Publications by authors named "Neveen A Soliman"

50 Publications

Mutations in Are a Novel Cause of Galloway-Mowat Syndrome.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Mar 16;32(3):580-596. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

Background: Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is characterized by neurodevelopmental defects and a progressive nephropathy, which typically manifests as steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. The prognosis of GAMOS is poor, and the majority of children progress to renal failure. The discovery of monogenic causes of GAMOS has uncovered molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of disease.

Methods: Homozygosity mapping, whole-exome sequencing, and linkage analysis were used to identify mutations in four families with a GAMOS-like phenotype, and high-throughput PCR technology was applied to 91 individuals with GAMOS and 816 individuals with isolated nephrotic syndrome. and studies determined the functional significance of the mutations identified.

Results: Three biallelic variants of the transcriptional regulator were detected in six families with proteinuric kidney disease. Four families with a variant in the protein's zinc-finger (ZNF) domain have additional GAMOS-like features, including brain anomalies, cardiac defects, and skeletal defects. All variants destabilize the PRDM15 protein, and the ZNF variant additionally interferes with transcriptional activation. Morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of Prdm15 in embryos disrupted pronephric development. Human wild-type RNA rescued the disruption, but the three variants did not. Finally, CRISPR-mediated knockout of in human podocytes led to dysregulation of several renal developmental genes.

Conclusions: Variants in can cause either isolated nephrotic syndrome or a GAMOS-type syndrome on an allelic basis. PRDM15 regulates multiple developmental kidney genes, and is likely to play an essential role in renal development in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020040490DOI Listing
March 2021

Recessive variants impair actin remodeling and cause glomerulopathy in humans and mice.

Sci Adv 2021 Jan 1;7(1). Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease. We found recessive variants in two families with early-onset NS by exome sequencing. Overexpression of wild-type (WT) , but not cDNA constructs bearing patient variants, increased active CDC42 and promoted filopodia and podosome formation. Pharmacologic inhibition of CDC42 or its effectors, formin proteins, reduced NOS1AP-induced filopodia formation. knockdown reduced podocyte migration rate (PMR), which was rescued by overexpression of WT but not by constructs bearing patient variants. PMR in knockdown podocytes was also rescued by constitutively active or the formin Modeling a patient variant in knock-in human kidney organoids revealed malformed glomeruli with increased apoptosis. mice recapitulated the human phenotype, exhibiting proteinuria, foot process effacement, and glomerulosclerosis. These findings demonstrate that recessive variants impair CDC42/DIAPH-dependent actin remodeling, cause aberrant organoid glomerulogenesis, and lead to a glomerulopathy in humans and mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe1386DOI Listing
January 2021

DAAM2 Variants Cause Nephrotic Syndrome via Actin Dysregulation.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 12 23;107(6):1113-1128. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

The discovery of >60 monogenic causes of nephrotic syndrome (NS) has revealed a central role for the actin regulators RhoA/Rac1/Cdc42 and their effectors, including the formin INF2. By whole-exome sequencing (WES), we here discovered bi-allelic variants in the formin DAAM2 in four unrelated families with steroid-resistant NS. We show that DAAM2 localizes to the cytoplasm in podocytes and in kidney sections. Further, the variants impair DAAM2-dependent actin remodeling processes: wild-type DAAM2 cDNA, but not cDNA representing missense variants found in individuals with NS, rescued reduced podocyte migration rate (PMR) and restored reduced filopodia formation in shRNA-induced DAAM2-knockdown podocytes. Filopodia restoration was also induced by the formin-activating molecule IMM-01. DAAM2 also co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with INF2, which is intriguing since variants in both formins cause NS. Using in vitro bulk and TIRF microscopy assays, we find that DAAM2 variants alter actin assembly activities of the formin. In a Xenopus daam2-CRISPR knockout model, we demonstrate actin dysregulation in vivo and glomerular maldevelopment that is rescued by WT-DAAM2 mRNA. We conclude that DAAM2 variants are a likely cause of monogenic human SRNS due to actin dysregulation in podocytes. Further, we provide evidence that DAAM2-associated SRNS may be amenable to treatment using actin regulating compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.11.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820625PMC
December 2020

Subtle cardiac dysfunction in nephropathic cystinosis: insight from tissue Doppler imaging and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography.

Pediatr Nephrol 2020 12 14;35(12):2307-2317. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Center of Pediatric Nephrology & Transplantation, Kasr Al Ainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, 99 El-Manial St., Cairo, 11451, Egypt.

Background: Nephropathic cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder that initially affects the kidney progressing to multi-organ failure due to accumulation of cystine in all tissue compartments.

Objective: The main objective of this study is the evaluation of cardiac function in cystinosis patients using non-conventional echocardiographic modalities like pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging (PW-TDI) and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE).

Methods: This is a case control study conducted on fifteen patients with cystinosis and 15 normal controls. Echocardiography was done for all participants and PW-TDI was performed for measurement of S', E', A' velocities and myocardial performance index (MPI) at basal parts of septal, left ventricle (LV), and right ventricle (RV) free walls. 2D-STE was done for evaluation of global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), and global radial strain (GRS) of LV. Mitral E and A velocities and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) were also measured.

Results: The GLS, GRS, and S' velocity at basal septum and LV lateral wall were significantly lower in patients denoting LV systolic dysfunction (p = 0.005, p < 0.0001, p = 0.001, p = 0.006, respectively), while E/E' were significantly higher in patients group denoting LV diastolic dysfunction (p < 0.001). For RV function, TAPSE, S', and E' velocity were significantly lower in patients group (p 0.013, p < 0.01, p = 0.05, respectively) indicating RV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. The TDI-derived MPI for both LV and RV were significantly higher in patients group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.01, respectively) indicating both ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. For prediction of cardiac dysfunction among patients, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that GRS ≤ 29% had sensitivity 93.3% and specificity 100%, GLS > - 20.1% had sensitivity 66.7% and specificity 93.3%, LV-E/E' >7.87 had sensitivity 73.3% and specificity 93.3%, and MPI-LV > 0.36 had sensitivity 100% and specificity 93.3% while MPI-RV > 0.29 had sensitivity 80% and specificity 93.3% and TAPSE ≤ 19 mm had sensitivity 80% and specificity 73.3%.

