Mr Netsanet Fentahun, MPH - Jimma University - Assistant Professor

Mr Netsanet Fentahun

MPH

Jimma University

Assistant Professor

Jimma, Oromiya | Ethiopia

Main Specialties: Public Health

Additional Specialties: Health Education &promotion; Human Nutrition

Mr Netsanet Fentahun, MPH - Jimma University - Assistant Professor

Mr Netsanet Fentahun

MPH

Introduction

Primary Affiliation: Jimma University - Jimma, Oromiya , Ethiopia

Specialties:

Additional Specialties:

Publications

20Publications

351Reads

2Profile Views

21PubMed Central Citations

Determinants and morbidities of multiple anthropometric deficits in southwest rural Ethiopia.

Nutrition 2016 Nov-Dec;32(11-12):1243-9. Epub 2016 Apr 8.

Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare undernutrition with child morbidity and their determinants according to a composite index of anthropometrical failures and conventional indices.

Methods: We used data generated from three rounds of a longitudinal panel survey conducted in nine districts in Oromiya Region and the Southern Nations, Nationality and Peoples Region of Ethiopia. We estimated undernutrition using conventional indices and composite index of anthropometrical failures. Included in this analysis were 579, 674, and 674 children age <5 y in rounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The households were recruited using the expanded program on immunization sampling method. The hierarchical nature of the data Applied nutritional investigation was taken into account during the statistical analysis using a two-level mixed-effects logistic regression model.

Results: A composite index of anthropological failure, estimated 45.1%, 42.4%, and 46.4% of the children were undernourished in round 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The conventional indices estimated 24.4%, 24.2%, and 30.4% underweight in round 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Being female (odds ratio [OR], 7.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9-14.0); low dietary diversity (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.6-5.9); medium dietary diversity (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.3), and no special foods during illness (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8) were determinant of multiple anthropometrical failures. Children with multiple anthropometric failures were 2.6 times more likely to report child morbidities (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-5.9). However, none of the conventional indices were associated with any of the reported child morbidities, such as stunting (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4), wasting (OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.5-1.6), or underweight (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.0).

Conclusion: The conventional indices underestimated the prevalence of undernutrition by 20.7%. Children with multiple anthropometric failures are at high risk for developing child morbidities and should benefit from nutrition intervention to reduce child morbidities.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2016.03.023DOI Listing
March 2017
30 Reads
2.926 Impact Factor

Outcome of Non-Traumatic Surgical Acute Abdomen in Nekemte Referral Hospital Southwest Ethiopia: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

Surgery Curr Res 7: 282. doi: 10.4172/2161-1076.1000282

Surgery Curr Res

Background: Acute abdomen is an acute onset of abdominal disease entities that require immediate surgical intervention in most of the cases. The causes of non-traumatic surgical acute and their relative incidence varies in different populations. Objective: To determine the magnitude and the common causes as well presenting features and the outcome of non-traumatic surgical acute abdomen (In Nekemte Referral Hospital, Oromia region, Ethiopia). Methods: A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted using data available at Nekemte Referral Hospital from January 2011 to December 2013. We examined 295 records of the patients from the medical records. Data were collected using checklist based on registration books. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 statistical package. The association between the independent and dependent variable was assessed by bivariate and multivariate regression analyses. A 95% CI and p-value of ≤0.05 were used to determine independent predictors of outcome of non-traumatic surgical acute abdomen. Results: Out of 295 patients, 230 were males and 65 were females. The age ranged from 6 months to 80 years with a mean age of 33.7 ± 18.6 years. Out of 295, 57.6% was rural and 46.4% were urban dwellers. The most common cause of acute abdomen was acute appendicitis 140(47.4%) followed by bowl obstruction 118(40.0%). Age, Residence, Duration of illness and length of hospital stays are independent predictors of management outcomes of non-Traumatic acute abdomen. Conclusion: Complications were more in cases from rural area due to delay at presentation and no operation facility and surgeons for solutions.

