactive middle-older aged adults in rural communities is challenging. This study investigates the efficacy of a PA intervention supporting inactive adults in rural/semirural communities. Inactive participants enrolled on either a single signposting session (n =427) or a multisession pathway combining signposting with motivational interviewing (MI; n = 478). Pre-post outcomes data assessed activity levels (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form; Single Item Sport England Measure), self-efficacy (New General Self-Efficacy scale [NGSE]) and well-being (five-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index [WHO-5]). Measures were repeated at longitudinal time points (26, 52 weeks) for the MI pathway. Outcomes were contrasted with results from an unmatched comparison group receiving treatment as usual (TAU). Cost-utility (quality-adjusted life years [QALY]-incremental cost-effectiveness ratio) and return on investment (NHS-ROI; QALY-ROI) were estimated for short (5 years), medium (10 years) and long (25 years) time horizons. Both pathways significantly increased participants' PA. The MI pathway resulted in significantly greater increases in PA than signposting-only and TAU. Improvements in psychological outcomes (NGSE; WHO-5) were significantly greater in the MI pathway than TAU. Longitudinal results indicated MI pathway participants sustained increases in light-intensity PA at 52 weeks (p < 0.001;  = 0.16). Regression analyses found baseline self-efficacy predicted increased PA at 52 weeks, while baseline well-being did not. The relationship between self-efficacy and PA increased successively across time points. However, magnitude of participants' increased self-efficacy did not predict PA at any time point. Both pathways were cost-effective and cost -saving for participants aged ≥61 years from the short time horizon, with the MI pathway having greater ROI estimates. Overall, MI increased efficacy of a signposting PA intervention and was cost-saving for older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13510DOI Listing
July 2022

Patterns of occupational stress in police contact and dispatch personnel: implications for physical and psychological health.

Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2021 Feb 12;94(2):231-241. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Nuffield Health Hereford Hospital, Venns Lane, Hereford, HR1 1DF, UK.

Purpose: Occupational stress in police call handlers is researched less frequently than in operational or frontline police, despite the role's unique challenges. Occupational stress is potentially manageable, thus improved understanding of its contributors and consequences is important for effective intervention. We aimed to compare levels and sources of organisational stress in police contact and dispatch personnel with UK benchmarks. Second, to test whether different typologies of stress were associated with physical health, mental health and substance use. Finally, to examine whether non-organisational factors (socio-demographic factors and family interference with work (FIW)) predicted organisational stress typologies.

Methods: A sample (n = 720) of police and civilian staff in a UK police call and dispatch centre were surveyed.

Results: The strongest sources of stress were competing and high demands, low control, insufficient managerial support and ambiguity surrounding workplace change-all of which indicated need for 'urgent action' according to UK benchmarks. Substance use and particularly mental health difficulties were higher than published norms. A latent profile analysis grouped respondents into a low-stress group and two high-stress profiles. As stress increased across profiles, this corresponded with worse physical and mental health and higher substance use. FIW predicted membership of both high-stress profiles.

Conclusion: Despite non-operational roles, police contact and despatch personnel can experience high occupational stress which is associated with physical and mental health difficulties and substance use. Organisational-level interventions which address lack of control, conflicting role demands as well as enhance management support and communication around change might be most effective in this group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-020-01562-1DOI Listing
February 2021

The mental health of doctors during the COVID-19 pandemic.

BJPsych Bull 2021 Apr;45(2):93-97

Department of Psychiatry, Queen's University, Providence Care Hospital, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Doctors experience high levels of work stress even under normal circumstances, but many would be reluctant to disclose mental health difficulties or seek help for them, with stigma an often-cited reason. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis places additional pressure on doctors and on the healthcare system in general and research shows that such pressure brings a greater risk of psychological distress for doctors. For this reason, we argue that the authorities and healthcare executives must show strong leadership and support for doctors and their families during the COVID-19 outbreak and call for efforts to reduce mental health stigma in clinical workplaces. This can be facilitated by deliberately adding 'healthcare staff mental health support process' as an ongoing agenda item to high-level management planning meetings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjb.2020.44DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322151PMC
April 2021

A Research Note on the Influence of Relationship Length and Sex on Preferences for Altruistic and Cooperative Mates.

Psychol Rep 2019 Apr 4;122(2):550-557. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Psychology Department, Institute of Sport and Human Sciences, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK.

