Publications by authors named "Nghia Duy Ngu"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Association of public health interventions and COVID-19 incidence in Vietnam, January to December 2020.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Research School of Population Health, College of Health and Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Vietnam implemented various public health interventions such as contact tracing and testing, mandatory quarantine, and lockdowns in response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the effects of these measures on the epidemic remain unclear.

Methods: This article describes the public health interventions in relation to COVID-19 incidence. Maximum likelihood estimations were used to assess containment delays (time between symptom onset and start of isolation) and multivariable regression was employed to identify associated factors between interventions and COVID-19 incidence. The effective reproductive numbers (Rt) were calculated based on transmission pairs.

Results: Interventions were introduced periodically in response to the epidemic. Overall, 817 (55.4%) among 1474 COVID-19 cases were imported. Based on a serial interval of 8.72 ± 5.65 days, it was estimated that Rt decreased to below 1 (lowest at 0.02, 95% CI 0-0.12) during periods of strict border control and contact tracing, and increased ahead of new clusters. The main method to detect cases shifted over time from passive notification to active case-finding at immigration or in lockdown areas, with containment delays showing significant differences between modes of case detection.

Conclusions: A combination of early, strict, and consistently implemented interventions is crucial to control COVID-19. Low-middle income countries with limited capacity can contain COVID-19 successfully using non-pharmaceutical interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
July 2021

Timeliness of contact tracing among flight passengers during the COVID-19 epidemic in Vietnam.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 28;21(1):393. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Communicable Diseases Control and Prevention, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: International air travel plays an important role in the global spread of SARS-CoV-2, and tracing of close contacts is an integral part of the public health response to COVID-19. We aimed to assess the timeliness of contact tracing among airline passengers arriving in Vietnam on flights containing COVID-19 cases and investigated factors associated with timeliness of contact tracing.

Methods: We included data from 2228 passengers on 22 incoming flights between 2 and 19 March 2020. Contact tracing duration was assessed separately for the time between the date of index case confirmation and date of contact tracing initiation (interval I), and the date of contact tracing initiation and completion (interval II). We used log-rank tests and multivariable Poisson regression models to identify factors associated with timeliness.

Results: The median duration of interval I and interval II was one (IQR: 1-2) and 3 days (IQR: 2-5), respectively. The contact tracing duration was shorter for passengers from flights where the index case was identified through mandatory testing directly upon arrival (median = 4; IQR: 3-5) compared to flights with index case detection through self-presentation at health facilities after arrival (median = 7; IQR: 5-8) (p-value = 0.018). Cumulative hazards for successful tracing were higher for Vietnamese nationals compared to non-Vietnamese nationals (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Contact tracing among flight passengers in the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic in Vietnam was timely though delays occurred on high workload days. Mandatory SARS-CoV-2 testing at arrival may reduce contact tracing duration and should be considered as an integrated screening tool for flight passengers from high-risk areas when entering low-transmission settings with limited contact tracing capacity. We recommend a standardized risk-based contact tracing approach for flight passengers during the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
April 2021

Hypoglycemic Toxins and Enteroviruses as Causes of Outbreaks of Acute Encephalitis-Like Syndrome in Children, Bac Giang Province, Northern Vietnam.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 08;24(8):1435-1443

We investigated the cause of seasonal outbreaks of pediatric acute encephalitis-like syndrome associated with litchi harvests (May-July) in northern Vietnam since 2008. Nineteen cerebrospinal fluid samples were positive for human enterovirus B, and 8 blood samples were positive for hypoglycemic toxins present in litchi fruits. Patients who were positive for hypoglycemic toxins had shorter median times between disease onset and admission, more reports of seizures, more reports of hypoglycemia (glucose level <3 mmol/L), lower median numbers of leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid, and higher median serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase than did patients who were positive for enteroviruses. We suggest that children with rapidly progressing acute encephalitis-like syndrome at the time of the litchi harvest have intoxication caused by hypoglycemic toxins, rather than viral encephalitis, as previously suspected. These children should be urgently treated for life-threatening hypoglycemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
August 2018

Expanding severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) surveillance beyond influenza: The process and data from 1 year of implementation in Vietnam.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2018 09 10;12(5):632-642. Epub 2018 Jun 10.

Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: In 2016, as a component of the Global Health Security Agenda, the Vietnam Ministry of Health expanded its existing influenza sentinel surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) to include testing for 7 additional viral respiratory pathogens. This article describes the steps taken to implement expanded SARI surveillance in Vietnam and reports data from 1 year of expanded surveillance.

Methods: The process of expanding the suite of pathogens for routine testing by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) included laboratory trainings, procurement/distribution of reagents, and strengthening and aligning SARI surveillance epidemiology practices at sentinel sites and regional institutes (RI).

Results: Surveillance data showed that of 4003 specimens tested by the RI laboratories, 20.2% (n = 810) were positive for influenza virus. Of the 3193 influenza-negative specimens, 41.8% (n = 1337) were positive for at least 1 non-influenza respiratory virus, of which 16.2% (n = 518), 13.4% (n = 428), and 9.6% (n = 308) tested positive for respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, and adenovirus, respectively.

Conclusions: The Government of Vietnam has demonstrated that expanding respiratory viral surveillance by strengthening and building upon an influenza platform is feasible, efficient, and practical.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
September 2018

Habitual tea drinking associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in Vietnamese adults.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2018;27(3):701-706

School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.

Background And Objectives: The association between tea consumption and type 2 diabetes risk remains inconsistent in Asian populations. This case-control study investigated the association between habitual tea consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes among Vietnamese adults.

Methods And Study Design: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted during 2013-2015 in Vietnam. A total of 599 newly diagnosed diabetic cases (aged 40-65 years) and 599 hospital-based controls, frequency matched by age and sex, were recruited. Information about frequency, quantity, and duration of tea drinking, together with demographics, habitual diet and lifestyle characteristics, was obtained from direct interviews using a validated and reliable questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between different metrics of tea consumption and the type 2 diabetes risk.

Results: Control subjects reported higher tea consumption levels than the cases in terms of duration, frequency, and quantity of tea drunk. After accounting for confounding factors, increasing tea consumption was found to be associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes; the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.66 (0.49, 0.89) for participants drinking >2 cups/day, relative to those drinking <1 cup/day. Significant inverse dose-response relationships were also observed for average number of cups consumed daily and years of tea drinking (p<0.01).

Conclusions: Habitual tea consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes among Vietnamese adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
September 2019