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December 2016
5 Reads

Barriers and facilitators of ART adherence in Hawassa town, Southern Ethiopia: A grounded theory approach

Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2016;30(2):66-77

Ethiop. J. Health Dev

Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has the potential to significantly reduce the risk of HIV transmission and the spread of tuberculosis and improve quality of life. Patient’s adherence is crucial to get the best out of ART. As ART is scaled up in Ethiopia, there is a need for better understanding of the factors that influence patients’ adherence to ART and improve the service. This study aims to explore patients’ and health care professionals’ views about factors that facilitate and hinder adherence to ART among adult HIV patients. Methods: A qualitative grounded theory study using non-participant observation; and in-depth interview with 23 ART users and 5 health professionals were carried out at two health facilities that serve a large number of HIVpositive individuals in Hawassa town, Southern Ethiopia. The study was conducted from February to April 2014. Simultaneous data collection and analysis was conducted and taped Notes were transcribed into Amharic then translated into English. The grounded theory approach was used for analyzing the data. The analysis began by using the constant comparison approach. The coding process was preceded by open coding, axial and selective coding. To manage the overall coding process, Atlas.ti (v.7) software was used. Results: The commonest barriers to adherence-included poverty, substance misuse, forgetfulness and being busy, fear of stigma and discrimination, pill burden and medication side effects. The most frequently emerged facilitators to adherence included disclosure of HIV status, using an adherence aid, prospects of living longer, social support, experiencing better health and trusting health workers. Conclusion: The study revealed a range of barriers to adherence including individual, medical, environmental and economic related factors. The findings from our study can be used to inform the development of effective interventions that address the barriers and facilitators of ART adherence in Ethiopia. Priority should be given to improving adherence by alleviating financial constraints to ART adherence, better access to treatment services, education and counseling to tackle culture related obstacles, stigma and discrimination.

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December 2016
5 Reads

Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior and its predictors in southwest rural Ethiopia.

Food Nutr Res 2016 9;60:32207. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

Department of Population and Family Health, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Inappropriate child feeding and caring practices are a major cause of malnutrition. To date, no studies have examined concordance and discordance of child feeding and preventive behavior and their predictors in developing countries.

Methods: We used baseline data generated from A 2-year-longitudinal agriculture-nutrition panel survey conducted from February 9 to April 9, 2014, in nine districts encompassing 20 randomly selected counties in Oromiya Region and Southern Nation, Nationality and Peoples Region in Ethiopia. Households were recruited using the Expanded Program on Immunization sampling method. A total of 623 children under the age of 5 years and their respective caregivers were included in the analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustered observations.

Results: Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was observed in 45.1% of the children, while 45.5% of the children were suffering from discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Concordance and discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior had almost different predictors. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was significantly associated with the age of the caretaker of ?40 years (odds ratio (OR)=2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.41), low household dietary diversity (OR=3.69; 95% CI: 1.93, 7.04), medium household dietary diversity (OR=2.17; 95% CI: 1.17, 4.00), severe household food insecurity (OR=1.72; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.93), and increase with increasing child age.

Conclusion: A substantial number of children in the southwest of rural Ethiopia are exposed to both poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Low household dietary diversity and extreme food insecurity household were predictors of concordance of poor child feeding and poor preventive behavior and provide useful entry points for comprehensive interventions to address child feeding and caring in the area.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4980516PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v60.32207DOI Listing
August 2016
19 Reads

Prevalence, causes and management outcome of intestinal obstruction in Adama Hospital, Ethiopia.

BMC Surg 2016 Jun 4;16(1):38. Epub 2016 Jun 4.

Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: In Africa, acute intestinal obstruction accounts for a great proportion of morbidity and mortality. Ethiopia is one of the countries where intestinal obstruction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. This study aims to determine prevalence, causes and management outcome of intestinal obstruction in Adama Hospital in Oromia region, Ethiopia.

Method: A hospital based cross-sectional study design was used. Data covering the past three years were collected from hospital medical records of sampled patients. The collected data were checked for any inconsistency, coded and entered into SPSS version 16.0 for data processing and analysis. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used. Statistical significance was based on confidence interval (CI) of 95 % at a p-value of?
Result: 262 patients were admitted with intestinal obstruction. The prevalence of intestinal obstruction was 21.8 % and 4.8 % among patients admitted for acute abdomen surgery and total surgical admissions, respectively. The mortality rate was 2.5 % (6 of 262). The most common cause of small bowel obstruction was intussusceptions in 48 patients (30.9 %), followed by small bowel volvulus in 47 patients (30.3 %). Large bowel obstruction was caused by sigmoid volvulus in 60 patients (69.0 %) followed by colonic tumor in 12 patients (13.8 %). After controlling for possible confounding factors, the major predictors of management outcome of intestinal obstruction were: duration of illness before surgical intervention (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)?=?0.49, 95 % CI: 0.25-0.97); intra-operative findings [Viable small bowel volvulus (SBV) (AOR?=?0.08, 95 % CI: 0.01-0.95) and viable (AOR?=?0.17, 95 % CI: 0.03-0.88)]; completion of intra-operative procedures (bowel resection & anastomosis (AOR?=?3.05, 95 % CI: 1.04-8.94); and length of hospital stay (AOR?=?0.05, 95 % CI: 0.01-0.16).

