Publications by authors named "Nerilee Hing"

61 Publications

Structural characteristics of fixed-odds sports betting products.

J Behav Addict 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

2Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQUniversity, Bundaberg, QLD, Australia.

Background And Aims: A literature exists on the structural characteristics of electronic gambling machines (EGMs), which are design innovations that can promote spending excessive time and money on these games. Fixed-odds sports betting products, where bettors place sports bets against a bookmaker, have also seen significant innovations in recent years. Despite some differences between these gambling products, similar structural characteristics could also be relevant to sports betting. The aim was to review previous research on contemporary fixed-odds sports betting products, and to identify whether structural characteristics from the EGM literature are also relevant to sports betting.

Methods: Structural characteristics uncovered by two influential reviews of EGMs were identified, and their relevance to fixed-odds sports betting products discussed via a narrative review.

Results: Structural characteristics of payout interval and potential betting frequency (in-play betting), multiplier potential (accumulators, complex bets, multis), win probability and payout ratio (all bets), bettor involvement (custom sports betting products, cash out), skill required (all bets), and near-misses (accumulators, complex bets, multis) were all identified in modern fixed-odds sports betting products.

Discussion And Conclusions: Fixed-odds sports betting products have increasingly incorporated structural characteristics previously found in EGMs. Future research could further assess the extent to which these structural characteristics contribute to fixed-odds sports bettors spending excessive amounts of time and money while betting. These findings can help guide further sports betting research, contribute to an improved understanding of the potential universality of gambling product design, and inform policy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.2021.00008DOI Listing
April 2021

Young people who purchase loot boxes are more likely to have gambling problems: An online survey of adolescents and young adults living in NSW Australia.

J Behav Addict 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

1Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Bundaberg, QLD, Australia.

Background And Aims: Loot boxes are a common feature in video games where players win, buy or are gifted a virtual box or other container that is unwrapped to reveal virtual items of value, such as skins, weapons, in-game currency or special abilities. The current study aimed to relate the use of loot boxes to gambling problems and harm.

Methods: An online survey was conducted with 1,954 adolescents and young adults from NSW Australia, 59.9% female (aged 12-24), recruited by online panel aggregator, Qualtrics.

Results: Buying and selling loot boxes was associated with higher 12-month gambling frequency and gambling problems in young adults, aged 18-24 (Problem Gambling Severity Index). Young adults who bought loot boxes additionally had more gambling-related harms (Short Gambling Harms Screen). Young women, aged 18-24, who opened, bought and/or sold loot boxes spent more money in the last 12 months on gambling. In adolescents, aged 12-17, buying loot boxes was similarly associated with gambling problems (DSM-IV-MR-J). Furthermore, adolescent girls who bought and/or sold loot boxes viewed gambling more positively than other girls (Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale). There was no evidence, however, that longer-term experience in opening or purchasing loot boxes, a differentiating feature of the survey, is associated with current gambling problems.

Discussion And Conclusions: This study suggests that loot boxes may be attractive to people who are already predisposed to engage in other gambling, and females who use loot boxes may have unique vulnerabilities to gambling problems that could be explored in future research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.2021.00007DOI Listing
February 2021

The Relationship Between Family Gambling Problems, Other Family Stressors, and Health Indicators in a Large Population-Representative Sample of Australian Adults.

J Gambl Stud 2020 Nov 27. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

School of Medical, Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia.

Purpose: Harms due to excessive gambling can be experienced by gamblers and those close to them. Family gambling problems (FGPs) are currently under-researched, particularly in population-representative samples. This study aimed to identify prevalence, risk factors, and the complex of stressors and health-related consequences associated with FGPs, as well as isolating the impact of FGPs on physical and psychological health problems.

Methods: We analysed data from the National Health Survey 2011-13, a large (N = 15,475) nationally representative sample of Australian adults. Participants reported on the presence of 14 family stressors (including FGPs), self-assessed health status, and risky health behaviours. Psychological impact was measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-10, as well as several indicators of the presence of mental health problems.

Results: Overall, 1.7% of households reported a FGP. Interviewees in these households reported three times the number of other stressors than those without a FGP. In addition, they were around eight times more likely to be experiencing other addictions (drug and alcohol related problems) and stressors associated with socially deviant behaviours (trouble with police, abuse or violent crime, and witness to violence). Once age, gender, socioeconomic disadvantage, and other stressors were controlled for, FGPs significantly predicted lower self-assessed health and higher psychological distress.