Previous literature suggests that altruism may have evolved as a sexually selectable trait. Recent research suggests that women seek altruistic traits for long-term, not short-term relationships, as altruism can serve as an honest signal of one's character. We tested this hypothesis by asking 102 participants to complete a modified version of Buss's Mate Preferences Questionnaire. We found that women placed higher importance on altruism in a mate compared to men, and this preference was greater when seeking a long-term mate, compared to a short-term mate. We also found that although women placed greater importance on cooperativeness in a mate compared to men, this preference was not influenced by whether they were seeking a short-term or a long-term mate. We successfully replicate previous literature exploring the role of altruism in mate choice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033294118764640DOI Listing
April 2019

A systematic review of the traits and cognitions associated with use of and belief in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).

Psychol Health Med 2018 08 22;23(7):854-869. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

a Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, Institute of Psychology , University of Wolverhampton , Wolverhampton , UK.

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is widespread despite the controversy over its effectiveness. Although previous reviews have examined the demographics and attitudes of CAM users, there is no existing review on the traits or cognitions which characterise either CAM users or those who believe in CAM effectiveness. The current systematic review set out to address these gaps in the literature by applying a narrative synthesis. A bibliographic search and manual searches were undertaken and key authors were contacted. Twenty-three papers were selected. The trait openness to experience was positively associated with CAM use but not CAM belief. Absorption and various types of coping were also positively associated with CAM use and belief. No other trait was reliably associated with CAM use or belief. Intuitive thinking and ontological confusions were positively associated with belief in CAM effectiveness; intuitive thinking was also positively associated with CAM use. Studies researching cognitions in CAM use/belief were mostly on non-clinical samples, whilst studies on traits and CAM use/belief were mostly on patients. The quality of studies varied but unrepresentative samples, untested outcome measures and simplistic statistical analyses were the most common flaws. Traits and cognition might be important correlates of CAM use and also of faith in CAM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2018.1442010DOI Listing
August 2018

A systematic review of the traits and cognitions associated with use of and belief in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).

Psychol Health Med 2018 08 22;23(7):854-869. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

a Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, Institute of Psychology , University of Wolverhampton , Wolverhampton , UK.

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is widespread despite the controversy over its effectiveness. Although previous reviews have examined the demographics and attitudes of CAM users, there is no existing review on the traits or cognitions which characterise either CAM users or those who believe in CAM effectiveness. The current systematic review set out to address these gaps in the literature by applying a narrative synthesis. A bibliographic search and manual searches were undertaken and key authors were contacted. Twenty-three papers were selected. The trait openness to experience was positively associated with CAM use but not CAM belief. Absorption and various types of coping were also positively associated with CAM use and belief. No other trait was reliably associated with CAM use or belief. Intuitive thinking and ontological confusions were positively associated with belief in CAM effectiveness; intuitive thinking was also positively associated with CAM use. Studies researching cognitions in CAM use/belief were mostly on non-clinical samples, whilst studies on traits and CAM use/belief were mostly on patients. The quality of studies varied but unrepresentative samples, untested outcome measures and simplistic statistical analyses were the most common flaws. Traits and cognition might be important correlates of CAM use and also of faith in CAM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2018.1442010DOI Listing
August 2018

Attitudes of Canadian psychiatry residents if mentally ill: awareness, barriers to disclosure, and help-seeking preferences.

Can Med Educ J 2016 Oct 18;7(2):e14-e24. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Department of Psychiatry, Queen's University.

Background: The medical culture is defined by mental illness stigma, non-disclosure, and avoidance of professional treatment. Little research has explored attitudes and help-seeking behaviors of psychiatry trainees if they were to become mentally ill.

Method: Psychiatry residents ( = 106) from training centres across Ontario, Canada completed a postal survey on their attitudes, barriers to disclosure, and help-seeking preferences in the context of hypothetically becoming mentally ill.

Results: Thirty-three percent of respondents reported personal history of mental illness and the frequency of mental illness by year of training did not significantly differ. The most popular first contact for disclosure of mental illness was family and friends ( = 61, 57.5%). Frequent barriers to disclosure included career implications ( = , 36.8%), stigma ( = 11, 10.4%), and professional standing ( = 15, 14.2%). Personal history of mental illness was the only factor associated with in-patient treatment choice, with those with history opting for more formal advice versus informal advice.

Conclusions: At the level of residency training, psychiatrists are reporting barriers to disclosure and help-seeking if they were to experience mental illness. A majority of psychiatry residents would only disclose to informal supports. Those with a history of mental illness would prefer formal treatment services over informal services.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5344052PMC
October 2016

Ideological vs. Instrumental Barriers to Accessing Formal Mental Health care in the Developing World: Focus on South-eastern Nigeria.