Conclusion: Small bowel obstruction was more prevalent than large bowel obstruction. Intussusceptions and sigmoid volvulus were the leading causes of small and large bowel obstruction. Laparotomy was the most common methods of intestinal obstruction management. Bowel resection and anastomosis was the commonest intra-operative procedure done and is associated with postoperative complications. Wound infection in the affected area should be improved because it is the most common postoperative complication. This can be decreased by appropriate surgical technique and wound care with sterile techniques.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-016-0150-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4893295PMC
June 2016
174 Reads
1.240 Impact Factor

Maternal and fetal outcomes in term premature rupture of membrane.

World J Emerg Med 2016 ;7(2):147-52

Department of Health Education and Behavioural Sciences, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM) is linked to significant maternal prenatal mortalities and morbidity. In Ethiopia, where maternal mortality is still high, the maternal and fetal outcomes in PROM is very important to decrease maternal and child mortality and for better management and prevention of complications. Thus, this study aimed to detect the maternal and fetal outcomes and associated factors in term PROM at Mizan-Aman General Hospital, south-west Ethiopia.

Methods: A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted using data available at Mizan-Aman General Hospital during a period of 3 years (January 2011 to December 2013). We examined records of 4 525 women who gave birth in the hospital; out of these women, 185 were diagnosed with term PROM and all of them were included in the study. The data of these women were collected using a checklist based on registration books. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 statistical package. The association between independent and dependent variables was assessed by bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. 95%CI and P value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: Of the 4 525 women who gave birth in the hospital, 202 were complicated by term PROM. About 22.2% of the women showed unfavorable maternal outcomes. The most common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality was puerperal sepsis. About 33.5% of neonates experienced unfavorable outcomes. The duration of PROM >12 hours (AOR=5.6, 95%CI 1.3-24.1) latency >24 hours (AOR=2.8, 95%CI 1.7-11.8), residing in rural areas (AOR=4.2, 95%CI 3.96-29.4) and birth weight less than 2 500 g were associated with unfavorable outcomes.

Conclusion: Women residing in rural areas, long latency, and neonates with birth weight less 2 500 g may have unfavorable outcomes. Therefore, optimum obstetric and medical care is essential for the reduction of the devastating complications related to disorders.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2016.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4905872PMC
June 2016
25 Reads

Maternal and fetal outcome of pregnancy related hypertension in Mettu Karl Referral Hospital, Ethiopia

BMC-Journal of Ovarian Research

Abstract Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are the most common causes of adverse maternal & perinatal outcomes. Such investigations in resource limited settings would help to have great design strategies in preventing maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Aim: To determine management outcome and factor associated with pregnancy related hypertensive disorder in Mettu Karl Referral Hospital, Mettu, Ethiopia. Method: A retrospective study deign was conducted at Mettu Karl Referral Hospital from 1st January 2010 to December 1st 2013 by reviewing medical records and logbooks. Descriptive, binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were used. A 95% CI and P- value of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Result: The magnitude of pregnancy related hypertensive disorder was 2.4%. Majority 82.6% of the mothers were in the age range between 18 to 34 year with a mean age and standard deviation (SD) of 24.4 (SD ± 5.12). Sever preeclampsia was the most prevalent diagnosis made to 35.5% of the mother, followed by 19% cases of eclampsia and 12.4% of HELLP. Fetal management outcomes indicates 120.37 perinatal mortality per 1000 deliveries and a stillbirth rate of 10.2%, low birth weight of 30.5%, and low APGAR score of 18.5%, abortion 10.7% and preterm delivery 31.4%. Conclusion: In this study severe preeclampsia is the most common of all pregnancy related hypertension disorders followed by Eclampsia. Fetal complications like low Apgar score and preterm deliveries were statistically significant and associated with fetal management outcomes. Keywords: Gestational, Hypertension, Preeclampsia, Eclampsia, Low resource country

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April 2015
4 Reads

Predictors of willingness to participate in health insurance services among the community of jimma town, southwest ethiopia.

