Publications by authors named "Neville A Stanton"

123 Publications

Exploring the Relationship between Attitudes, Risk Perceptions, Fatalistic Beliefs, and Pedestrian Behaviors in China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 24;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Human Factors Engineering, Transportation Research Group, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 7QF, UK.

Road safety has become a worldwide public health concern. Although many factors contribute to collisions, pedestrian behaviors can strongly influence road safety outcomes. This paper presents results of a survey investigating the effects of age, gender, attitudes towards road safety, fatalistic beliefs and risk perceptions on self-reported pedestrian behaviors in a Chinese example. The study was carried out on 543 participants (229 men and 314 women) from 20 provinces across China. Pedestrian behaviors were assessed by four factors: errors, violations, aggressions, and lapses. Younger people reported performing riskier pedestrian behaviors compared to older people. Gender was not an influential factor. Of the factors explored, attitudes towards road safety explained the most amount of variance in self-reported behaviors. Significant additional variance in risky pedestrian behaviors was explained by the addition of fatalistic beliefs. The differences among the effects, and the implications for road safety intervention design, are discussed. In particular, traffic managers can provide road safety education and related training activities to influence pedestrian behaviors positively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037076PMC
March 2021

Resolving the differences between system development and system operation using STAMP: a road safety case study in a low-income setting.

Ergonomics 2021 Feb 1:1-17. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Human Factors Engineering, Transportation Research Group University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Road safety strategies adopted worldwide have made significant progress in reducing road trauma, but have stagnated more recently. The situation in low- and middle-income countries is even worse with no significant decrease in fatality rates. Safety researchers have argued that adopting sociotechnical systems approach is necessary to make significant advancements and improvements. The aim of this study was to develop a control structure model of the Bangladesh road safety system by identifying the actors and organisations involved across the system. Expert stakeholders were identified and interviewed, and relevant information was gathered in order to generate the Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Process control structure model. Throughout the analysis of this model, differences in the control and feedback mechanisms of the system were identified, and road safety intervention recommendations were made. Future research should also predict potential risks within the system and propose proactive and preventative countermeasures. : In this article, a Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Process control structure model of the Bangladesh road safety system is developed, and the involved actors are identified. Based on interviews and workshops with expert stakeholders, differences in the controls and feedback mechanisms in the system were identified, and road safety intervention recommendations were made. BUET: Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2021.1876928DOI Listing
February 2021

Complexity theory in accident causation: using AcciMap to identify the systems thinking tenets in 11 catastrophes.

Ergonomics 2021 Feb 1:1-18. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, Centre for Human Factors and Sociotechnical Systems, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Australia.

The quest to explain and understand the cause of accidents is both ever-present and ongoing amongst the safety science community. In an attempt to advance the theory and science of accident causation, researchers have recently formalised a set of '15 systems thinking tenets' that cover the conditions and characteristics of work systems that are believed to contribute to the cause of accidents. The purpose of this study was to attempt to identify the systems thinking tenets across a range of different systems and accidents using the Accident Mapping (AcciMap) method. The findings suggest that the tenets can be attributed to play a role in accident causation, however as a result of this process, the capability of AcciMap has been brought into question. Implications and directions for future research are described. : This study is an extension of previous work that suggested there was a need to test for the 'systems thinking tenets of accident causation' in a multi-incident dataset. We used AcciMap to evaluate whether it has the capability to support ongoing accident analysis activities in ergonomics research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2020.1869321DOI Listing
February 2021

Systems thinking-based risk assessment methods applied to sports performance: A comparison of STPA, EAST-BL, and Net-HARMS in the context of elite women's road cycling.

Appl Ergon 2021 Feb 5;91:103297. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Centre for Human Factors and Sociotechnical Systems, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, 4558, Australia.

There is increasing interest in applying systems Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) methods in sport. Risk assessment (RA) methods can be used identify risks which may impact the performance of individual athletes, teams, and overall sports systems; however, they have not yet been tested in sport. This study sets out to apply and compare three systems thinking-based RA methods in the context of elite sports performance and report on the frequency and types of the risks identified. The Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) method, the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork Broken Links (EAST-BL) method, and the Networked Hazard Analysis and Risk Management System (Net-HARMS) method were applied to elite women's road cycling to identify all the credible risks that could degrade optimal team performance. The findings demonstrate that all three methods appear to provide useful results in a context other than safety, and that multiple risks threatening the performance of the cycling team were identified. Whilst the frequency and types of risks differed across the methods applied, there are additional theoretical, methodological, and practical implications to be considered prior to the selection and use of systems thinking-based RA approaches. Recommendations and directions for future HFE and sports science research are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2020.103297DOI Listing
February 2021

Adjusting the need for speed: assessment of a visual interface to reduce fuel use.