Conclusions: Patients with cystinosis have significant both left and right ventricular dysfunction, which can be better evaluated using the non-conventional echocardiographic modalities like TDI and 2D-STE for early detection of subtle cardiac dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04657-6DOI Listing
December 2020

ADPedKD: A Global Online Platform on the Management of Children With ADPKD.

Kidney Int Rep 2019 Sep 29;4(9):1271-1284. Epub 2019 May 29.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic cause of renal failure. For several decades, ADPKD was regarded as an adult-onset disease. In the past decade, it has become more widely appreciated that the disease course begins in childhood. However, evidence-based guidelines on how to manage and approach children diagnosed with or at risk of ADPKD are lacking. Also, scoring systems to stratify patients into risk categories have been established only for adults. Overall, there are insufficient data on the clinical course during childhood. We therefore initiated the global ADPedKD project to establish a large international pediatric ADPKD cohort for deep characterization.

Methods: Global ADPedKD is an international multicenter observational study focusing on childhood-diagnosed ADPKD. This collaborative project is based on interoperable Web-based databases, comprising 7 regional and independent but uniformly organized chapters, namely Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America, and the United Kingdom. In the database, a detailed basic data questionnaire, including genetics, is used in combination with data entry from follow-up visits, to provide both retrospective and prospective longitudinal data on clinical, radiologic, and laboratory findings, as well as therapeutic interventions.

Discussion: The global ADPedKD initiative aims to characterize in detail the most extensive international pediatric ADPKD cohort reported to date, providing evidence for the development of unified diagnostic, follow-up, and treatment recommendations regarding modifiable disease factors. Moreover, this registry will serve as a platform for the development of clinical and/or biochemical markers predicting the risk of early and progressive disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2019.05.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6732756PMC
September 2019

Management of bone disease in cystinosis: Statement from an international conference.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2019 09 5;42(5):1019-1029. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Department of Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive storage disease due to impaired transport of cystine out of lysosomes. Since the accumulation of intracellular cystine affects all organs and tissues, the management of cystinosis requires a specialized multidisciplinary team consisting of pediatricians, nephrologists, nutritionists, ophthalmologists, endocrinologists, neurologists' geneticists, and orthopedic surgeons. Treatment with cysteamine can delay or prevent most clinical manifestations of cystinosis, except the renal Fanconi syndrome. Virtually all individuals with classical, nephropathic cystinosis suffer from cystinosis metabolic bone disease (CMBD), related to the renal Fanconi syndrome in infancy and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) later in life. Manifestations of CMBD include hypophosphatemic rickets in infancy, and renal osteodystrophy associated with CKD resulting in bone deformities, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, fractures, and short stature. Assessment of CMBD involves monitoring growth, leg deformities, blood levels of phosphate, electrolytes, bicarbonate, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase, periodically obtaining bone radiographs, determining levels of critical hormones and vitamins, such as thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone, 25(OH) vitamin D, and testosterone in males, and surveillance for nonrenal complications of cystinosis such as myopathy. Treatment includes replacement of urinary losses, cystine depletion with oral cysteamine, vitamin D, hormone replacement, physical therapy, and corrective orthopedic surgery. The recommendations in this article came from an expert meeting on CMBD that took place in Salzburg, Austria, in December 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7379238PMC
September 2019

Dominant PAX2 mutations may cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and FSGS in children.

Pediatr Nephrol 2019 09 17;34(9):1607-1613. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Heterozygous PAX2 mutations cause renal coloboma syndrome (RCS) [OMIM no. 120330]. RCS is a renal syndromic disease encompassing retinal coloboma and sensorineural hearing loss. Recently, a causative role for PAX2 was reported in adult-onset nephrotic syndrome secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). However, the prevalence of PAX2 mutations among large cohort of children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and FSGS has not been systematically studied.

Methods: We employed whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify the percentage of SRNS cases explained by monogenic mutations in known genes of SRNS/FSGS. As PAX2 mutations are not an established cause of childhood FSGS, we evaluated a cohort of 215 unrelated families with SRNS, in whom no underlying genetic etiology had been previously established.

Results: Using WES, we identified 3 novel causative heterozygous PAX2 mutations in 3 out of the 215 unrelated index cases studied (1.3%). All three cases were detected in individuals from families with more than one affected and compatible with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance (3/57 familial cases studied (5.2%)). The clinical diagnosis in three out of four pediatric index patients was done during routine medical evaluation.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate high frequency of PAX2 mutations in familial form of SRNS (5.2%) and further expand the phenotypic spectrum of PAX2 heterozygous mutations to include autosomal dominant childhood-onset FSGS. These results highlight the importance of including PAX2 in the list of genes known to cause FSGS in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-019-04256-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6660980PMC
September 2019

Treatment and long-term outcome in primary distal renal tubular acidosis.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2019 06;34(6):981-991

Department of Paediatric Nephrology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Primary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a rare disorder, and we aimed to gather data on treatment and long-term outcome.

Methods: We contacted paediatric and adult nephrologists through European professional organizations. Responding clinicians entered demographic, biochemical, genetic and clinical data in an online form.