J Health Care Poor Underserved 2016 ;27(1):157-175

The striking gaps in formal mental health care in the developing world are largely traceable to Instrumental and Ideological Barriers. Focusing on south-eastern Nigeria, the study aimed to establish the relative weight, significance and determinants of these barriers for prioritised policy interventions. Multistage sampling method was used to select participants (n = 706) to whom questionnaires were administered. Ideological Barriers (cultural and mental health literacy constraints) were more significantly perceived (84.8%) than Instrumental Barriers (systemic and financial impediments) (56.6%). The study demonstrated the primacy of improved knowledge in plugging the gap in conventional mental health care in a region ironically defined more by systemic and material poverty. This is instructive for prioritised policy interventions with an indication that even if facilities and socio-economic status improve, services will likely be underused without greater improvement in people's conceptualisation of mental illness. It equally underscored the need for cultural competence in mental health service provision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2016.0025DOI Listing
April 2018

Pathways to mental healthcare in south-eastern Nigeria.

Transcult Psychiatry 2016 10 26;53(5):574-94. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Northwick Park Hospital.

In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional and faith healers provide competing services alongside biomedical professionals. This may be associated with delays in reaching specialised mental health services, and hence with longer duration of untreated illness. As first line care constitutes a crucial stage in accessing of psychiatric care, investigating pathways to mental healthcare can highlight help-seeking choices. This study explored the pathways to care for mental illness preferred by a non-clinical sample of the population in south-eastern Nigeria. Multistage sampling was used to select participants (N = 706) who completed questionnaires on help-seeking. Results showed a significant preference for biomedical (90.8%) compared to spiritual (57.8%) and traditional (33.2%) pathways. Higher education predicted preference for the biomedical model, while low education was associated with traditional and spiritual pathways. Protestants preferred the spiritual pathway more than did Catholics. The use of biomedical care is potentially undermined by poor mental health infrastructure, a lack of fit between the culture of biomedical care and the deep-seated cultural/religious worldviews of the people, stigma surrounding mental illness, and the likelihood of a social desirability bias in responses. A complementary model of care is proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1363461516660903DOI Listing
October 2016

BJPsych Bulletin author mentoring scheme - helping trainees become published authors.

BJPsych Bull 2016 Feb;40(1):29-30

University of Wolverhampton.

The publishing world is changing rapidly. Innovations include the move to open access, the rise of social media and the transition to digitalisation. In the light of these developments and with ever-increasing pressures on early career psychiatrists and trainees to publish papers in journals with a recognised pedigree, the BJPsych Bulletin is piloting an author mentoring scheme. Mentors will help clinicians and aspiring academics develop articles from a pedestrian manuscript to one that will hopefully provoke important debate and aid changes in current practices. The scheme will run on a trial basis for approximately 12 months and will then be reviewed. Mentoring has been found to have an important effect of research output including publication and grant success; the hope is that this new initiative at the BJPsych Bulletin will result in such dividends to all involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.bp.115.053215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4768844PMC
February 2016

The methamphetamine problem: Commentary on … Psychiatric morbidity and socio-occupational dysfunction in residents of a drug rehabilitation centre.

Authors:
Niall Galbraith

BJPsych Bull 2015 Oct;39(5):218-20

University of Wolverhampton, UK.

This paper introduces the reader to the characteristics of methamphetamine. Explored within are the drug's effects on those who consume it as well as the history and prevalence of its use. The highly addictive nature of methamphetamine is compounded by its affordability and the ease with which it is produced, with North America and East Asia having become established as heartlands for both consumption and manufacture. The paper discusses recent cultural depictions of the drug and also the role that mental health professionals may take in designing and delivering interventions to treat methamphetamine addiction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/pb.bp.115.050930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4706185PMC
October 2015

Autonomous motivation mediates the relation between goals for physical activity and physical activity behavior in adolescents.

J Health Psychol 2017 04 7;22(5):595-604. Epub 2015 Oct 7.

3 University of Wolverhampton, UK.

Overall, 544 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 14.2 ± .94 years) completed self-report measures of physical activity goal content, behavioral regulations, and physical activity behavior. Body mass index was determined from height and mass. The indirect effect of intrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous ( b = 162.27; 95% confidence interval [89.73, 244.70]), but not controlled motivation ( b = 5.30; 95% confidence interval [-39.05, 45.16]). The indirect effect of extrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous ( b = 106.25; 95% confidence interval [63.74, 159.13]) but not controlled motivation ( b = 17.28; 95% confidence interval [-31.76, 70.21]). Weight status did not alter these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359105315609089DOI Listing
April 2017

Different combinations of perceptual, emotional, and cognitive factors predict three different types of delusional ideation during adolescence.