Health Serv Insights 2014 23;7:31-7. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

Assistant Professor, Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4137/HSI.S18046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4213188PMC
November 2014
31 Reads
1 Citation

Family environment and sexual behaviours in Jimma zone, south west Ethiopia

Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2014, pp. 539-545

Science Journal of Public Health

Abstract: Back ground: Youths have limited access to reproductive health services that focus on the special needs of adolescents and these youths are at high risk for risky sexual behaviors. Because of the complex nature of the problem, youth reproductive health strategies demand a multi-sector and integrated approach on risky sexual behavior. This paper examines how lack of parental monitoring and other factors affect youth’s sexual behavior. Objective: to assess family environment and associated factors on risky sexual behaviors among high school youths in Jimma zone, south west Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional study design was used in 5 randomly selected preparatory schools of Jimma zone. A total of 287 students were selected using simple random sampling technique based on proportional to the size of the number of students in each preparatory school. A structured, pretested and self administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify the independent predictor of risk sexual behavior. Results: From sexually active students 81 (28.2%) students had sexual risk behavior and only 5[6.0%] students reported they used condom always. Sixty four [82.1] reported that they were willing the first time they had sex. 225[78.4%] of students were under high pressure from their peers. Students who had girl/boy friend were 5 times more likely to be at risk. Among students higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior significantly associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption, exposure to pornographic film and having girl/boy friend. But higher family connectedness associated with lower level of likelihood of risky sexual behavior. Conclusion and Recommendation: Alcohol consumption, watching pornographic movies and having girl/boy friend were the major predictors of risky sexual behaviors but from family environment family connection was a predictor variable as preventive factor for risky sexual behaviors. Therefore, interventions that emphasize different domains of the risk and preventive factors in an integrated manner may be the most effective strategies. Keywords: Sexual Behavior, Family Environment, High School

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November 2014
4 Reads

Male involvement in prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV and associated factors among males in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

American Journal of Health Research. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2014, pp. 338-343.

American Journal of Health Research

Abstract: Background: The importance of male involvement in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs is incremental to maintain family health and adherence to human immunodeficiency virus treatment and prevention regimens. Globally, male involvement has been recognized as a priority focus area to be strengthened in prevention of mother-to-child transmission but, it remains a challenge in most low- and middle-income countries including Ethiopia. Objective: To assess male involvement in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and associated factors among male partners in Addis Ababa. Methods: A Community based cross-sectional study supplemented with qualitative method was conducted from October 1-November 30, 2013 at sixteen districts in Addis Ababa. A total of 431 male participants were involved in the study. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical package. Multiple logistic regressions analysis was used to identify the predictors of male involvement. Qualitative data were analyzed manually using thematic approach. Result: One hundred ninety six (45.5%) of respondents were in the age group of 35-44 years. Three hundred thirty two (77%) of the participants were knowledgeable about mother-to-child transmission of HIV. From the total respondents, only 121(28.1%) of males had high involvement in PMTCT. Knowledge, income, cultural beliefs, and occupation of the participants were significantly predictor of males’ involvement in the Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Conclusion: Knowledge, occupational status, income and cultural barriers to males’ involvement in the Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in Addis Ababa were deterrent and interrelated. Therefore, a potential need to be invested on the components attributable to those independent factors of male involvement there by aware, support empower them towards effective involvement in Prevention of mother to child transmission interventions. Keywords: Men’s Involvement, Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV

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October 2014
3 Reads

Exclusive breastfeeding and maternal employment in Ethiopia: A comparative cross- sectional study

International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2014, pp. 497-503