Results: Adequate data were collected on 340 patients (29 countries, female 52%). Mutation testing had been performed on 206 patients (61%); pathogenic mutations were identified in 170 patients (83%). The median (range) presentation age was 0.5 (0-54) years and age at last follow-up was 11.0 (0-70.0) years. Adult height was slightly below average with a mean (SD score) of -0.57 (±1.16). There was an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stage ≥2 in children (35%) and adults (82%). Nephrocalcinosis was reported in 88%. Nephrolithiasis was more common with SLC4A1 mutations (42% versus 21%). Thirty-six percent had hearing loss, particularly in ATP6V1B1 (88%). The median (interquartile range) prescribed dose of alkali (mEq/kg/day) was 1.9 (1.2-3.3). Adequate metabolic control (normal plasma bicarbonate and normocalciuria) was achieved in 158 patients (51%), more commonly in countries with higher gross domestic product (67% versus 23%), and was associated with higher height and estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Conclusion: Long-term follow-up from this large dRTA cohort shows an overall favourable outcome with normal adult height for most and no patient with CKD Stage 5. However, 82% of adult patients have CKD Stages 2-4. Importance of adequate metabolic control was highlighted by better growth and renal function but was achieved in only half of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfy409DOI Listing
June 2019

Combined liver-kidney transplantation for primary hyperoxaluria type I in children: Single Center Experience.

Pediatr Transplant 2019 02 26;23(1):e13313. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Pediatric Hepatology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Primary hyperoxalurias are rare inborn errors of metabolism with deficiency of hepatic enzymes that lead to excessive urinary oxalate excretion and overproduction of oxalate which is deposited in various organs. Hyperoxaluria results in serious morbid-ity, end stage kidney disease (ESKD), and mortality if left untreated. Combined liver kidney transplantation (CLKT) is recognized as a management of ESKD for children with hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1). This study aimed to report outcome of CLKT in a pediatric cohort of PH1 patients, through retrospective analysis of data of 8 children (2 girls and 6 boys) who presented by PH1 to Wadi El Nil Pediatric Living Related Liver Transplant Unit during 2001-2017. Mean age at transplant was 8.2 ± 4 years. Only three of the children underwent confirmatory genotyping. Three patients died prior to surgery on waiting list. The first attempt at CLKT was consecutive, and despite initial successful liver transplant, the girl died of biliary peritonitis prior to scheduled renal transplant. Of the four who underwent simultaneous CLKT, only two survived and are well, one with insignificant complications, and other suffered from abdominal Burkitt lymphoma managed by excision and resection anastomosis, four cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone. The other two died, one due to uncontrollable bleeding within 36 hours of procedure, while the other died awaiting renal transplant after loss of renal graft to recurrent renal oxalosis 6 months post-transplant. PH1 with ESKD is a rare disease; simultaneous CLKT offers good quality of life for afflicted children. Graft shortage and renal graft loss to oxalosis challenge the outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13313DOI Listing
February 2019

Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Causative Mutations in Families with Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 09 24;29(9):2348-2361. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts;

Background: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most prevalent cause of kidney disease in the first three decades of life. Previous gene panel studies showed monogenic causation in up to 12% of patients with CAKUT.

Methods: We applied whole-exome sequencing to analyze the genotypes of individuals from 232 families with CAKUT, evaluating for mutations in single genes known to cause human CAKUT and genes known to cause CAKUT in mice. In consanguineous or multiplex families, we additionally performed a search for novel monogenic causes of CAKUT.

Results: In 29 families (13%), we detected a causative mutation in a known gene for isolated or syndromic CAKUT that sufficiently explained the patient's CAKUT phenotype. In three families (1%), we detected a mutation in a gene reported to cause a phenocopy of CAKUT. In 15 of 155 families with isolated CAKUT, we detected deleterious mutations in syndromic CAKUT genes. Our additional search for novel monogenic causes of CAKUT in consanguineous and multiplex families revealed a potential single, novel monogenic CAKUT gene in 19 of 232 families (8%).

Conclusions: We identified monogenic mutations in a known human CAKUT gene or CAKUT phenocopy gene as the cause of disease in 14% of the CAKUT families in this study. Whole-exome sequencing provides an etiologic diagnosis in a high fraction of patients with CAKUT and will provide a new basis for the mechanistic understanding of CAKUT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2017121265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6115658PMC
September 2018

Mutations in six nephrosis genes delineate a pathogenic pathway amenable to treatment.

Nat Commun 2018 05 17;9(1):1960. Epub 2018 May 17.

Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

No efficient treatment exists for nephrotic syndrome (NS), a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease. Here we show mutations in six different genes (MAGI2, TNS2, DLC1, CDK20, ITSN1, ITSN2) as causing NS in 17 families with partially treatment-sensitive NS (pTSNS). These proteins interact and we delineate their roles in Rho-like small GTPase (RLSG) activity, and demonstrate deficiency for mutants of pTSNS patients. We find that CDK20 regulates DLC1. Knockdown of MAGI2, DLC1, or CDK20 in cultured podocytes reduces migration rate. Treatment with dexamethasone abolishes RhoA activation by knockdown of DLC1 or CDK20 indicating that steroid treatment in patients with pTSNS and mutations in these genes is mediated by this RLSG module. Furthermore, we discover ITSN1 and ITSN2 as podocytic guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Cdc42. We generate Itsn2-L knockout mice that recapitulate the mild NS phenotype. We, thus, define a functional network of RhoA regulation, thereby revealing potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-04193-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5958119PMC
May 2018

Risk Factors for Early Dialysis Dependency in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease.

J Pediatr 2018 08 9;199:22-28.e6. Epub 2018 May 9.

Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; Center for Molecular Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Objective: To identify prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors for dialysis within the first year of life in children with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) as a basis for parental counseling after prenatal and perinatal diagnosis.

Study Design: A dataset comprising 385 patients from the ARegPKD international registry study was analyzed for potential risk markers for dialysis during the first year of life.

Results: Thirty-six out of 385 children (9.4%) commenced dialysis in the first year of life. According to multivariable Cox regression analysis, the presence of oligohydramnios or anhydramnios, prenatal kidney enlargement, a low Apgar score, and the need for postnatal breathing support were independently associated with an increased hazard ratio for requiring dialysis within the first year of life. The increased risk associated with Apgar score and perinatal assisted breathing was time-dependent and vanished after 5 and 8 months of life, respectively. The predicted probabilities for early dialysis varied from 1.5% (95% CI, 0.5%-4.1%) for patients with ARPKD with no prenatal sonographic abnormalities to 32.3% (95% CI, 22.2%-44.5%) in cases of documented oligohydramnios or anhydramnios, renal cysts, and enlarged kidneys.