Ergonomics 2021 Mar 24;64(3):315-329. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Previous research has identified that fuel consumption and emissions can be considerably reduced if drivers engage in eco-driving behaviours. However, the literature suggests that individuals struggle to maintain eco-driving behaviours without support. This paper evaluates an in-vehicle visual interface system designed to support eco-driving through recommendations based on both feedforward and feedback information. A simulator study explored participants' fuel usage, driving style, and cognitive workload driving normally, when eco-driving without assistance and when using a visual interface. Improvements in fuel-efficiency were observed for both assisted (8.5%) and unassisted eco-driving (11%), however unassisted eco-driving also induced a significantly greater rating of self-reported effort. In contrast, using the visual interface did not induce the same increase of reported effort compared to everyday driving, but itself did not differ from unassisted driving. Results hold positive implications for the use of feedforward in-vehicle interfaces to improve fuel efficiency. Accordingly, directions are suggested for future research. Results from a simulator study comparing fuel usage from normal driving, engaging in unassisted eco-driving, or using a novel speed advisory interface, designed to reduce fuel use, are presented. Whilst both unassisted and assisted eco-driving reduced fuel use, assisted eco-driving did not induce workload changes, unlike unassisted eco-driving. CO-2: carbon dioxide; NASA-TLX: NASA task load index; RMS: root-mean-square; MD: mean difference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2020.1834624DOI Listing
March 2021

Representing two road traffic collisions in one Accimap: highlighting the importance of emergency response and enforcement in a low-income country.

Ergonomics 2020 Dec 19;63(12):1512-1524. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Human Factors Engineering, Transportation Research Group, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Seemingly erratic pedestrian crossing has become a major source of vehicle-pedestrian collisions on highways in Bangladesh, and across other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this article, we approach the challenge from a sociotechnical systems perspective by using the Accimap method to analyse a pair of time-separated yet interconnected road traffic collisions. The first event involved a truck colliding with a road divider; in the second, fatal incident, a bus hit a university student. The traditional-style investigation conducted immediately after the collision apportioned blame to end users, that is, drivers and pedestrian; however, application of sociotechnical systems thinking revealed the contribution from lack of emergency response and enforcement among many other important factors. Results and recommendations are discussed in terms of reducing the chance and severity of such collisions across LMICs, and in terms of the need to look beyond the end-user, a focus that remains dominant in such settings. : This paper applies sociotechnical systems thinking to pedestrian safety in Bangladesh by analysing two inter-connected road traffic collisions using a single Accimap. The findings emphasise the importance of implementing road safety interventions that target all system levels, and draw attention to the importance of post-collision response in low-income settings. BUET: Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2020.1807064DOI Listing
December 2020

Out of control? Using STAMP to model the control and feedback mechanisms surrounding identity crime in darknet marketplaces.

Appl Ergon 2020 Nov 2;89:103223. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Centre for Human Factors and Sociotechnical Systems, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, Queensland, 4558, Australia; Transportation Research Group, Civil Maritime and Environmental Engineering and Science Unit, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Boldrewood Innovation Campus, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Electronic address:

Darknet marketplaces have emerged as a facilitator of identity crime and trading. This study aimed to (1) understand the entities and control and feedback mechanisms that influence identity crime prevention and occurrence on the darknet in the Australian system and to (2) comprehensively identify the implications of control failures across all system levels. The Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) was used to develop an identity crime control structure in consultation with subject matter experts and then the Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) was applied. The STPA identified 310 risk states, resulting from control failures and which were associated with the range of agencies, organisations, and individuals present across system levels. As darknet marketplaces rapidly evolve, alignment between these entities is necessary to enable agile system responses. STAMP and STPA have promise in understanding the potential for intervention across all system levels in preventing societal issues such as identity crime.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2020.103223DOI Listing
November 2020

How do fatalistic beliefs affect the attitudes and pedestrian behaviours of road users in different countries? A cross-cultural study.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 May 6;139:105491. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Human Factors Engineering, Transportation Research Group, University of Southampton, UK.