International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences

Abstract: Back-ground: Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding is the single most cost-effective intervention to reduce infant mortality in developing countries. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months has greater benefit than formula feeding for the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding among infants less than 6 months is 49%, with limited information on associated factors of exclusive breast feeding. Understanding the associated factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding is crucial to promote the practice in Ethiopia. Objective: To compare exclusive breastfeeding and its associated factors among employed and unemployed mothers in Injibara Town, Awi Zone, North west Ethiopia. Method: A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from March 24-April 14, 2013. A total of 524 mothers of children age ≤1 year were included in the study. A structured, pretested and self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics were performed to compare exclusive breastfeeding among employed and unemployed mothers. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify independent predictors of exclusive breastfeeding. Results: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 44% and 65% among employed and unemployed mothers respectively. Employed mothers were 32% times less likely to breast feed exclusively than the unemployed mothers (OR= 0.32). Place of birth (OR=4.4), belief of breast milk sufficiency (OR= 3.6), religious fathers support of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=2.7) and maternal age of 18-23(OR=9.4) were independently predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among employed mothers. Whereas, husbands’ support of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=1.9), knowledge on duration of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=2.8), timely initiation of breastfeeding (OR=2.9), Awareness of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=2.2) and delivery attendance (OR=2.2) were independently predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among unemployed mothers. Conclusions: A large proportion of infants are not exclusively breastfed. Exclusive breastfeeding status of unemployed mothers was significantly better than that of employed mothers. Therefore, the government should promote exclusive breastfeeding by creating breastfeeding friendly working environment. Keywords: Exclusive Breast Feeding, Maternal Employment, Injibara Town

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October 2014
7 Reads

Delay for first consultation and associated factors among tuberculosis patients in Bahir Dar town administration, North West Ethiopia

American Journal of Health Research. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2014, pp. 140-145.

American Journal of Health Research

Abstract: Background: Delayed presentation for first consultation is a major problem contributing to the high burden and transmission of tuberculosis in most developing countries including Ethiopia. There is paucity of evidence on the magnitude of patient delay and why patients fail to seek care in health institution early in Bahirdar town administration area. Objective: To determine the delay for first consultation and its associated factors among tuberculosis patients in Bahir Dar town health facilities. Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from 10 March – 08 May 2012 in Bahirdar town administration health facility. For quantitative part a total of 315 study participants were included. For qualitative part, eighteen study participants of family members were participated. Data were collected from newly diagnosed TB patients. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 window. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with patient delay. Result: The magnitude of patient delay was 165(52.4%) and median of patient delay was 30 days within range of 3 to 270 days. Illiterate (AOR=6.18,95% CI:1.34, 28.43), extra pulmonary tuberculosis (AOR=10.12, 95% CI:3.07, 33.37), living greater than a distance of 10 km from TB service in health facilities (AOR=3.55,95%CI:1.17,10.80), prior visited ,with holy water (AOR=10.55, 95% CI:3.99, 27.89) ,with traditional healer (AOR=4.29, 95% CI:1.13, 16.37 and with private drug store/pharmacy (AOR=6.81, 95% CI:2.47,18.78) were determinants of patients delay for first consultation in health facilities. Conclusion: The magnitude of patient delay was generally higher than most African and other developing countries. More than half, 54.6% of tuberculosis patients delayed seeking health care at health facility while getting treatment from informal sources of treatment. Health promotion and education involving different stake holders will make the community to create awareness about tuberculosis could help reduce delays in starting modern treatment was recommended. Keywords: Patient Delay, Factors, Tuberculosis, First Consultation, Health Facilities