Conclusions: This study, which identified risk factors associated with onset of dialysis in ARPKD in the first year of life, may be helpful in prenatal parental counseling in cases of suspected ARPKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.03.052DOI Listing
August 2018

Whole Exome Sequencing of Patients with Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 01 10;13(1):53-62. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

Due to the number of contributing authors, the affiliations are provided in the Supplemental Material.

Background And Objectives: Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome overwhelmingly progresses to ESRD. More than 30 monogenic genes have been identified to cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. We previously detected causative mutations using targeted panel sequencing in 30% of patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Panel sequencing has a number of limitations when compared with whole exome sequencing. We employed whole exome sequencing to detect monogenic causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in an international cohort of 300 families.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: Three hundred thirty-five individuals with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome from 300 families were recruited from April of 1998 to June of 2016. Age of onset was restricted to <25 years of age. Exome data were evaluated for 33 known monogenic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome genes.

Results: In 74 of 300 families (25%), we identified a causative mutation in one of 20 genes known to cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. In 11 families (3.7%), we detected a mutation in a gene that causes a phenocopy of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. This is consistent with our previously published identification of mutations using a panel approach. We detected a causative mutation in a known steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome gene in 38% of consanguineous families and in 13% of nonconsanguineous families, and 48% of children with congenital nephrotic syndrome. A total of 68 different mutations were detected in 20 of 33 steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome genes. Fifteen of these mutations were novel. , , , and were the most common genes in which we detected a mutation. In another 28% of families, we detected mutations in one or more candidate genes for steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

Conclusions: Whole exome sequencing is a sensitive approach toward diagnosis of monogenic causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. A molecular genetic diagnosis of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome may have important consequences for the management of treatment and kidney transplantation in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.04120417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5753307PMC
January 2018

Advillin acts upstream of phospholipase C ϵ1 in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

J Clin Invest 2017 12 23;127(12):4257-4269. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is a frequent cause of chronic kidney disease. Here, we identified recessive mutations in the gene encoding the actin-binding protein advillin (AVIL) in 3 unrelated families with SRNS. While all AVIL mutations resulted in a marked loss of its actin-bundling ability, truncation of AVIL also disrupted colocalization with F-actin, thereby leading to impaired actin binding and severing. Additionally, AVIL colocalized and interacted with the phospholipase enzyme PLCE1 and with the ARP2/3 actin-modulating complex. Knockdown of AVIL in human podocytes reduced actin stress fibers at the cell periphery, prevented recruitment of PLCE1 to the ARP3-rich lamellipodia, blocked EGF-induced generation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by PLCE1, and attenuated the podocyte migration rate (PMR). These effects were reversed by overexpression of WT AVIL but not by overexpression of any of the 3 patient-derived AVIL mutants. The PMR was increased by overexpression of WT Avil or PLCE1, or by EGF stimulation; however, this increased PMR was ameliorated by inhibition of the ARP2/3 complex, indicating that ARP-dependent lamellipodia formation occurs downstream of AVIL and PLCE1 function. Together, these results delineate a comprehensive pathogenic axis of SRNS that integrates loss of AVIL function with alterations in the action of PLCE1, an established SRNS protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI94138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5707164PMC
December 2017

Whole exome sequencing frequently detects a monogenic cause in early onset nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis.

Kidney Int 2018 01 12;93(1):204-213. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

The incidence of nephrolithiasis continues to rise. Previously, we showed that a monogenic cause could be detected in 11.4% of individuals with adult-onset nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis and in 16.7-20.8% of individuals with onset before 18 years of age, using gene panel sequencing of 30 genes known to cause nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis. To overcome the limitations of panel sequencing, we utilized whole exome sequencing in 51 families, who presented before age 25 years with at least one renal stone or with a renal ultrasound finding of nephrocalcinosis to identify the underlying molecular genetic cause of disease. In 15 of 51 families, we detected a monogenic causative mutation by whole exome sequencing. A mutation in seven recessive genes (AGXT, ATP6V1B1, CLDN16, CLDN19, GRHPR, SLC3A1, SLC12A1), in one dominant gene (SLC9A3R1), and in one gene (SLC34A1) with both recessive and dominant inheritance was detected. Seven of the 19 different mutations were not previously described as disease-causing. In one family, a causative mutation in one of 117 genes that may represent phenocopies of nephrolithiasis-causing genes was detected. In nine of 15 families, the genetic diagnosis may have specific implications for stone management and prevention. Several factors that correlated with the higher detection rate in our cohort were younger age at onset of nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis, presence of multiple affected members in a family, and presence of consanguinity. Thus, we established whole exome sequencing as an efficient approach toward a molecular genetic diagnosis in individuals with nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis who manifest before age 25 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2017.06.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5750088PMC
January 2018

Cystic kidneys in fetal Walker-Warburg syndrome with POMT2 mutation: Intrafamilial phenotypic variability in four siblings and review of literature.

Am J Med Genet A 2017 Oct 17;173(10):2697-2702. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Centre of Pediatric Nephrology & Transplantation, Kasr Al Ainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a severe form of congenital muscular dystrophy secondary to α-dystroglycanopathy with muscle, brain, and eye abnormalities often leading to death in the first weeks of life. It is transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern, and has been linked to at least 15 different genes; including protein O-mannosyltransferase 1 (POMT1), protein O-mannosyltransferase 2 (POMT2), protein O-mannose beta-1,2-N acetylglucosaminyltransferase (POMGNT1), fukutin (FKTN), isoprenoid synthase domain-containing protein (ISPD), and other genes. We report on a consanguineous family with four consecutive siblings affected by this condition with lethal outcome in three (still birth), and termination of the fourth pregnancy based on antenatal MRI identification of brain and kidney anomalies that heralded proper and deep clinical phenotyping. The diagnosis of WWS was suggested based on the unique collective phenotype comprising brain anomalies in the form of lissencephaly, subcortical/subependymal heterotopia, and cerebellar hypoplasia shared by all four siblings; microphthalmia in one sibling; and large cystic kidneys in the fetus and another sibling. Other unshared neurological abnormalities included hydrocephalus and Dandy-Walker malformation. Whole exome sequencing of the fetus revealed a highly conserved missense mutation in POMT2 that is known to cause WWS with brain and eye anomalies.In conclusion, the heterogeneous clinical presentation in the four affected conceptions with POMT2 mutation expands the current clinical spectrum of POMT2-associated WWS to include large cystic kidneys; and confirms intra-familial variability in terms of brain, kidney, and eye anomalies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205885PMC
October 2017

Mutations in KEOPS-complex genes cause nephrotic syndrome with primary microcephaly.