Conclusions: FGPs occur within a complex of other addictions and stressors, impacting the quality of life of people close to problem gambling. The findings are discussed in relation to their support for General Strain Theory (Agnew, Criminology 30:47-87, 1992).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-020-09990-xDOI Listing
November 2020

A framework for indirect elicitation of the public health impact of gambling problems.

BMC Public Health 2020 Nov 16;20(1):1717. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

School of Health, Medical & Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, University Dr, Branyan QLD, Bundaberg, 4670, Australia.

Gambling problems are increasingly understood as a health-related condition, with harms from excessive time and money expenditure contributing to significant population morbidity. In many countries, the prevalence of gambling problems is known with some precision. However, the true severity of gambling problems in terms of their impact on health and wellbeing is the subject of ongoing debate. We firstly review recent research that has attempted to estimate harm from gambling, including studies that estimate disability weights using direct elicitation. Limitations of prior approaches are discussed, most notably potential inflation due to non-independent comorbidity with other substance use and mental health conditions, and potential biases in the subjective attribution of morbidity to gambling. An alternative indirect elicitation approach is outlined, and a conceptual framework for its application to gambling is provided. Significant risk factors for propensity to develop gambling problems are enumerated, and relative risks for comorbidities are calculated from recent meta-analyses and reviews. Indirect elicitation provides a promising alternative framework for assessing the causal link between gambling problems and morbidity. This approach requires implementation of propensity score matching to estimate the counterfactual, and demands high quality information of risk factors and comorbid conditions, in order to estimate the unique contribution of gambling problems. Gambling harm is best understood as a decrement to health utility. However, achieving consensus on the severity of gambling problems requires triangulation of results from multiple methodologies. Indirect elicitation with propensity score matching and accounting for comorbidities would provide an important step towards full integration of gambling within a public health paradigm.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09813-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7670710PMC
November 2020

Impulsive Sports Betting: The Effects of Food or Substance Consumption.

J Gambl Stud 2020 Jun;36(2):539-554

Department of Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Marketing, La Trobe Business School, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia.

The present study aimed to explore how food or substance consumption (e.g., experiencing hunger, or having consumed alcohol or recreational drugs) could shape consumer impulsive spending on sports betting products. Based on a large online sample of Australian sports bettors, we found that participants with higher hunger level, or having consumed more alcohol or recreational drugs, tended to have increased impulsive bet size. These impulsiveness effects had both direct and indirect effect components. The significant direct effects confirmed that positive relationships directly existed between hunger, alcohol consumption, or recreational drug consumption and impulsive bet size, even when all potential mediators and covariates were statistically controlled. Moreover, results regarding specific indirect effects demonstrated that hunger, alcohol consumption, or recreational drug consumption was also indirectly linked with impulsive bet size, via their relationships with both promotional and financial influences, rather than social influences. Furthermore, participants' Problem Gambling Severity Index score was positively associated with their impulsive bet size. These findings support and complement the literature on impulsivity as well as the research on strategies for staying in control of gambling, and have implications for consumers, regulators, and treatment/help providers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-020-09938-1DOI Listing
June 2020

Interest in inducements: A psychophysiological study on sports betting advertising.

Int J Psychophysiol 2020 01 21;147:100-106. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

School of Health, Medical, and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Australia.

Recent research has shown an association between the viewing of wagering advertising, which often presents inducements to gamble, and maladaptive sports-betting behaviours; however, the mechanism/s underlying the development of the intention to gamble remains relatively understudied. Eye-tracking and tonic electrodermal activity was recorded from 59 participants (including 49 regular gamblers and 10 non-gamblers), while they watched a series of advertisements. Following each advertisement, participants were asked to rate how likely they would be to take up the offer presented, therein. The number of fixations placed on each offer differed according to the type of inducement shown (p < .001), with reduced risk and cash back inducements being looked at more often than better odds and bonus bet inducements by all groups. Increased electrodermal activity while viewing the advertisements was associated with greater severity of gambling-related harm (p < .001), as well as greater ratings of desire for most advertisements. Rating of desire was, likewise, positively associated with gambling-related harm (p < .001). These results may suggest that, while the offers in gambling advertisements may be looked at by most viewers, unless there an attendant increase in arousal, it is quite unlikely that these inducements will elicit a desire to gamble. For individuals already at risk of gambling problems, exposure to these advertisements, especially those offering what is perceived to be safer betting options that minimise financial losses, may exacerbate existing harms. Such information may prove useful in guiding industry practice, government regulations, therapeutic interventions, and future research on this topic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2019.10.015DOI Listing
January 2020