J Nerv Ment Dis 2014 Sep;202(9):668-76

*University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton; and †Birmingham Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.

Although adolescence is a particularly sensitive period for the development of schizotypy (Walker and Bollini [Schizophr Res 54:17-23, 2002]), there has been relatively limited research on the psychological factors that specifically predict delusional beliefs during adolescence. We studied 392 school students aged 11 to 16 years with a battery of behavioral and psychometric measures. Anxiety and negative-other schemas mediated the relationship between hallucinatory experiences and paranoid beliefs; anxiety mediated the relationship between hallucinatory experiences and grandiose beliefs; anxiety and self-negative schemas mediated the relationship between hallucinatory experiences and "other delusions" (Schneiderian/reference/misidentification). Furthermore, a jump-to-conclusions (JTC) bias moderated the relation between anxiety and other delusions: scores in the other delusions category were highest in adolescents who had both high anxiety and a JTC bias. Sex and age had only weak effects upon delusional belief. Our findings provide novel data by highlighting the different factors that underpin three delusional subtypes during the vulnerable period of adolescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000000179DOI Listing
September 2014

A survey of student nurses' attitudes toward help seeking for stress.

Nurs Forum 2014 Jul-Sep;49(3):171-81. Epub 2014 Jan 6.

Psychology, Department of Psychology, School of Applied Sciences, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK.

Background: Globally, stress in student nurses may have serious implications for health, absenteeism, and attrition. Despite this, there is scant research on student nurses' attitudes toward help seeking.

Objectives: To examine student nurses' attitudes toward stress and help-seeking.

Design Methods And Statistical Analysis: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey design was employed to gather data from 219 student nurses at two large U.K. universities. Two-sample chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests were used to analyze categorical associations between responses.

Results: Most had experienced stress before, believed the incidence within the profession was high, and would disclose their own stress to family/friends rather than to colleagues or professional institutions. The most popular outpatient treatment choice was social support; few would choose formal advice. The most common factor influencing inpatient treatment choice was confidentiality; for many, this factor would also lead them to seek distant rather than local inpatient care. Encouragingly, most would not lose confidence in a stressed colleague.

Conclusions: Negative attitudes toward stress and help seeking may be entrenched even before training and may have a marked influence on how/whether students seek help. Nurse employers and educators should foster more supportive and accepting attitudes toward stress in order to tackle its unwanted consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nuf.12066DOI Listing
November 2015

Causal attribution of mental illness in South-Eastern Nigeria.

Int J Soc Psychiatry 2014 May 15;60(3):274-9. Epub 2013 May 15.

1University of Wolverhampton, UK.

Background: Understanding of mental illness in sub-Saharan Africa has remained under-researched in spite of the high and increasing neuropsychiatric burden of disease in the region.

Aims: This study investigated the causal beliefs that the Igbo people of south-eastern Nigeria hold about schizophrenia, with a view to establishing the extent to which the population makes psychosocial, biological and supernatural attributions.

Method: Multi-stage sampling was used to select participants (N = 200) to which questionnaires were administered.

Results: Mean comparison of the three causal models revealed a significant endorsement of supernatural causation. Logistic regressions revealed significant contributions of old age and female gender to supernatural attribution; old age, high education and Catholic religious denomination to psychosocial attributions; and high education to biological attributions.

Conclusions: It is hoped that the findings would enlighten, augment literature and enhance mental health care service delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020764013485331DOI Listing
May 2014

Assessing intervention effectiveness for reducing stress in student nurses: quantitative systematic review.

J Adv Nurs 2011 Apr 7;67(4):709-21. Epub 2011 Jan 7.

Department of Psychology, School of Applied Sciences, University of Wolverhampton, UK.

Aims: To identify the types of interventions that are effective in reducing stress in student nurses, and to make recommendations for future research.

Background: Student nurses experience significant stress during their training and this may contribute to sickness, absence and attrition. Given the global shortage of nurses and high dropout rates amongst trainees, the importance for developing stress management programmes for student nurses is becoming more evident. To date, only one review has examined the effectiveness of stress interventions for student nurses, but the emergence of recent literature warrants a new review.

Data Sources: Research papers published between April 1981 and April 2008 were identified from the following databases: Medline, CINAHL, Behavioral Sciences Collection, IBSS and Psychinfo.