Authors:
Daniela A Braun Jia Rao Geraldine Mollet David Schapiro Marie-Claire Daugeron Weizhen Tan Olivier Gribouval Olivia Boyer Patrick Revy Tilman Jobst-Schwan Johanna Magdalena Schmidt Jennifer A Lawson Denny Schanze Shazia Ashraf Jeremy F P Ullmann Charlotte A Hoogstraten Nathalie Boddaert Bruno Collinet Gaëlle Martin Dominique Liger Svjetlana Lovric Monica Furlano I Chiara Guerrera Oraly Sanchez-Ferras Jennifer F Hu Anne-Claire Boschat Sylvia Sanquer Björn Menten Sarah Vergult Nina De Rocker Merlin Airik Tobias Hermle Shirlee Shril Eugen Widmeier Heon Yung Gee Won-Il Choi Carolin E Sadowski Werner L Pabst Jillian K Warejko Ankana Daga Tamara Basta Verena Matejas Karin Scharmann Sandra D Kienast Babak Behnam Brendan Beeson Amber Begtrup Malcolm Bruce Gaik-Siew Ch'ng Shuan-Pei Lin Jui-Hsing Chang Chao-Huei Chen Megan T Cho Patrick M Gaffney Patrick E Gipson Chyong-Hsin Hsu Jameela A Kari Yu-Yuan Ke Cathy Kiraly-Borri Wai-Ming Lai Emmanuelle Lemyre Rebecca Okashah Littlejohn Amira Masri Mastaneh Moghtaderi Kazuyuki Nakamura Fatih Ozaltin Marleen Praet Chitra Prasad Agnieszka Prytula Elizabeth R Roeder Patrick Rump Rhonda E Schnur Takashi Shiihara Manish D Sinha Neveen A Soliman Kenza Soulami David A Sweetser Wen-Hui Tsai Jeng-Daw Tsai Rezan Topaloglu Udo Vester David H Viskochil Nithiwat Vatanavicharn Jessica L Waxler Klaas J Wierenga Matthias T F Wolf Sik-Nin Wong Sebastian A Leidel Gessica Truglio Peter C Dedon Annapurna Poduri Shrikant Mane Richard P Lifton Maxime Bouchard Peter Kannu David Chitayat Daniella Magen Bert Callewaert Herman van Tilbeurgh Martin Zenker Corinne Antignac Friedhelm Hildebrandt

Nat Genet 2017 Oct 14;49(10):1529-1538. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by the combination of early-onset nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and microcephaly with brain anomalies. Here we identified recessive mutations in OSGEP, TP53RK, TPRKB, and LAGE3, genes encoding the four subunits of the KEOPS complex, in 37 individuals from 32 families with GAMOS. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout in zebrafish and mice recapitulated the human phenotype of primary microcephaly and resulted in early lethality. Knockdown of OSGEP, TP53RK, or TPRKB inhibited cell proliferation, which human mutations did not rescue. Furthermore, knockdown of these genes impaired protein translation, caused endoplasmic reticulum stress, activated DNA-damage-response signaling, and ultimately induced apoptosis. Knockdown of OSGEP or TP53RK induced defects in the actin cytoskeleton and decreased the migration rate of human podocytes, an established intermediate phenotype of SRNS. We thus identified four new monogenic causes of GAMOS, describe a link between KEOPS function and human disease, and delineate potential pathogenic mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5819591PMC
October 2017

Clinical spectrum of primary hyperoxaluria type 1: Experience of a tertiary center.

Nephrol Ther 2017 May 1;13(3):176-182. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Department of general surgery, Ain Shams University, El-Khalifa El-Maamoun, Al Waili, 11588 Cairo, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Primary hyperoxalurias are rare inborn errors of metabolism resulting in increased endogenous production of oxalate that leads to excessive urinary oxalate excretion. Diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a challenging issue and depends on diverse diagnostic tools including biochemical analysis of urine, stone analysis, renal biopsy, genetic studies and in some cases liver biopsy for enzyme assay. We characterized the clinical presentation as well as renal and extrarenal phenotypes in PH1 patients.

Methods: This descriptive cohort study included patients with presumable PH1 presenting with nephrolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis (NC). Precise clinical characterization of renal phenotype as well as systemic involvement is reported. AGXT mutational analysis was performed to confirm the diagnosis of PH1.

Results: The study cohort included 26 patients with presumable PH1 with male to female ratio of 1.4:1. The median age at time of diagnosis was 6 years, nevertheless the median age at initial symptoms was 3 years. Thirteen patients (50%) were diagnosed before the age of 5 years. Two patients had no symptoms and were diagnosed while screening siblings of index patients. Seventeen patients (65.4%) had reached end-stage renal disease (ESRD): 6/17 (35.3%) during infancy, 4/17 (23.5%) in early childhood and 7/17 (41.29%) in late childhood. Two patients (7.7%) had clinically manifest extra renal (retina, heart, bone, soft tissue) involvement. Mutational analysis of AGXT gene confirmed the diagnosis of PH1 in 15 out of 19 patients (79%) where analysis had been performed. Fifty percent of patients with maintained renal functions had projected 10 years renal survival.