Avoiding gambling harm: An evidence-based set of safe gambling practices for consumers.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(10):e0224083. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Prior studies have identified self-regulatory strategies that are infrequently used by problem-gamblers, but which might be protective if used. However, guidelines with evidence-based safe gambling practices (SGPs) that prevent gambling-related harm are lacking. This study aimed to: 1) identify a parsimonious set of evidence-based SGPs that best predict non-harmful gambling amongst gamblers who are otherwise most susceptible to experiencing gambling harm; 2) examine how widely are they used; and 3) assess whether their use differs by gambler characteristics. A sample of 1,174 regular gamblers in Alberta Canada completed an online survey measuring uptake of 43 potential SGPs, gambling harms and numerous risk factors for harmful gambling. Elastic net regression identified a sub-sample of 577 gamblers most susceptible to gambling harm and therefore most likely to benefit from the uptake of SGPs. A second elastic net predicted gambling harm scores in the sub-sample, using the SGPs as candidate predictors. Nine SGPs best predicted non-harmful gambling amongst this sub-sample. The behaviour most strongly associated with increased harm was using credit to gamble. The behaviour most strongly associated with reduced harm was 'If I'm not having fun gambling, I stop'. These SGPs form the basis of evidence-based safe gambling guidelines which can be: 1) promoted to consumers, 2) form the basis of self-assessment tests, 3) used to measure safe gambling at a population level, and 4) inform supportive changes to policy and practice. The guidelines advise gamblers to: stop if they are not having fun, keep a household budget, keep a dedicated gambling budget, have a fixed amount they can spend, engage in other leisure activities, avoid gambling when upset or depressed, not use credit for gambling, avoid gambling to make money, and not think that strategies can help you win. These guidelines are a promising initiative to help reduce gambling-related harm.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0224083PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6797237PMC
March 2020

A Cross-Cultural Study of Weekly Sports Bettors in Australia and Spain.

J Gambl Stud 2020 Sep;36(3):937-955

International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.

Betting on sport is one of the fastest developing forms of gambling internationally. Sports betting is attracting considerable scholarly, media, and regulatory attention due to the cultural salience of sport, and the rising public health concerns about the rapid proliferation and penetration of betting products in everyday life. Despite its global expansion, little is known regarding the comparative impact sports betting is having in different territories. This study aims to examine a sample of Australian (n = 738) and Spanish (n = 361) weekly sports bettors to assess their similarities and differences concerning sociodemographic characteristics, channels (i.e., online vs. offline) and devices used, in-play betting, and problem gambling severity. The findings showed high problem gambling scores among sports bettors in both countries, and consistent similarities in the association between problem gambling, in-play betting, and offline betting. Also, clear trends were observed between problem gambling, higher educational level, and female sport betting, particularly in the Australian sample. These results suggest a common pattern of risk factors for problematic sports betting and can help to inform worldwide regulatory efforts to tackle harmful sports betting-specific features such as in-play betting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09898-1DOI Listing
September 2020

What's the Message? A Content Analysis of Emails and Texts Received from Wagering Operators During Sports and Racing Events.

J Gambl Stud 2020 Dec;36(4):1107-1121

Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQUniversity, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Previous research has established direct messages (such as emails and text messages) are a widely seen form of advertising and are highly influential on sports betting and race betting behaviour. Nevertheless, few studies have examined the specific content of these messages, and whether their content is related to account-holders' betting behaviour. The current study used an ecological momentary assessment design to examine direct messages received from wagering operators during the week around major Australian sports and racing events. Respondents completed a baseline survey followed by short daily surveys over a period of 1 week during peak betting periods, and provided the research team with the emails and text messages they received from wagering operators during this time. A sample of 102 sports and 110 race bettors provided a total of 931 messages. These messages subsequently underwent a content analysis to extract key features that were promoted, including inducements, incentives, and bet type. The analysis found the messages were saturated with inducements to bet, however no relationships were identified between the content of messages and the gambling risk status or betting frequency of participants. The most common types of incentives offered included bonus bets, rewards points, better odds/winnings, and reduced risk. Frequently promoted inducements included bonus or better winnings, refund/stake back offers, and match your stake/deposit. Given the influences of inducements on increasing betting expenditure and impulsive betting identified through previous research, taken together with the findings of the current study, direct messages may contribute to experiencing gambling-related harm. These findings have important implications for consumer education and the regulation of direct messages.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09896-3DOI Listing
December 2020

Are sports bettors looking at responsible gambling messages? An eye-tracking study on wagering advertisements.