Review Methods: A quantitative systematic review with narrative synthesis was conducted. Key terms included 'nurses OR nursing OR nurse', 'student OR students', 'intervention', 'stress OR burnout'. In addition to database searches, reference lists of selected papers were scanned, key authors were contacted and manual searches of key journals were conducted.

Results: The most effective interventions provided skills for coping with stressful situations (typically relaxation) and skills for changing maladaptive cognitions. Interventions which promoted skills to reduce the intensity or number of stressors were also successful. In most cases, stress interventions did not improve academic performance.

Conclusion: The design of stress interventions should be driven by theory. Future studies should focus on interface and organizational factors and the long-term benefits of interventions for student nurses are yet to be demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05549.xDOI Listing
April 2011

Subclinical delusional ideation and appreciation of sample size and heterogeneity in statistical judgment.

Br J Psychol 2010 Nov 24;101(Pt 4):621-35. Epub 2010 Feb 24.

Department of Psychology, University of Wolverhampton, UK.

Previous studies demonstrate that people high in delusional ideation exhibit a data-gathering bias on inductive reasoning tasks. The current study set out to investigate the factors that may underpin such a bias by examining healthy individuals, classified as either high or low scorers on the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI). More specifically, whether high PDI scorers have a relatively poor appreciation of sample size and heterogeneity when making statistical judgments. In Expt 1, high PDI scorers made higher probability estimates when generalizing from a sample of 1 with regard to the heterogeneous human property of obesity. In Expt 2, this effect was replicated and was also observed in relation to the heterogeneous property of aggression. The findings suggest that delusion-prone individuals are less appreciative of the importance of sample size when making statistical judgments about heterogeneous properties; this may underpin the data gathering bias observed in previous studies. There was some support for the hypothesis that threatening material would exacerbate high PDI scorers' indifference to sample size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000712609X479384DOI Listing
November 2010

A postal survey of doctors' attitudes to becoming mentally ill.

Clin Med (Lond) 2009 Aug;9(4):327-32

Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Trust, Birmingham.

A postal survey of 3512 doctors in Birmingham was carried out to assess attitudes to becoming mentally ill. The response rate for the questionnaire was 70% (2462 questionnaires). In total, 1807 (73.4%) doctors would choose to disclose a mental illness to family and friends rather than to a professional. Career implications were cited by 800 (32.5%) respondents as the most frequent reason for failure to disclose. For outpatient treatment, 51.1% would seek formal professional advice. For inpatient treatment, 41.0% would choose a local private facility, with only 21.1% choosing a local NHS facility. Of respondents 12.4% indicated that they had experienced a mental illness. Stigma to mental health is prevalent among doctors. At present there are no clear guidelines for doctors to follow for mental healthcare. Confidential referral pathways to specialist psychiatric care for doctors and continuous education on the vulnerability of doctors to mental illness early on in medical training is crucial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.9-4-327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4952498PMC
August 2009

Subclinical delusional ideation and a self-reference bias in everyday reasoning.

Br J Psychol 2008 Feb;99(Pt 1):29-44

Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, UK.

Previous studies (e.g. Moller & Husby, 2000; Blackwood et al., 2004) have revealed that delusional thinking is accompanied by an exaggerated focus upon the self and upon stimuli that are perceived to be related to the self. The objective was to examine whether those high in subclinical delusional ideation exhibit a heightened tendency for self-reference. Using a mixed design, healthy individuals, classified into high- and low-scoring groups on the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (Peters, Day, & Garety, 1996), were compared on everyday reasoning tasks across three experiments. High-PDI scorers, in contrast to the low-PDI group, rated self-referent objections to everyday arguments as stronger than other-referent objections and formulated more self-referent assertion-based objections to everyday arguments. The findings support the notion that subclinical delusional ideation is linked to a self-reference bias, which is evident in the sort of everyday thinking that people engage in when forming or evaluating their beliefs and which may contribute to delusion formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000712607X204317DOI Listing
February 2008

Impulsive nonconformity in female chat room users.

Cyberpsychol Behav 2006 Oct;9(5):634-7

Psychology Subject Group, University of Wolverhampton, School of Applied Sciences, West Midlands, United Kingdom.

Heavy chat room use has been associated with social isolation, introversion, impulse control problems, and risk taking. Such characteristics form part of the cluster of traits associated with schizotypy. This study used multiple regression to examine the relationship between age, sex, four dimensions of schizotypy, and frequency of reported chat room use. The only significant association with schizotypy was between frequency of chat room use and impulsive nonconformity (IN) in females. These findings may be explained by the increased risk associated with female chat room use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2006.9.634DOI Listing
October 2006
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