Conclusion: PH1 is a heterogeneous disease with wide spectrum of clinical, imaging and functional presentation. More than two-thirds of patients presented prior to the age of 5 years; half of them with the stormy course of infantile PH1. ESRD was the commonest presenting manifestation in two-thirds of our cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nephro.2016.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5921832PMC
May 2017

Endemic bladder calculi in children.

Pediatr Nephrol 2017 09 15;32(9):1489-1499. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi, Pakistan.

Urinary calculi are being recognized more frequently in children and the urinary bladder is the most common site for stone formation in the lower urinary tract. Bladder calculi are grouped into three basic categories: primary idiopathic/endemic, secondary, and migrant. The incidence of vesical calculi has declined significantly in the last 70 years in developed nations owing to improvements in nutrition and socioeconomic conditions, but it is still high in developing nations. Primary idiopathic/endemic bladder calculi typically occur in children, in the absence of urinary tract infection (UTI), urinary stasis, or foreign body, and diet lacking in animal proteins is the major contributor factor. Comprehensive preventive and treatment strategies are critical for improving the quality of life of diseased children, in addition to helping to eradicate, or at least decrease, the incidence of endemic bladder calculi in developing nations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-016-3492-4DOI Listing
September 2017

Controversies and research agenda in nephropathic cystinosis: conclusions from a "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) Controversies Conference.

Kidney Int 2016 06;89(6):1192-203

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium; Department of Development and Regeneration, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive metabolic, lifelong disease characterized by lysosomal cystine accumulation throughout the body that commonly presents in infancy with a renal Fanconi syndrome and, if untreated, leads to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the later childhood years. The molecular basis is due to mutations in CTNS, the gene encoding for the lysosomal cystine-proton cotransporter, cystinosin. During adolescence and adulthood, extrarenal manifestations of cystinosis develop and require multidisciplinary care. Despite substantial improvement in prognosis due to cystine-depleting therapy with cysteamine, no cure of the disease is currently available. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) convened a Controversies Conference on cystinosis to review the state-of-the-art knowledge and to address areas of controversies in pathophysiology, diagnostics, monitoring, and treatment in different age groups. More importantly, promising areas of investigation that may lead to optimal outcomes for patients afflicted with this lifelong, systemic disease were discussed with a research agenda proposed for the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2016.01.033DOI Listing
June 2016

Exome Sequencing Discerns Syndromes in Patients from Consanguineous Families with Congenital Anomalies of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 Jan 5;28(1):69-75. Epub 2016 May 5.

Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts;

Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the leading cause of CKD in children, featuring a broad variety of malformations. A monogenic cause can be detected in around 12% of patients. However, the morphologic clinical phenotype of CAKUT frequently does not indicate specific genes to be examined. To determine the likelihood of detecting causative recessive mutations by whole-exome sequencing (WES), we analyzed individuals with CAKUT from 33 different consanguineous families. Using homozygosity mapping and WES, we identified the causative mutations in nine of the 33 families studied (27%). We detected recessive mutations in nine known disease-causing genes: ZBTB24, WFS1, HPSE2, ATRX, ASPH, AGXT, AQP2, CTNS, and PKHD1 Notably, when mutated, these genes cause multiorgan syndromes that may include CAKUT as a feature (syndromic CAKUT) or cause renal diseases that may manifest as phenocopies of CAKUT. None of the above monogenic disease-causing genes were suspected on clinical grounds before this study. Follow-up clinical characterization of those patients allowed us to revise and detect relevant new clinical features in a more appropriate pathogenetic context. Thus, applying WES to the diagnostic approach in CAKUT provides opportunities for an accurate and early etiology-based diagnosis and improved clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2015080962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5198271PMC
January 2017

Cystinosis: a review.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2016 Apr 22;11:47. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology & Growth and Regeneration, University Hospitals Leuven & KU Leuven, UZ Herestraat 49-3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Cystinosis is the most common hereditary cause of renal Fanconi syndrome in children. It is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the CTNS gene encoding for the carrier protein cystinosin, transporting cystine out of the lysosomal compartment. Defective cystinosin function leads to intra-lysosomal cystine accumulation in all body cells and organs. The kidneys are initially affected during the first year of life through proximal tubular damage followed by progressive glomerular damage and end stage renal failure during mid-childhood if not treated. Other affected organs include eyes, thyroid, pancreas, gonads, muscles and CNS. Leucocyte cystine assay is the cornerstone for both diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of the disease. Several lines of treatment are available for cystinosis including the cystine depleting agent cysteamine, renal replacement therapy, hormonal therapy and others; however, no curative treatment is yet available. In the current review we will discuss the most important clinical features of the disease, advantages and disadvantages of the current diagnostic and therapeutic options and the main topics of future research in cystinosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-016-0426-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4841061PMC
April 2016

Targeted sequencing of 96 renal developmental microRNAs in 1213 individuals from 980 families with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2016 08 29;31(8):1280-3. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, USA.

Background: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most common cause of chronic kidney diseases in children and young adults, accounting for ∼50% of cases. These anomalies represent maldevelopment of the genitourinary system and can be genetically explained in only 10-16% of cases by mutations or by copy number variations in protein coding sequences. Knock-out mouse models, lacking components of the microRNA (miRNA) processing machinery (i.e. Dicer, Drosha, Dgcr8), exhibit kidney malformations resembling human CAKUT.

Methods: Given the Dicer-null mouse phenotype, which implicates a central role for miRNAs gene regulation during kidney development, we hypothesized that miRNAs expressed during kidney development may cause CAKUT in humans if mutated. To evaluate this possibility we carried out Next-Generation sequencing of 96 stem-loop regions of 73 renal developmental miRNA genes in 1248 individuals with non-syndromic CAKUT from 980 families.