J Behav Addict 2019 Sep 26;8(3):499-507. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

School of Health Medical and Applied Sciences,Central Queensland University, Branyan, QLD,Australia.

Background And Aims: The broadcast of wagering advertisements during televised sports matches has been associated with various adverse outcomes. In order to counter these effects, legislative bodies require wagering operators to include responsible gambling messages in their advertisements; however, the effectiveness of these messages is unclear. This study sought to examine the extent to which responsible gambling messages are looked at, in the wider context of gambling advertisements.

Methods: Forty-nine regular sports bettors and 10 non-gamblers viewed a series of sports betting advertisements, while an eye-tracker recorded the number of fixations placed on responsible gambling messages, as well as other text-based wagering content.

Results: Responsible gambling messages were, generally, presented in a non-conspicuous manner. Eye-tracking data revealed that significantly fewer fixations were placed on responsible gambling messages, compared to wagering information ( < .001); however, this effect did not differ according to level of gambling risk ( = .169). The number of fixations placed on the different types of responsible gambling messages was found to vary, based on gambling risk ( = .006), as well as, what appears to be, the physical characteristics of these messages.

Discussion: Very few fixations were placed on, or near, responsible gambling messages, compared to other wagering information, meaning that, in their current form, they are unlikely to be effective in protecting against gambling harm. Preliminary evidence shows that presenting messages on a high-contrast/block-color background increases the number of fixations on these.

Conclusion: Further research is needed to identify ways of increasing the effectiveness of responsible gambling initiatives in the sports betting context.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.8.2019.37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044613PMC
September 2019

Contrasting Effects of Gambling Consumption and Gambling Problems on Subjective Wellbeing.

J Gambl Stud 2019 Sep;35(3):773-792

School of Medical, Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, B8 G.47 University Drive, Bundaberg, QLD, 4670, Australia.

Most research on gambling focuses on the negative consequences associated with excessive consumption, which implicitly leads to a reduction in health and wellbeing. However, few studies have measured subjective wellbeing with respect to gambling involvement, and almost none has attempted to distinguish the separate effects of consumption and problems. We used the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) in two surveys with different recruitment criteria. Study 1 (N = 1524, 50.6% female) was designed to compare differences in personal wellbeing among gamblers, and Study 2 (N = 1586, 70.2% female) compared wellbeing between gamblers and non-gamblers. Participants provided demographic information, and answered questions allowing them to be grouped into high/low levels of consumption, and problem gambling risk categories. After accounting for gambling problems, higher consumption was associated with higher wellbeing. Study 2 showed consistent results; revealing that both high and low consumption non-problem gamblers (NPGs) had higher personal wellbeing than non-gamblers. Nevertheless, the deleterious effect of gambling problems on wellbeing was larger than the effect of consumption. After accounting for population prevalence (i.e., per capita), only 15.3% of the negative influence of gambling problems on PWI was attributable to problem gamblers; the remainder associated with lower risk categories. Although results were consistent when controlling for demographic covariates, the positive link between consumption and wellbeing may be due to unmeasured variables such as personality traits, health, and socioeconomic status. Nevertheless, the assessment of subjective wellbeing provides a unique perspective on both the positive and negative effects of gambling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09862-zDOI Listing
September 2019

Sports betting incentives encourage gamblers to select the long odds: An experimental investigation using monetary rewards.

J Behav Addict 2019 Jun 7;8(2):268-276. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences,CQUniversity, Melbourne, VIC,Australia.

Background And Aims: Incentives for wagering products can provide extra value to gamblers. However, there is no financial reason why this added value should lead people to take greater gambling risks. This study aimed to experimentally test if wagering incentives cause gamblers to choose higher-risk (long odds) bets than un-incentivized bets.

Methods: An online experiment was conducted with wagering customers ( = 299, female = 12). Participants bet $4 on each of six video game simulations of a sport that they had wagered on in the past 12 months (Australian Football League, Cricket, or Soccer). Each game offered different common wagering incentives: Bonus bet, Better odds/winnings, Reduced risk, Cash rebate, Player's choice of inducement, or No-inducement. For each game, participants could bet on long, medium, or short odds, and subsequently viewed a highlight reel of the simulated game outcome and bet outcome.

