Publications by authors named "Ngoc Hoat Luu"

7 Publications

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Maternal, neonatal, and child health systems under rapid urbanization: a qualitative study in a suburban district in Vietnam.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Feb 5;20(1):90. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

JW LEE Center for Global Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Vietnam has been successful in increasing access to maternal, neonatal, and child health (MNCH) services during last decades; however, little is known about whether the primary MNCH service utilization has been properly utilized under the recent rapid urbanization. We aimed to examine current MNCH service utilization patterns at a district level.

Methods: The study was conducted qualitatively in a rural district named Quốc Oai. Women who gave a birth within a year and medical staff at various levels participated through 43 individual in-depth interviews and 3 focus group interviews.

Results: Primary MNCH services were underutilized due to a failure to meet increased quality needs. Most of the mothers preferred private clinics for antenatal care and the district hospital for delivery due to the better service quality of these facilities compared to that of the commune health stations (CHSs). Mothers had few sociocultural barriers to acquiring service information or utilizing services based on their improved standard of living. A financial burden for some services, including caesarian section, still existed for uninsured mothers, while their insured counterparts had relatively few difficulties.

Conclusions: For the improved macro-efficiency of MNCH systems, the government needs to rearrange human resources and/or merge some CHSs to achieve economies of scale and align with service volume distribution across the different levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4874-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7003413PMC
February 2020

Study Design for the 2016 Baseline Survey of a Health System Strengthening Project in Quoc Oai District, Hanoi, Vietnam.

J Korean Med Sci 2019 Feb 28;34(5):e42. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Biostatistics and Health Informatics, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: In order to provide essential scientific evidence on the population's health status and social health determinants as well as the current capacity of the health care system in Vietnam to health policy makers and managers, Vietnam Ministry of Health, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, and Ho Chi Minh University of Medicine and Pharmacy collaborated with Seoul National University (Korea) and conducted a health system survey in the Quoc Oai district (of Hanoi capital) that represented northern rural Vietnam.

Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional study. The survey covered different topics (more than 200 questions) and was administered in three separate questionnaires: 1) Basic information of all household members; 2) Household characteristics; and 3) Individual characteristics. Socio-demographic characteristics among the households and individuals were collected from 2,400 households sampled by multi-stage cluster sampling method: more than 200 questions.

Results: The household size of Quoc Oai was larger than the national average and there was no significant difference in gender composition. In addition, the proportions of pre-elderly, age 55-64, and elderly group (65 years old and over) were higher than the national population statistics. In this context, demographic transition has begun in Quoc Oai.

Conclusion: This study design description provides the basic information about a baseline survey of a future prospective cohort (as a part of a collaborative project on strengthening the health system in Vietnam) to the prospective data user of this survey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e42DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356029PMC
February 2019

Patterns of Health Expenditures and Financial Protections in Vietnam 1992-2012.

J Korean Med Sci 2015 Nov 6;30 Suppl 2:S134-8. Epub 2015 Nov 6.

World Health Organization Office in Vietnam, Vietnam.

Health financing has been considered as an important building block of a health system and has a key role in promoting universal health coverage in the Vietnam. This paper aims to describe the pattern of health expenditure, including total health expenditure and composition of health expenditure, over the last two decades in Vietnam. The paper mainly uses the data from Vietnam National Health Account and Vietnam Living Standards Survey. We also included data from other relevant published literature, reports and statistics about health care expenditure in Vietnam. The per capita health expenditure in Vietnam increased from US$ 14 in 1995 to US$ 86 in 2012. The total health expenditure as a share of GDP also rose from 5.2% in 1995 to 6.9% in 2012. Public health expenditure as percentage of government expenditure rose from 7.4% in 1995 to nearly 10% in 2012. The coverage of health insurance went up from 10% in 1995 to 68.5% in 2012. However, health financing in Vietnam was depending on private expenditures (57.4% in 2012). As a result, the proportion of households with catastrophic expenditure in 2012 was 4.2%. The rate of impoverishment in 2012 was 2.5%. To ensure equity and efficient goal of health system, policy actions for containing the health care out-of-pocket payments and their poverty impacts are urgently needed in Vietnam.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2015.30.S2.S134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4659865PMC
November 2015

Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Health of University Students in Eight Provinces of Vietnam.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2015 Nov 5;27(8 Suppl):26S-32S. Epub 2015 Jun 5.

Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Recent systematic reviews have emphasized the need for more research into the health and social impacts of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the Asia-Pacific region. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2099 young adult students in 8 medical universities throughout Vietnam. An anonymous, self-report questionnaire included the World Health Organization ACE-International Questionnaire and standardized measures of mental and physical health. Three quarters (76%) of the students reported at least one exposure to ACEs; 21% had 4 or more ACEs. The most commonly reported adversities were emotional abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing a household member being treated violently (42.3%, 39.9%, and 34.6%, respectively). Co-occurrence of ACEs had dose-response relationships with poor mental health, suicidal ideation, and low physical health-related quality of life. This first multisite study of ACEs among Vietnamese university students provided evidence that childhood adversity is common and is significantly linked with impaired health and well-being into the early adult years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539515589812DOI Listing
November 2015

Climatic-driven seasonality of emerging dengue fever in Hanoi, Vietnam.