This paper reports on an exploratory investigation of the influence of five different fatalistic belief constructs (divine control, luck, helplessness, internality, and general fatalism) on three classes of self-reported pedestrian behaviours (memory and attention errors, rule violations, and aggressive behaviours) and on respondents' general attitudes to road safety, and how relationships between constructs differ across countries. A survey of over 3400 respondents across Bangladesh, China, Kenya, Thailand, the UK, and Vietnam revealed a similar pattern for most of the relationships assessed, in most countries; those who reported higher fatalistic beliefs or more external attributions of causality also reported performing riskier pedestrian behaviours and holding more dangerous attitudes to road safety. The strengths of relationships between constructs did, however, differ by country, behaviour type, and aspect of fatalism. One particularly notable country difference was that in Bangladesh and, to a lesser extent, in Kenya, a stronger belief in divine influence over one's life was associated with safer attitudes and behaviours, whereas where significant relationships existed in the other countries the opposite was true. In some cases, the effect of fatalistic beliefs on self-reported behaviours was mediated through attitudes, in other cases the effect was direct. Results are discussed in terms of the need to consider the effect of locus of control and attributions of causality on attitudes and behaviours, and the need to understand the differences between countries therein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105491DOI Listing
May 2020

Ideation using the "Design with Intent" toolkit: A case study applying a design toolkit to support creativity in developing vehicle interfaces for fuel-efficient driving.

Appl Ergon 2020 Apr 10;84:103026. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Transportation Research Group, Boldrewood Innovation Campus, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO16 7QF, United Kingdom.

Everyday driving is a significant source of greenhouse gases and pollutants within developed nations. Finding ways to combat these emissions and minimise the impact of anthropometric climate change is a growing challenge for all research disciplines. This current paper explores the use of a design toolkit "Design with Intent" to generate ideas for in-vehicle interfaces designed to reduce fuel use and emissions. A preliminary interface validation assessment is also presented in order to assess whether the ideas generated were appropriate in encouraging behavioural change and of potential value. It is suggested that whilst further evaluation of the interfaces are required, the use of the "Design with Intent" toolkit facilitated the creative process, allowing engineers to conceive initial interface designs in a creative manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2019.103026DOI Listing
April 2020

Breaking the cycle of frustration: Applying Neisser's Perceptual Cycle Model to drivers of semi-autonomous vehicles.

Appl Ergon 2020 May 10;85:103037. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

University of Southampton, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Semi-autonomous cars are already on the road and highly autonomous cars will soon be with us. Little is understood about how drivers will adapt to the changing relationship with their vehicle, but to ensure safety and consumer acceptance, this insight is vital. To this end, an on-road study in a semi-autonomous vehicle was undertaken with six UK drivers. The 'think aloud' technique was employed and video and audio footage of their interaction with the vehicle was captured. Neisser's (1976) Perceptual Cycle Model (PCM) was used to analyse the data and three case studies are presented to highlight how poor synergy between driver and semi-autonomous vehicles can occur from the lens of Schema, Action or World information. Seven key design considerations are proposed to ensure a more positive and safer interaction between driver and autonomous vehicle to guide focus by manufacturers. Further evidence for the existence of a 'counter cycle' (Plant and Stanton, 2015) within the PCM is found and how this relates to the challenges of using verbal protocals expressed during a fast moving dynamic task is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2019.103037DOI Listing
May 2020

Predicting Design-Induced Error on the Flight Deck: An Aircraft Engine Oil Leak Scenario.

Hum Factors 2019 Sep 18:18720819872900. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

University of Southampton, UK.

Objective: To explore the types of errors that commercial pilots may make when trying to resolve a suspected engine oil leak using the interfaces currently available.

Background: The decisions that pilots make often have to be made quickly and under time pressure, with the emphasis on avoiding critical situations from arising. To make the correct decisions, it is vital that pilots have accurate and up-to-date information available. However, interaction with flight deck interfaces may lead to error if they are not effectively designed.

Method: A hierarchical task analysis was conducted using evidence from pilot interview data to understand the pilots' typical response to a suspected engine oil leak scenario. This was used as the primary input into the Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Approach (SHERPA).

Results: A total of 108 possible errors were identified. The most common error type was a retrieval error, in which flight crews may retrieve the wrong information about the engine. A number of remedial measures are proposed to try and overcome such issues.

Conclusion: This analysis provides an initial starting point for identifying potential future design ideas that can assist the pilots in dealing with oil leaks.

Application: This work has identified the value of applying human error identification methodologies to the assessment of current flight deck processes surrounding engine oil leaks. The method presented permits the operational analysis of possible errors on the flight deck and facilitates the proposition of remedial measures to implement technological innovations that can mitigate error.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018720819872900DOI Listing
September 2019

Who is responsible for automated driving? A macro-level insight into automated driving in the United Kingdom using the Risk Management Framework and Social Network Analysis.