Results: Participants selected significantly longer odds (i.e., riskier) bets on games when an incentive was offered compared to the No-inducement condition. Better odds/winnings was the most attractive incentive, followed by Bonus bet, Cash rebate, Reduced risk, and No-incentive, respectively. No significant differences were observed based on demographics or problem gambling severity.

Discussion And Conclusions: The choice of long odds with incentivized bets increases the volatility of player returns. Increased volatility results in more gamblers in a losing position and fewer gamblers with larger wins. Moreover, if long odds bets are priced to provide poorer value to bettors compared to short odds, they would increase gamblers' losses and equivalently increase operators' profits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.8.2019.30DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044548PMC
June 2019

Proximal and Distal Risk Factors for Gambling Problems Specifically Associated with Electronic Gaming Machines.

J Gambl Stud 2020 Mar;36(1):277-295

Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQUniversity, 400 Kent St, Sydney, NSW, 2000, Australia.

Electronic gaming machines (EGMs) are widely used and the gambling product most commonly associated with harmful gambling. Understanding factors that increase the risk of problematic EGM play is therefore important. Previous studies into risk factors for EGM gambling have used measures of problem gambling based on an individual's total gambling activity, which therefore do not distinguish harmful gambling specifically associated with EGMs. This study used an EGM-specific measure (PGSI-EGM) to achieve its aim of identifying risk factors specifically associated with problematic EGM play. By removing nuisance effects from other gambling forms that higher-risk gamblers typically engage in, this approach provides a more accurate assessment of the determinants of EGM-related problems. An online survey was completed by 1932 at-least monthly EGM players in Australia. It measured demographics, EGM gambling behaviour, motivations, gambling urges, gambling fallacies, trait self-control, alcohol misuse, and the PGSI-EGM. A penalised regression model identified the most important proximal predictors of higher-risk EGM gambling as: higher gambling urges, higher levels of erroneous cognitions, playing EGMs more frequently, higher session expenditure, longer sessions, usually playing EGMs alone, and playing EGMs in more venues. Lower trait self control was the strongest distal determinant. Higher-risk EGM players tended to be younger, male, more educated, never married, to have higher (although still modest) incomes, and be more likely to have alcohol problems. These findings can inform interventions such as treatment, consumer education and venue interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09867-8DOI Listing
March 2020

A Multivariate Evaluation of 25 Proximal and Distal Risk-Factors for Gambling-Related Harm.

J Clin Med 2019 Apr 13;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Faculty of Extension, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada.

Individual differences in the risk of developing gambling-related harm play an important role in theoretical models and practical interventions. The present study attempted comprehensive measurement and evaluation of 25 known risk factors for gambling-related harm in order to determine which factors provided large and unique explanatory power. We surveyed 1650 regular gamblers from an online panel, screening in 1174 (466 male) who passed all checks of attention and response consistency. We evaluated each risk factor based on bivariate correlations with harms, then made separate multivariate evaluations of proximal (e.g., gambling motivations) and distal (e.g., religiosity) risk factors. Almost all bivariate correlations were significant, but most distal factors were not significant in multivariate models. Trait impulsivity was the most important risk factor by a large margin. Excessive consumption, less use of safe gambling practices, and more fallacies were key proximal risks of harm. Many well-known correlates of gambling harm (e.g., youth, lower educational attainment) do not show a direct role in the development of gambling harm when controlling for other factors. The results support theoretical models that emphasise early conditioning and biological vulnerability (manifested through impulsivity). Since maladaptive cognitive and behavioural schemas appear to be more important than motivations (e.g., escape, excitement, ego), interventions may benefit by targeting these proximal drivers of harm.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8040509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6518151PMC
April 2019

Risk Factors for Gambling Problems Specifically Associated with Sports Betting.

J Gambl Stud 2019 Dec;35(4):1211-1228

Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQUniversity, Bundaberg, QLD, Australia.