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August 2014
2 Reads

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH STUNTING IN ETHIOPIAN CHILDREN UNDER FIVE

National report

This study aims to examinerisk factors for stunting in Ethiopian children using DHS data from 2011, and to examine the trends, variability, and changes in thesefactors over timeusing the 2000 and 2005 DHS.Regional and socioeconomic strata differences are also analyzed. Data for three DHS surveys (DHS 2000, 2005 and 2011) were downloaded, cleaned and merged for analyses. The analyses used a conceptual framework that categorizes factors affecting height for age in infants and young children as being inherent, distal, intermediate and proximate in nature (10). This is similar to the UNICEF conceptual framework framing the basic, underlying and immediate causes of poor maternal, infant and young child nutrition. Descriptive statistics (including means, standard deviations, frequencies), Pearson correlations, and odds ratios were estimated. Step-wise multivariate linear and logistic regressions were then conducted. The majority of analyses were focused on identifying statistically significant associations with stunting outcomes in individual children. A subset of analyses examined the associations between specific foods, and of sanitation, with stunting by region. Stunting in Infants and Children The onset of stunting is visible by 6-12 months of age and increases to ~ 24 months of age in all three DHS surveys. In infants <6 months of age, stunting rates have significantly decreased, going from 22% (2000) and 23% (2005) to 14% in 2011. Stunting rates for children aged 6-24 months went from 49% in 2000, to 47% in 2005,to 35% in 2011. For children under five, ratessimilarly declined significantly from 54% in 2000, to 49% in 2005, and to 41% in 2011. The DHS 2011 data revealed that stunting rates are over 40% in Affar, Amhara, Tigray, and Benishangul-Gumu, with the highest rates in Tigray (52%). Rates in Oromiya, SNNPR, Dire Dawa, Gambela, Harar and Somali region range from 21-32% while Addis Ababa had the lowest rate (13%). In the 2011 DHS survey, using a stepwise logistic regression analysis after adjustment for the effects of distal factors, we find that the factors associated with stunting include the child’s age, male gender, low household wealth, low maternal education, shorter birth interval, smaller birth size, lower maternal height, low maternal BMI and having had diarrhea in the past 2 weeks. Of note, the strongest effects/associations were with wealth. Infants and young children were 2.2 times more likely to be stunted if born to mothers in the poorest households rather than the richest households. Infants and children reported to have had a very small birth size were twice as likely to be stunted as those who were very large at birth. Girls were 25% less likely to be stunted then boys. For every unit increase in BMI, andmaternal height (1 cm.), children were 3% and 6%, respectively, less likely to be stunted. Risk factors associated with stunting differed by child age group. This may be because the risk factors require time to adversely impact a child or become biologically relevant at different times during early childhood. Only maternal height was a significant predictor of the risk of9 being stunted in infants under 6 months of age. Every 1 cm unit increase in maternal height wasassociated to aneight percent risk reduction for stunting.For children aged 6-12 months, increasing age, male sex (gender), and short maternal height were significant predictors as well as low birth weight. Dietary diversity was protective against stunting and persistent breastfeeding beyond 6 months of age was linked to stunting. Predictive factors in the final multivariate model for the age group 12-24 months included age, being a boy, wealth index, maternal education (p > 0.05), birth size, maternal heightand still being breastfed. Similar to the 6-12 month age group, age, being a boy, very small birth size and shorter maternal height were significantly associated with the risk of being stunted. Finally in children greater than 24 months of age, in addition to the factors seen in the 12-24 month age group, stunting was also associated with shorter birth interval, lower maternal BMI, having had a diarrheal episode and having had a fever within two weeks prior to the survey. Comparing trends, across years, shows several common risk factors associated with stunting. A summary of the key findings is presented in Table 1. In 2005, similar to 2011, factors associated with stunting included age, male gender, shorter birth interval, smaller birth size, shorter maternal height and having diarrhea in the past two weeks. In addition, cough in the past 2 weeks, or still being breast-fed were all associated with stunting in the final model. Specifically the strongest associations were with birth size with (respectively) very small size babies and average babies being 1.5 and 1.3 times more likely to be stunted than the reference group, very large babies. Children who had diarrhea in the past two weeks were 1.4 times more likely to be stunted. Infants were 10% less likely to be stunted for every 1 cm unit increase in maternal height.Other factors includedcough in the past two weeks (20% less likelihood of being stunted) as well as still being breastfed (2.8 times more likely to be stunted). In 2000, significant factors included age, sex, education, having no latrine, birth interval, birth size, having had a polio vaccine, maternal height, diarrhea in the past 2 weeks, number of antenatal visits, and still being breast fed. The strongest associations were found with maternal education, birth interval, birth size, maternal height, and diarrhea within the past 2 weeks. Smaller than average, and very small, babies were 1.8 and 1.6 times, respectively, more likely to be stunted than very large babies; 1 cm of additional maternal height decreased the risk of stunting by 5%; and having had diarrhea in the past 2 weeks increased the risk of stunting by 1.3 fold. Common predictors of stunting forall 3survey years included age, male gender, lower birth interval, lower birth size and maternal height, while the factors associated with stunting that were unique to 2011 included maternal BMI, and if food was given in the first 3 days of life and low wealth index.