Appl Ergon 2019 Nov 31;81:102904. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Human Factors Engineering, Transportation Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Southampton, SO16 7QF, UK.

To date, vehicle manufacturers have largely been left to their own initiatives when it comes to the design, development and implementation of automated driving features. Whilst this has enabled developments within the field to accelerate at a rapid pace, we are also now beginning to see the negative aspects of automated design (e.g., driver complacency, automation misuse and ethical dilemmas). It is therefore becoming increasingly important to identify systemic aspects that can address some of these Human Factors challenges. This paper applies the principles of the Risk Management Framework to explore the wider systemic issues associated with automated driving in the United Kingdom through the novel application of network metrics. The authors propose a number of recommendations targeted at each level of the Risk Management Framework that seek to shift the power of influence away from vehicle manufacturers and back into the hands of governing bodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2019.102904DOI Listing
November 2019

The effects of team co-location and reduced crewing on team communication characteristics.

Appl Ergon 2019 Nov 3;81:102875. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

University of Southampton, Boldrewood Innovation Campus, Burgess Road, Southampton, UK.

The manner in which control rooms are configured can impact the flow of information between command teams. Previous research revealed bottlenecks of communications between the Sonar Controller (SOC) and the Operations Officer (OPSO) in submarine control rooms. One way to relieve such bottlenecks is to co-locate operators reliant on one another for task relevant information. The aim of the current studies was to use multiple command teams to empirically examine a novel submarine control room configuration and a reduced crew size in comparison to a baseline of contemporary operations to see if such bottlenecks could be removed. Ten teams performed high and low demand Dived Tracking (DT) scenarios in a simulated submarine control room. Activities and communications of the teams were recorded and quantified using the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) method affording statistical comparisons with a baseline condition of contemporary operations. The findings showed that the co-location of operators relieved the bottleneck of communications between the SOC and the OPSO. Although overall communications increased, this was more balanced across the team and was more adaptive to scenario demand. This was coupled with a significant increase in task completion, even with a reduced crew size, suggesting greater efficiency and productivity. Future research should seek to validate the changes observed with objective measures of task performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2019.102875DOI Listing
November 2019

Better together? Investigating new control room configurations and reduced crew size in submarine command and control.

Ergonomics 2020 Mar 21;63(3):307-323. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Human Factors Engineering, Transportation Research Group, University of Southampton, Boldrewood Innovation Campus, Burgess Road, Southampton, So16 7qf, UK.

The separation of the sound and control rooms in Royal Navy submarines seems to be artefactually reducing the effectiveness of information transition and the overall productivity of the team. A proposed integrated sound and control room was tested in three scenarios: Return to Periscope Depth (RTPD), Inshore Operations (INSO) and Dived Tracking (DT). The activities and communications of a team of serving submariners were recorded in a control room, in a single case study design, comparing co-location and reduced crewing with a baseline of the separate sound and control room configurations that is representative of current submarines. The Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) method was used to examine changes in social, information and task networks. In general terms, the co-location of the submariner team led to more efficient communication and completion of tasks. Reducing the crew was more challenging in the higher demand scenarios. There are constraints acting on control rooms, both in terms of physical space and crew size. This study compared conventional control room with co-location and reduced crew in turn. Teamwork improved in the collocated control room but the reduced crew struggled most under conditions of high demand. DT: dived tracking; EAST: event analysis for systemic teamwork; H: high; INSO: inshore operations; L: low; OOW: office of the watch; OpsO: operations officer; Peri: periscope operator; RTPD: return to periscope depth; RN: royal navy; SoC: sonar controller; SoP: sonar operator; TMA: time-motion analyst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2019.1654137DOI Listing
March 2020

Vulnerable road users in low-, middle-, and high-income countries: Validation of a Pedestrian Behaviour Questionnaire.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Oct 22;131:80-94. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

University of Southampton, Human Factors Engineering Transport, Southampton, SO16 7QF, United Kingdom.