Results: We sequenced 96 stem-loop regions encoded by 73 miRNA genes that are expressed during kidney development in humans, mice and rats. Overall, we identified in 31/1213 individuals from 26 families with 17 different single nucleotide variants. Two variants did not segregate with the disease and hence were not causative. Thirteen variants were likely benign variants because they occurred in control populations and/or they affected nucleotides of weak evolutionary conservation. Two out of 1213 unrelated individuals had potentially pathogenic variants with unknown biologic relevance affecting miRNAs MIR19B1 and MIR99A.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that mutations affecting mature microRNAs in individuals with CAKUT are rare and thus most likely not a common cause of CAKUT in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfv447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4967727PMC
August 2016

FAT1 mutations cause a glomerulotubular nephropathy.

Nat Commun 2016 Feb 24;7:10822. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Division of Nephrology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) causes 15% of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we show that recessive mutations in FAT1 cause a distinct renal disease entity in four families with a combination of SRNS, tubular ectasia, haematuria and facultative neurological involvement. Loss of FAT1 results in decreased cell adhesion and migration in fibroblasts and podocytes and the decreased migration is partially reversed by a RAC1/CDC42 activator. Podocyte-specific deletion of Fat1 in mice induces abnormal glomerular filtration barrier development, leading to podocyte foot process effacement. Knockdown of Fat1 in renal tubular cells reduces migration, decreases active RAC1 and CDC42, and induces defects in lumen formation. Knockdown of fat1 in zebrafish causes pronephric cysts, which is partially rescued by RAC1/CDC42 activators, confirming a role of the two small GTPases in the pathogenesis. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of SRNS and tubulopathy, linking FAT1 and RAC1/CDC42 to podocyte and tubular cell function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4770090PMC
February 2016

Lysosomal Storage Disorders in Egyptian Children.

Indian J Pediatr 2016 Aug 2;83(8):805-13. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Inherited Metabolic Disease Unit (IMDU), Cairo University Children's Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: To describe the spectrum, relative prevalence and molecular background of lysosomal storage disorders in Egypt.

Methods: The authors evaluated the selective screening program for the diagnosis of lysosomal storage disorders in Egyptian children presenting to the inherited metabolic disease unit at Cairo University Children's Hospital, the largest tertiary care pediatric hospital in Egypt, over a six-year period (April 2008 through April 2014). During this period, 1,065 suspected children were assessed clinically, biochemically and some genetically.

Results: Two hundred and eleven children (aged 44 ± 32 mo; 56 % boys, 82 % with consanguineous parents) were confirmed with 21 different lysosomal disorders. The diagnostic gap ranged between 2 mo and 14 y (average 25 mo). Mucopolysaccharidoses were the most common group of diseases diagnosed (44.5 %), while Maroteaux-Lamy, Gaucher and nephropathic cystinosis were the most commonly detected syndromes (17.1, 14.7 and 13.7 %, respectively). Eighty mutant alleles and 17 pathogenic mutations were detected in 48 genetically assessed confirmed patients (30 Gaucher, 16 cystinosis and two Niemann-Pick type C patients).

Conclusions: This report is the first to describe relative frequency and spectrum of clinical and molecular data in a large cohort of Egyptian lysosomal patients. The crude estimate denotes that over 80 % of Egyptian lysosomal patients do not have access to optimal diagnosis. Upgrading diagnostic and genetic services for lysosomal storage disorders in Egypt is absolutely necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-015-2014-xDOI Listing
August 2016

Large-scale targeted sequencing comparison highlights extreme genetic heterogeneity in nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies.

J Med Genet 2016 Mar 16;53(3):208-14. Epub 2015 Dec 16.

Divison of Nephology, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, USA.

Background: The term nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RC) describes a group of rare autosomal-recessive cystic kidney diseases, characterised by broad genetic and clinical heterogeneity. NPHP-RC is frequently associated with extrarenal manifestations and accounts for the majority of genetically caused chronic kidney disease (CKD) during childhood and adolescence. Generation of a molecular diagnosis has been impaired by this broad genetic heterogeneity. However, recently developed high-throughput exon sequencing techniques represent powerful and efficient tools to screen large cohorts for dozens of causative genes.

Methods: Therefore, we performed massively multiplexed targeted sequencing using the modified molecular inversion probe strategy (MIPs) in an international cohort of 384 patients diagnosed with NPHP-RC.

Results: As a result, we established the molecular diagnoses in 81/384 unrelated individuals (21.1%). We detected 127 likely disease-causing mutations in 18 of 34 evaluated NPHP-RC genes, 22 of which were novel. We further compared a subgroup of current findings to the results of a previous study in which we used an array-based microfluidic PCR technology in the same cohort. While 78 likely disease-causing mutations were previously detected by the array-based microfluidic PCR, the MIPs approach identified 94 likely pathogenic mutations. Compared with the previous approach, MIPs redetected 66 out of 78 variants and 28 previously unidentified variants, for a total of 94 variants.

Conclusions: In summary, we demonstrate that the modified MIPs technology is a useful approach to screen large cohorts for a multitude of established NPHP genes in order to identify the underlying molecular cause. Combined application of two independent library preparation and sequencing techniques, however, may still be indicated for Mendelian diseases with extensive genetic heterogeneity in order to further increase diagnostic sensitivity.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5057575PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103304DOI Listing
March 2016

Whole exome sequencing identifies causative mutations in the majority of consanguineous or familial cases with childhood-onset increased renal echogenicity.

Kidney Int 2016 Feb;89(2):468-475

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Chronically increased echogenicity on renal ultrasound is a sensitive early finding of chronic kidney disease that can be detected before manifestation of other symptoms. Increased echogenicity, however, is not specific for a certain etiology of chronic kidney disease. Here, we performed whole exome sequencing in 79 consanguineous or familial cases of suspected nephronophthisis in order to determine the underlying molecular disease cause. In 50 cases, there was a causative mutation in a known monogenic disease gene. In 32 of these cases whole exome sequencing confirmed the diagnosis of a nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy. In 8 cases it revealed the diagnosis of a renal tubulopathy. The remaining 10 cases were identified as Alport syndrome (4), autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease (2), congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (3), and APECED syndrome (1). In 5 families, in whom mutations in known monogenic genes were excluded, we applied homozygosity mapping for variant filtering and identified 5 novel candidate genes (RBM48, FAM186B, PIAS1, INCENP, and RCOR1) for renal ciliopathies. Thus, whole exome sequencing allows the detection of the causative mutation in 2/3 of affected individuals, thereby presenting the etiologic diagnosis, and allows identification of novel candidate genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2015.317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4840095PMC
February 2016

Mutations of the SLIT2-ROBO2 pathway genes SLIT2 and SRGAP1 confer risk for congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract.