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August 2014
5 Reads

Self-efficacy analysis among HIV positive patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital: a cross-sectional study

Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014; 4(Suppl 2): S597-S602

Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Objective: To determine self-efficacy of HIV sero-status disclosure decisions and safer sex in HIV sero-positive persons in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, south west Ethiopia. Methods: A facility based cross sectional study design was conducted on 601 HIV in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, ART clinic. Data were collected using psotsaintidvaer dp eprrseo-n coded interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were entered into SPSS version 16.0. Dreegsrcersispitoinv ew aans aulsyesdis tow aksn odwon teh et op rdeedsiccrtiobre o ft hdei scchloasruarcete.ristics of the study participants. Logistic Results: Of the 591 study participants, 564 (95.4%) were disclosed their HIV status. Married HIV patients were 22.4 times more likely practice safe sex than single HIV patients [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 95% CI: 22.4 (8.6, 58.6)]. HIV patients whose educational statuses were secondary school were 0u.n5i vtiemrseisty l e[ss likely practice safe sex than HIV patients whose educational statuses were college/ AOR, 95% CI: 0.5 (0.2,0.9)]. HIV patients whose monthly income was in between 901-1 300 EabTHov Be irr was 0.2 times less likely practice safe sex than HIV patients whose monthly income was safe se1x 3p0r0a EctTiHce B tihrer [oAdOdRs ,o 9f 5p%r aCctIi:c 0in.2g (0s.a1f,e 0s.e7)x] .w Aa su innict rienacsreeda sbey i n total score of self-efficacy on 2.0 [AOR, 95% CI: 2.0 (1.1, 3.8)]. Conclusions: The HIV patients had high self-efficacy on disclosure, safe sex and treatment adherence. This good practice should be promoted and enhanced in different part of Ethiopia. The HIV patients had low awareness about their parents’ HIV status. Future effort should be made on awareness level about their parents’ HIV status.

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July 2014
4 Reads

Risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among male and female students in Jimma Zone preparatory schools, South West Ethiopia: comparative study.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2014 Jan;24(1):59-68

Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3929929PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v24i1.8DOI Listing
January 2014
26 Reads
6 Citations

Willingness to pay for insecticide-treated nets in Berehet District, Amhara Region, Northern Ethiopia: implication of social marketing.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2014 Jan;24(1):75-84

Departments of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3929931PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v24i1.10DOI Listing
January 2014
13 Reads
7 Citations

Determinants of and opportunities for continuing education among health care professionals in public health care institutions in Jimma township, Southwest Ethiopia.

Adv Med Educ Pract 2012 18;3:89-96. Epub 2012 Sep 18.

Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S35289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3650875PMC
June 2013
7 Reads

Living with parents and risky sexual behaviors among preparatory school students in Jimma zone, South west Ethiopia

African Health Sciences Vol 13 Issue 2 June 2013

African Health Sciences

Abstract Background: Risky sexual behavior is any behavior that increases the probability of negative consequences associated with sexual contact. Family environment, peer influence, community factors and school attachment seem an important factor affecting sexual risk behavior and decision of in-school youths. Objective: To assess sexual risk behaviors and associated factors among students living with parents in Jimma zone preparatory schools. Methods: A cross sectional study designs both qualitative and quantitative approaches was conducted in 5 randomly selected preparatory schools. A total of 273 students were randomly selected. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify the independent predictor of risk sexual behavior. Result: One hundred fiten (42.1%) students had sexual risk bahivor. Thirty six (30.8%) student’s reports they had two or more sexual partners in their lifetime. Out of 117 students, 13 (11.2%) students used condom always. One hundred one (37%) students were consumed alcohol. Higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior significantly associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption and low frequency of religious visit. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption and religious visit were the major predictors of risky sexual behaviors. Therefore, Behavior change communication should consider family environment and other factors which predict risk sexual behaviors. Keywords: Risky sexual behavior, living with parents, family environment

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June 2013
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Parents' perception, students' and teachers' attitude towards school sex education.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2012 Jul;22(2):99-106

Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, College of Public Health and Medical Science, Jimma University.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3407832PMC
July 2012
11 Reads
2 Citations

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Carl Lachat
Carl Lachat

Ghent University

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Abebe Mamo
Abebe Mamo

Jimma University

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Tefera Belachew
Tefera Belachew

Jimma University

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Adisu Aleme
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Amhara Regional state Health Bureau

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Tsion Assefa
Tsion Assefa

Jimma University

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Fentie Ambaw
Fentie Ambaw

Jimma University.

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Fessahaye Alemseged

Jimma University

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Eshetu Girma
Eshetu Girma

Jimma University

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