The primary aim of this study was to validate the short version of a Pedestrian Behaviour Questionnaire across six culturally and economically distinct countries; Bangladesh, China, Kenya, Thailand, the UK, and Vietnam. The questionnaire comprised 20 items that asked respondents to rate the extent to which they perform certain types of pedestrian behaviours, with each behaviour belonging to one of five categories identified in previous literature; violations, errors, lapses, aggressive behaviours, and positive behaviours. The sample consisted of 3423 respondents across the six countries. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of the data to the five-factor structure, and a four-factor structure in which violations and errors were combined into one factor (seen elsewhere in the literature). For some items, factor loadings were unacceptably low, internal reliability was low for two of the sub-scales, and model fit indices were generally unacceptable for both models. As such, only the violations, lapses, and aggressions sub-scales were retained (those with acceptable reliability and factor loadings), and the three-factor model tested. Although results suggest that the violations sub-scale may need additional attention, the three-factor solution showed the best fit to the data. The resulting 12-item scale is discussed with regards to country differences, and with respect to its utility as a research tool in cross-cultural studies of road user behaviour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.05.027DOI Listing
October 2019

Using the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) broken-links approach to understand vulnerabilities to disruption in a darknet market.

Ergonomics 2019 Sep 3;62(9):1134-1149. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

a Centre for Human Factors and Sociotechnical Systems, University of the Sunshine Coast , Sippy Downs , Australia.

Darknet markets provide an anonymous, online platform for users to trade illicit drugs, fraudulent identity data, and other commodities. Although law enforcement agencies have been successful in seising many markets, the Darknet is an agile and dynamic environment and market activities often persist and emerge in a new form. Given this constantly changing environment, new ways of disrupting darknet markets are required. This study used Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) to analyse market activity and understand vulnerabilities to disruption. This involved using the EAST broken-links approach to assess the effects of compromising the transmission of information between tasks and between agents. The analysis identified critical vulnerabilities in the system, which included information involved in registering, depositing funds, communicating listing details to buyers, and communicating dispute resolution messages. This study indicates that systems ergonomics methods-in particular, EAST-can provide insight into system vulnerabilities that might be targeted for disruption. This study provides a conceptualisation of the processes, people, structures, and information involved in the buying and selling of goods on a darknet market. Law enforcement agencies may use broken-links analyses to systematically consider the effects of their interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2019.1621392DOI Listing
September 2019

Editorial: Ergonomics and Human Factors in Aviation.

Ergonomics 2019 Feb 26;62(2):131-137. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2019.1564589DOI Listing
February 2019

Know-how or know-why? The role of hybrid electric vehicle drivers' acquisition of eco-driving knowledge for eco-driving success.

Appl Ergon 2019 Feb 12;75:221-229. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Transportation Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can contribute to sustainable transport. Yet, their real-world energy efficiency depends on HEV drivers' eco-driving behaviour. Eco-driving knowledge is key for successful eco-driving. The present research focused on the role of perceived strategy knowledge (know-how) versus technical system knowledge (know-why) in a study with 121 HEV drivers. The relationship between knowledge components and knowledge acquisition processes, as well as fuel efficiency, were examined. Structural equation modelling results indicated that perceived strategy knowledge was related to acquisition by testing (i.e., interacting with the vehicle and its interfaces) and reading (i.e., manuals, books and websites) while technical system knowledge was only related to acquisition by reading. In contrast to technical system knowledge, perceived strategy knowledge was no significant predictor of fuel efficiency. The results indicated that emphasis should be put into promoting technical system knowledge (e.g., by tutoring systems) to support motivated drivers' in achieving higher fuel efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2018.10.009DOI Listing
February 2019

Neonatal nasogastric tube feeding in a low-resource African setting - using ergonomics methods to explore quality and safety issues in task sharing.

BMC Nurs 2018 16;17:46. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

1KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Sharing tasks with lower cadre workers may help ease the burden of work on the constrained nursing workforce in low- and middle-income countries but the quality and safety issues associated with shifting tasks are rarely critically evaluated. This research explored this gap using a Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) method as a novel approach to address this gap and inform task sharing policies in neonatal care settings in Kenya.

Methods: We used Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) and the Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Approach (SHERPA) to analyse and identify the nature and significance of potential errors of nasogastric tube (NGT) feeding in a neonatal setting and to gain a preliminary understanding of informal task sharing.

Results: A total of 47 end tasks were identified from the HTA. Sharing, supervision and risk levels of these tasks reported by subject matter experts (SMEs) varied broadly. More than half of the tasks (58.3%) were shared with mothers, of these, 31.7% (13/41) and 68.3% were assigned a medium and low level of risk by the majority (≥4) of SMEs respectively. Few tasks were reported as 'often missed' by the majority of SMEs. SHERPA analysis suggested omission was the commonest type of error, however, due to the low risk nature, omission would potentially result in minor consequences. Training and provision of checklists for NGT feeding were the key approaches for remedying most errors. By extension these strategies could support safer task shifting.