Hum Genet 2015 Aug 31;134(8):905-16. Epub 2015 May 31.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for 40-50% of chronic kidney disease that manifests in the first two decades of life. Thus far, 31 monogenic causes of isolated CAKUT have been described, explaining ~12% of cases. To identify additional CAKUT-causing genes, we performed whole-exome sequencing followed by a genetic burden analysis in 26 genetically unsolved families with CAKUT. We identified two heterozygous mutations in SRGAP1 in 2 unrelated families. SRGAP1 is a small GTPase-activating protein in the SLIT2-ROBO2 signaling pathway, which is essential for development of the metanephric kidney. We then examined the pathway-derived candidate gene SLIT2 for mutations in cohort of 749 individuals with CAKUT and we identified 3 unrelated individuals with heterozygous mutations. The clinical phenotypes of individuals with mutations in SLIT2 or SRGAP1 were cystic dysplastic kidneys, unilateral renal agenesis, and duplicated collecting system. We show that SRGAP1 is expressed in early mouse nephrogenic mesenchyme and that it is coexpressed with ROBO2 in SIX2-positive nephron progenitor cells of the cap mesenchyme in developing rat kidney. We demonstrate that the newly identified mutations in SRGAP1 lead to an augmented inhibition of RAC1 in cultured human embryonic kidney cells and that the SLIT2 mutations compromise the ability of the SLIT2 ligand to inhibit cell migration. Thus, we report on two novel candidate genes for causing monogenic isolated CAKUT in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-015-1570-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4497857PMC
August 2015

Pattern of clinical presentation of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract among infants and children.

Nephrology (Carlton) 2015 Jun;20(6):413-8

Department of Pediatrics, Center of Pediatric Nephrology & Transplantation, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Aim: Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) comprise various entities of structural malformations that result from defects in morphogenesis of the kidney and/or urinary tract. These anomalies are the most commonly diagnosed malformations in the prenatal period and constitute the leading cause of end-+stage renal disease (ESRD) in children, worldwide. This prospective study was performed to report the patterns of clinical presentation and diagnosis of infants and children with such malformations.

Methods: Patients with suggestive features of CAKUT, presenting to Cairo University Children Hospital over one year duration were investigated and categorized based on underlying renal structural/functional malformation and associated extra-renal anomalies.

Results: One hundred and seven CAKUT children were enrolled in the study. Familial clustering was identified in 14% of the cohort and syndromic CAKUT accounted for 31.8% of cases. Different anomaly entities have been identified; posterior urethral valves (PUV) being the commonest detected abnormality (36.4%). Of note, 9.3% of cohort patients had ESRD at presentation, of which 60% had PUV as their primary renal disease. Obstructive cases were noted to present significantly earlier and attain advanced CKD stages rather than non-obstructive ones.

Conclusion: CAKUT is a clinically heterogeneous group of diseases with diverse clinical phenotypes. More efforts should be aimed at improving antenatal detection as well as classification with comprehensive reference to the clinical, genetic and molecular features of the diseases. The high frequency of familial and syndromic CAKUT among studied patients is seemingly a convincing reason to pursue the underlying genetic defect in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nep.12414DOI Listing
June 2015

Clinical utility of chitotriosidase enzyme activity in nephropathic cystinosis.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2014 Nov 19;9:155. Epub 2014 Nov 19.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology & Growth and Regeneration, University Hospital Leuven, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Nephropathic cystinosis is an inherited autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the pathological accumulation and crystallization of cystine inside different cell types. WBC cystine determination forms the basis for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring with the cystine depleting drug (cysteamine). The chitotriosidase enzyme is a human chitinase, produced by activated macrophages. Its elevation is documented in several lysosomal storage disorders. Although, about 6% of Caucasians have enzyme deficiency due to homozygosity of 24-bp duplication mutation in the chitotriosidase gene, it is currently established as a screening marker and therapeutic monitor for Gaucher's disease.

Methods: Plasma chitotriosidase activity was measured in 45 cystinotic patients, and compared with 87 healthy controls and 54 renal disease patients with different degrees of renal failure (CKD1-5). Chitotriosidase levels were also correlated with WBC cystine in 32 treated patients. Furthermore, we incubated control human macrophages in-vitro with different concentrations of cystine crystals and monitored the response of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and chitotriosidase activity. We also compared plasma chitotriosidase activity in cystinotic knocked-out (n = 10) versus wild-type mice (n = 10).

Results: Plasma chitotriosidase activity in cystinotic patients (0-3880, median 163 nmol/ml/h) was significantly elevated compared to healthy controls (0-90, median 18 nmol/ml/h) and to CKD patients (0-321, median 52 nmol/ml/h), P < 0.001 for both groups. Controls with decreased renal function had mild to moderate chitotriosidase elevations; however, their levels were significantly lower than in cystinotic patients with comparable degree of renal insufficiency. Chitotriosidase activity positively correlated with WBC cystine content for patients on cysteamine therapy (r = 0.8), P < 0.001. In culture, human control macrophages engulfed cystine crystals and released TNF-α into culture supernatant in a crystal concentration dependent manner. Chitotriosidase activity was also significantly increased in macrophage supernatant and cell-lysate. Furthermore, chitotriosidase activity was significantly higher in cystinotic knocked-out than in the wild-type mice, P = 0.003.

Conclusions: This study indicates that cystine crystals are potent activators of human macrophages and that chitotriosidase activity is a useful marker for this activation and a promising clinical biomarker and therapeutic monitor for nephropathic cystinosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-014-0155-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4269071PMC
November 2014