BMC Public Health 2014 Oct 16;14:1078. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

Biostatistics and Medical Informatics Department, Institute of Training for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Dengue fever (DF) has been emerging in Hanoi over the last decade. Both DF epidemiology and climate in Hanoi are strongly seasonal. This study aims at characterizing the seasonality of DF in Hanoi and its links to climatic variables as DF incidence increases from year to year.

Methods: Clinical suspected cases of DF from the 14 central districts of Hanoi were obtained from the Ministry of Health over a 8-year period (2002-2009). Wavelet decompositions were used to characterize the main periodic cycles of DF and climatic variables as well as the mean phase angles of these cycles. Cross-wavelet spectra between DF and each climatic variables were also computed. DF reproductive ratio was calculated from Soper's formula and smoothed to highlight both its long-term trend and seasonality.

Results: Temperature, rainfall, and vapor pressure show strong seasonality. DF and relative humidity show both strong seasonality and a sub-annual periodicity. DF reproductive ratio is increasing through time and displays two clear peaks per year, reflecting the sub-annual periodicity of DF incidence. Temperature, rainfall and vapor pressure lead DF incidence by a lag of 8-10 weeks, constant through time. Relative humidity leads DF by a constant lag of 18 weeks for the annual cycle and a lag decreasing from 14 to 5 weeks for the sub-annual cycle.

Conclusion: Results are interpreted in terms of mosquito population dynamics and immunological interactions between the different dengue serotypes in the human compartment. Given its important population size, its strong seasonality and its dengue emergence, Hanoi offers an ideal natural experiment to test hypotheses on dengue serotypes interactions, knowledge of prime importance for vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-1078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4287517PMC
October 2014

Sanitation behavior among schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic area of Northern rural Vietnam.

BMC Public Health 2012 Feb 21;12:140. Epub 2012 Feb 21.

Department of Environmental Health, Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: In Vietnam, efforts are underway to improve latrine use in rural and remote areas with particular focus on increasing coverage of sanitation in schools. However, there is a lack of information on how the school program affects latrine use by schoolchildren and at community level. This paper analyzes sanitation use among schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic area to inform future school-based sanitation promotion programmes.

Methods: A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was applied during a 5 months period in six primary and secondary schools and in the homes of schoolchildren in four different ethnic villages in Northern rural Vietnam. Using a structured questionnaire, 319 children were interviewed face-to-face to collect quantitative data. Qualitative methods included extensive observations at schools and in the homes of 20 children, a single day's diary writings of 234 children, in-depth interviews with children (20), their parents (20) and school staff (10), and focus group discussions with parents (4) and teachers (6), and picture drawing with children (12).

Results: All surveyed schools had student latrines. However, the observed schoolchildren most commonly urinated and defecated in the open. Main barriers for latrine use included inadequate number of latrines, limited accessibility to latrines, lack of constant water supply in latrines and lack of latrine maintenance by school management. Programs promoting latrine use for children were not conducted in either schools or communities and were not established as a preferred social norm in such settings. Children perceived existing school latrines as unappealing and expressed a wish to have basic, functional, clean, and colorful school latrines with privacy.

Conclusions: The paper shows that the current school based sanitation promotion is insufficient to change sanitation behavior of school children irrespective of their ethnicity. It is important that schools, households and communities work more closely together to increase use and uptake of latrine use among schoolchildren. Also, the contractors of latrine facilities must work more closely with local school management when constructing latrines, including identifying location, design and appropriate systems of water supply. A separate budget needs to be allocated to allow the school to maintain the sanitation infrastructure and keep it hygienic and appealing for users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3305623PMC
February 2012

Motivation of university and non-university stakeholders to change medical education in Vietnam.

BMC Med Educ 2009 Jul 24;9:49. Epub 2009 Jul 24.

Biostatistics and Medical Informatics Department, Faculty of Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Dong Da, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Both university and non-university stakeholders should be involved in the process of curriculum development in medical schools, because all are concerned with the competencies of the graduates. That may be difficult unless appropriate strategies are used to motivate each stakeholder. From 1999 to 2006, eight medical schools in Vietnam worked together to change the curriculum and teaching for general medical students to make it more community oriented. This paper describes the factors that motivated the different stakeholders to participate in curriculum change and teaching in Vietnamese medical schools and the activities to address those factors and have sustainable contributions from all relevant stakeholders.

Methods: Case study analysis of contributions to the change process, using reports, interviews, focus group discussions and surveys and based on Herzberg's Motivation Theory to analyze involvement of different stakeholders.

Results: Different stakeholders were motivated by selected activities, such as providing opportunities for non-university stakeholders to share their opinions, organizing interactions among university stakeholders, stimulating both bottom-up and top-down inputs, focusing on learning from each other, and emphasizing self-motivation factors.

Conclusion: The Herzberg Motivation theory helped to identify suitable approaches to ensure that teaching topics, materials and assessment methods more closely reflected the health care needs of the community. Other medical schools undertaking a reform process may learn from this experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-9-49DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2724474PMC
July 2009