Conclusion: Inclusion of mothers and casual workers in care provided to sick infants is reported by SMEs in the Kenyan neonatal settings. Ergonomics methods proved useful in working with Kenyan SMEs to identify possible errors and the training and supervision needs for safer task-sharing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12912-018-0314-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6240229PMC
November 2018

Future technology on the flight deck: assessing the use of touchscreens in vibration environments.

Ergonomics 2019 Feb 22;62(2):286-304. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

a Transportation Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and Environment , University of Southampton , Southampton , UK.

Use of touchscreens in the flight deck has been steadily increasing, however, their usability may be severely impacted when turbulent conditions arise. Most previous research focusses on using touchscreens in static conditions; therefore, this study assessed touchscreen use whilst undergoing turbulent representative motion, generated using a 6-axis motion simulator. Touchscreens were tested in centre, side and overhead positions, to investigate how turbulence affected: (1) error rate, movement times and accuracy, (2) arm fatigue and discomfort. Two touchscreen technologies were compared: a 15" infra-red and a 17.3" projected capacitive touchscreen with force sensing capability. The potential of the force sensing capability to minimise unintentional interactions was also investigated. Twenty-six participants undertook multi-direction tapping (ISO 9241; ISO 2010 ) and gesture tasks, under four vibration conditions (control, light chop, light turbulence and moderate turbulence). Error rate, movement time and workload increased and usability decreased significantly, with screen position and increasing turbulence level. Practitioner Summary: This study evaluated the use of infra-red and projected capacitive touchscreen technologies using multi-directional tapping and gesture tasks, whilst being subjected to different levels of turbulence representative motion. Performance degraded significantly with increasing turbulence level and touchscreen location. This has implications for future flight deck design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2018.1552013DOI Listing
February 2019

A toolbox for automated driving on the STISIM driving simulator.

MethodsX 2018 15;5:1073-1088. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Transportation Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Boldrewood Campus, Southampton SO16 7QF, UK.

Driving simulators have been used since the beginning of the 1930s to assist researchers in assessing driver behaviour without putting the driver in harm's way. The current manuscript describes the implementation of a toolbox for automated driving research on the widely used STISIM platform. The toolbox presented in this manuscript allows researchers to conduct flexible research into automated driving, enabling independent use of longitudinal control, and a combination of longitudinal and lateral control, and is available as an open source download through GitHub. The toolbox allows the driver to adjust parameters such as set speed (in 5 kph increments) and time-headway (in steps of 1, 1.5, and 2 s) as well as automation mode dynamically, while logging additional variabless that STISIM does not provide out-of-the-box (time-headway, time to collision). Moreover, the toolbox presented in this manuscript has gone through validation trials showing accurate speed, time-headway, and lane tracking, as well as transitions of control between manual and automated driving. •A toolbox was developed for STISIM driving simulators.•The toolbox allows for automated driving.•Functionality includes tracking of speed, headway, and lane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2018.08.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153448PMC
August 2018

Distributed cognition in aviation operations: a gate-to-gate study with implications for distributed crewing.

Ergonomics 2019 Feb 15;62(2):138-155. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

a Human Factors Engineering, Transportation Research Group, Boldrewood Innovation Campus, Civil, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences , University of Southampton , Burgess Road, Southampton, UK.

The network analysis method, Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST), was used to examine routine aviation operations from multiple perspectives from six key areas (i.e. Dispatch, ATC, ATM, Maintenance, Loading, and the Cockpit). Data was collected over a five-day observational field trial at an international air cargo operator. Researchers recorded the activities of agents operating within the six key areas over three outbound and two inbound flights. Three networks (i.e. social, information and task) were created for four key phases of flight: (i) pre-flight checks and engines start (ii) taxi, take-off and assent, (iii) descent, landing and taxi, and (iv) park and shut down. The networks represent a 'work audit' of short-haul cargo operations, which enabled a detailed understanding of the interactions and connections within the current system. Implications for the future of distributed crewing concepts are discussed. Practitioner Summary: An analysis of the aviation system was undertaken using the amalgamated data from three outbound and two inbound flights. These analyses show the social, information and task interactions for cargo operations. This has been used to specify requirements for future distributed crewing options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2018.1520917DOI Listing
February 2019

Modelling distributed crewing in commercial aircraft with STAMP for a rapid decompression hazard.

Ergonomics 2019 Feb 29;62(2):156-170. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

a Human Factors Engineering, Engineering Centre of Excellence , Boldrewood Campus, University of Southampton , Southampton , UK.