Studies examining risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors have used screens that assess gambling problems in general. Because people experiencing gambling-related problems tend to gamble on multiple forms, it is unclear whether problems identified amongst sports bettors are due to sports betting itself. The present study examined a range of distal and proximal demographic, behavioural and psychological risk factors using a modified version of the Problem Gambling Severity Index which respondents answered only in relation to their sports betting. In general, those at risk were younger, spoke a language other than English, were more engaged sports bettors and gamblers, and tended not to watch the event they had bet on. They particularly endorsed money-oriented motivations, and had higher erroneous cognitions, gambling urges, and were more likely to experience alcohol issues. Higher-risk sports bettors were also more likely to apportion less responsibility for their gambling to themselves, and to have lower self control. A penalised model found that key predictors were money motivations, gambling urges and erroneous cognitions, alcohol issues and lower self-control, but not sports betting behaviour. These findings suggest that one's psychological relationship to sports betting is a primary driver of gambling-related problems, rather than just betting behaviour. As sports betting expands through new products and legalisation in additional jurisdictions, understanding who is most at risk from this form of gambling is important to inform legislation as well as harm reduction and treatment measures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-019-09848-xDOI Listing
December 2019

The impact of exposure to wagering advertisements and inducements on intended and actual betting expenditure: An ecological momentary assessment study.

J Behav Addict 2019 Mar 28;8(1):146-156. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Australian Gambling Research Centre,Australian Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne, VIC,Australia.

Background And Aims: Research suggests that a large proportion of regular sports and race bettors experience harm related to their gambling. In Australia, people who bet regularly are targeted by a proliferation of different forms of inducements and advertising - many of which are believed to encourage excessive betting and erroneous perceptions of risk. However, scant research has examined the impact of marketing messaging to this group, which is also limited to cross-sectional or qualitative designs. We aimed to determine whether exposure to wagering advertisements and inducements influenced intended betting expenditure, actual betting expenditure, and spending more than intended.

Methods: We report on an ecological momentary assessment study, measuring regular exposure to 20 different forms of marketing, as well as wagering spend from 318 race bettors and 279 sports bettors. Up to 15 assessments per participant were conducted over 3 weeks (mean = 11.46, median = 14), yielding 6,843 observations for analysis.

Results: Exposure to advertising and inducements was reliably linked to a greater likelihood of betting, higher intended and actual betting expenditure, and spending more than intended. "Push" messaging and inducements that convey the impression of reduced risk (stake-back inducements and multibet offers) were particularly influential, as well as brands promoted during events and advertisements on betting websites/apps.

Discussion And Conclusions: Given that a large proportion of regular sports and race bettors experience problems, restrictions on these forms of marketing are advisable. These findings suggest that this is particularly important for marketing that is "pushed" to gamblers or that suggests reduced risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.8.2019.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044597PMC
March 2019

"Types of change strategies for limiting or reducing gambling behaviors and their perceived helpfulness: A factor analysis." Correction to Rodda et al. (2018).

Psychol Addict Behav 2019 03;33(2):138

Turning Point.

Reports an error in "Types of change strategies for limiting or reducing gambling behaviors and their perceived helpfulness: A factor analysis" by Simone N. Rodda, Kathleen L. Bagot, Alison Cheetham, David C. Hodgins, Nerilee Hing and Dan I. Lubman (, 2018[Sep], Vol 32[6], 679-688). In the article the ethics approval details appearing in the last sentence of the second paragraph of the Participants section are incorrect and should appear instead as follows: Ethics approval for the study was gained by Eastern Health Research and Ethics Committee (study registration number LR22/1314). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2018-44923-008.) Gamblers engage with a broad range of resources and strategies to limit or reduce their gambling. However, there is limited research examining the uptake and helpfulness of the full range of strategies gamblers employ. The aim of this study was to compile a comprehensive inventory of change strategies and then group these using principal component analysis based on perceived helpfulness. We also aimed to determine whether there are differences in the helpfulness of strategies by demographic, gambling severity, and readiness indicators. The Change Strategies Questionnaire-Version 1 contained 99 strategies, and 489 gamblers (including 333 problem gamblers) identified the most frequently endorsed strategy as remind yourself of negative consequences of gambling (92%) and think about how money could be better spent (92%). Principal components analysis identified 15 strategy groupings: cognitive, well-being, consumption control, behavioral substitution, financial management, urge management, self-monitoring, information seeking, spiritual, avoidance, social support, exclusion, planning, feedback, and limit finances. There were differences in the helpfulness of strategies by age and gambling severity. Few strategies were correlated with confidence to manage an urge to gamble. Overall, change strategies were viewed as moderately helpful. The top five strategies were all used by at least 90% of gamblers, and these strategies were all cognitive in nature. This study provides important information for the development of interventions targeting gambling behavior. Furthermore, it suggests that interventions for problem gambling should target cognitive, feedback, planning, and urge management strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000462DOI Listing
March 2019

Wagering Advertisements and Inducements: Exposure and Perceived Influence on Betting Behaviour.