Changes to crewing configurations in commercial airlines are likely as a means of reducing operating costs. To consider the safety implications for a distributed crewing configuration, system theoretic accident model and processes (STAMP) was applied to a rapid decompression hazard. High level control structures for current operations and distributed crewing are presented. The CONOPS generated by STAMP-STPA for distributed crewing, and design constraints associated with unsafe control actions (UCAs) are offered to progress in the route to certification for distributed crewing, and improve safety in current operations. Control loops between stakeholders were created using system-theoretic process analysis (STPA). The factors leading to the Helios 255 incident demonstrated the redundancy that a ground station could offer without the risk of hypoxia, during a decompression incident. STPA analysis also highlighted initial UCAs that could occur within the hypothetical distributed crewing configuration, prompting consideration of design constraints and new CONOPS for ground station design. Practitioner Summary: SPO in commercial aircraft is likely as a means to reduce costs. This paper makes a case for distributed crewing using STAMP-STPA. Comparing current operations with a distributed crewing configuration, the redundancy offered by a ground station is demonstrated. Design constraints and new CONOPs for distributed crewing, and current operations are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2018.1514467DOI Listing
February 2019

The impact of texting on driver behaviour at rail level crossings.

Accid Anal Prev 2018 Sep 21;118:269-276. Epub 2018 May 21.

University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, UK.

A driver text messaging in the vicinity of a rail level crossing represents the merging of a high-risk, high-workload driving environment with a highly distracting secondary task. In this simulator study, we examined how texting impacts driver behaviour on approach to actively controlled urban rail level crossings. Twenty-eight participants drove a series of simulated urban routes containing rail level crossings, while sending text messages and while driving without performing a secondary task. At half of the crossings, drivers were required to respond to the crossing warnings as a train approached. Results revealed that texting on approach to rail level crossings had a detrimental impact on a range of driver behaviour measures. Specifically, texting more than doubled the amount of time spent with eyes off the forward roadway, resulting in drivers spending more than half of their approach time to rail level crossings looking away from the road. This lack of visual attention to the roadway was associated with a range of decrements in driving that may be indicative of a loss of situation awareness, including increased brake reaction time to the crossing warnings and a reduction in lateral position control. The findings have safety implications, not only for urban level crossings, but also for passive level crossings where no warnings are present to re-orient the distracted driver's attention toward an approaching train.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2018.05.002DOI Listing
September 2018

Go Deeper, Go Deeper: Understanding submarine command and control during the completion of dived tracking operations.

Appl Ergon 2018 May;69:162-175

University of Southampton, Building 176, Boldrewood Innovation Campus, Burgess Road, Southampton, UK. Electronic address:

This is a world's first-of-a-kind study providing empirical evidence for understanding submarine control room performance when completing higher and lower demand Dived Tracking (DT) scenarios. A submarine control room simulator was built, using a non-commercial version of Dangerous Waters as the simulation engine. The creation of networked workstations allowed a team of nine operators to perform tasks completed by submarine command teams during DT. The Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) method was used to model the social, task and information networks and describe command team performance. Ten teams were recruited for the study, affording statistical comparisons of how command team roles and level of demand affected performance. Results indicate that command teams can covertly DT a contact differently depending on demand (e.g. volume of contacts). In low demand it was possible to use periscope more often than in high demand, in a 'duck-and-run' fashion. Therefore, the type of information and frequency of particular task completion, was significantly different between the higher and lower demand conditions. This resulted in different operators in the command team experiencing greater demand depending on how the DT mission objective was completed. Potential bottlenecks in the command team were identified and implications are discussed alongside suggestions for future work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2018.02.003DOI Listing
May 2018

Distributed Cognition on the road: Using EAST to explore future road transportation systems.

Appl Ergon 2018 Apr 15;68:258-266. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Human Factors Research Group, University of Nottingham, UK.

Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAV) are set to revolutionise the way in which we use our transportation system. However, we do not fully understand how the integration of wireless and autonomous technology into the road transportation network affects overall network dynamism. This paper uses the theoretical principles underlying Distributed Cognition to explore the dependencies and interdependencies that exist between system agents located within the road environment, traffic management centres and other external agencies in both non-connected and connected transportation systems. This represents a significant step forward in modelling complex sociotechnical systems as it shows that the principles underlying Distributed Cognition can be applied to macro-level systems using the visual representations afforded by the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2017.11.013DOI Listing
April 2018

Creating the environment for driver distraction: A thematic framework of sociotechnical factors.

Appl Ergon 2018 Apr 6;68:213-228. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Transportation Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Boldrewood Innovation Campus, University of Southampton, Burgess Road, Southampton, SO16 7QF, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

As modern society becomes more reliant on technology, its use within the vehicle is becoming a concern for road safety due to both portable and built-in devices offering sources of distraction. While the effects of distracting technologies are well documented, little is known about the causal factors that lead to the drivers' engagement with technological devices. The relevance of the sociotechnical system within which the behaviour occurs requires further research. This paper presents two experiments, the first aims to assess the drivers self-reported decision to engage with technological tasks while driving and their reasoning for doing so with respect to the wider sociotechnical system. This utilised a semi-structured interview method, conducted with 30 drivers to initiate a discussion on their likelihood of engaging with 22 different tasks across 7 different road types. Inductive thematic analysis provided a hierarchical thematic framework that detailed the self-reported causal factors that influence the drivers' use of technology whilst driving. The second experiment assessed the relevance of the hierarchical framework to a model of distraction that was established from within the literature on the drivers use of distracting technologies while driving. The findings provide validation for some relationships studied in the literature, as well as providing insights into relationships that require further study. The role of the sociotechnical system in the engagement of distractions while driving is highlighted, with the causal factors reported by drivers suggesting the importance of considering the wider system within which the behaviour is occurring and how it may be creating the conditions for distraction to occur. This supports previous claims made within the literature based model. Recommendations are proposed that encourage a movement away from individual focused countermeasures towards systemic actors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2017.11.014DOI Listing
April 2018

Is partially automated driving a bad idea? Observations from an on-road study.

Appl Ergon 2018 Apr 22;68:138-145. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Transportation Research Group, University of Southampton, UK.

The automation of longitudinal and lateral control has enabled drivers to become "hands and feet free" but they are required to remain in an active monitoring state with a requirement to resume manual control if required. This represents the single largest allocation of system function problem with vehicle automation as the literature suggests that humans are notoriously inefficient at completing prolonged monitoring tasks. To further explore whether partially automated driving solutions can appropriately support the driver in completing their new monitoring role, video observations were collected as part of an on-road study using a Tesla Model S being operated in Autopilot mode. A thematic analysis of video data suggests that drivers are not being properly supported in adhering to their new monitoring responsibilities and instead demonstrate behaviour indicative of complacency and over-trust. These attributes may encourage drivers to take more risks whilst out on the road.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2017.11.010DOI Listing
April 2018

Walking the talk: Comparing pedestrian 'activity as imagined' with 'activity as done'.

Accid Anal Prev 2018 Apr 7;113:74-84. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Centre for Human Factors and Sociotechnical Systems, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland, Australia.

The safety of vulnerable road users, including pedestrians, is an important issue worldwide. In line with the shift towards systems thinking in transport safety, the aim of this study was to compare the normal performance of pedestrians as they navigate the road system with that imagined by road system managers to gain insights into how safety management can be improved for this vulnerable road user group. The Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork framework was used to compare pedestrian activity 'as imagined' and 'as done' at signalised road intersections and railway level crossings. Data regarding 'activity as imagined' was derived from documentation review, and data on 'activity as done' was derived from a semi-naturalistic study of ten participants. It is concluded that in both environments pedestrians exhibited more diversity and variability than anticipated by system managers. Insights for improving the design of the road environment for pedestrians are provided. Further, it is argued that wider changes to the processes used in the design and management of road systems are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2018.01.016DOI Listing
April 2018

What technologies do people engage with while driving and why?

Accid Anal Prev 2018 Feb 12;111:222-237. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Transportation Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Boldrewood Innovation Campus, University of Southampton, Burgess Road, Southampton, SO16 7QF, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

This paper presents the findings of a semi-structured interview study that was conducted to identify drivers' self-reported likelihood of engaging with technologies that are now commonly found in modern automobiles. Previous research has focused on the effect these technological tasks have on driving performance, but there has been less focus on how, why and when drivers choose to engage with them. As distraction remains a significant contributor to road accidents, an understanding of why it occurs will give important insights into how it can be prevented. A semi-structured interview schedule was developed to allow drivers to discuss the factors that influence their decision to engage with a variety of different technologies. The methodology facilitated both quantitative ratings of the drivers' likelihood of engaging in a variety of tasks and qualitative insights into why. Age and gender had some influence on the propensity to engage, in line with other findings in the literature, as did road type and task type. The reasons drivers gave for why they engage with potentially distracting tasks inform recommendations for preventing distraction related accidents from the increasingly prevalent sources of technologies available to drivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2017.12.004DOI Listing
February 2018