J Gambl Stud 2019 Sep;35(3):793-811

Australian Gambling Research Centre, Australian Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

A proliferation of wagering advertising has raised concerns about its effects, especially on vulnerable gamblers. This study examined exposure to wagering advertisements and inducements, and their reported influence on the size, frequency and riskiness of bets placed-amongst regular bettors and by gambler risk group. An Ecological Momentary Assessment design minimised recall bias. After completing a baseline survey, 722 regular bettors completed up to 15 surveys administered on 5 days per week over three non-consecutive weeks. Data were analysed for the 316 race bettors and 279 sports bettors completing at least one survey. The results indicate that regular bettors have almost daily exposure to wagering advertising, including for inducements. The most frequently seen and influential advertisement types were direct messages (emails, texts and/or phone calls from wagering operators, which, in Australia, bettors are automatically opted-into when opening a betting account) and advertisements on betting websites or apps. Participants reported the most influential inducements to be: stake-back offers, multi-bet offers, match your stake or deposit offers, better odds/winnings inducements, happy hours, rewards programs, and cash out early offers. The findings indicate that wagering advertisements, including for inducements, are likely to be having powerful effects on regular bettors. On each day that respondents saw these advertisements (most days for most advertisement types), substantial minorities reported increased size and frequency of betting. Results did not vary by gambler risk group. Understanding which types of wagering advertising are associated with most gambling-related harm can inform advertising regulations, targeted public health interventions, and future research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-018-09823-yDOI Listing
September 2019

Social influences normalize gambling-related harm among higher risk gamblers.

J Behav Addict 2018 Dec;7(4):1100-1111

3 Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQUniversity , Bundaberg, QLD, Australia.

Background And Aims: Social influences are key drivers of gambling, and can begin in youth through parental modeling and facilitation. Over time, social influence from friends and colleagues also becomes important. Social network analysis provides a method to measure the combined nature of these social influences. This study aimed to compare social influences across gambling risk groups, by examining key characteristics of the social networks, among Australian adults.

Methods: A total of 784 respondents (egos) reported their demographics, gambling behavior and gambling risk, as well as those of the 20 most influential people in their lives (alters). Egos also reported the strength of the connection between themselves and each of their alters, and between each pair of alters. Data were analyzed using egocentric social network analysis approaches.

Results: Egos in higher risk groups reported more alters who gamble, including a higher proportion experiencing gambling-related harm. Relationship strength indicated that egos in higher risk groups tended to feel closer to their alters, regardless of whether the alter gambles or not. Network density (interconnectedness between alters) was greater for egos in higher risk groups.

Discussion And Conclusions: The findings indicate that both gambling behavior and gambling-related harm are normalized through social connections. Greater interconnectedness in the networks of higher risk gamblers indicates difficulties in reducing or removing these influences. The findings indicate limitations of individualised interventions, and instead highlight the important role of changing norms within society, which can be transmitted throughout these networks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376388PMC
December 2018

Who Bets on Micro Events (Microbets) in Sports?

J Gambl Stud 2019 Mar;35(1):205-223

Department of Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Marketing, La Trobe Business School, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia.

Sports betting is expanding globally through introduction into new markets and growth in existing markets. Traditionally, bets were placed on the outcome of a match before match commencement, with the outcome not determined for hours or even days. The advent of in-play betting has reduced the delay between bet and outcome. A controversial form of in-play betting is betting on micro events (micro-betting), where consumers bet on outcomes such as the next ball in cricket, or the next point in tennis, with the outcome determined almost immediately. This enables rapid, impulsive and continuous betting and may heighten the risk of problem gambling. We surveyed 1813 Australian sports bettors to determine demographic, behavioural and psychological characteristics of micro event bettors, and of those who place a higher proportion of their bets on micro events. Our two hypotheses were supported: that more highly engaged bettors, including those with gambling problems, are more likely to (1) bet on micro events, and (2) place more of their bets on micro events. Of those who bet on micro events, 78% met criteria for problem gambling, and only 5% non-problem gambling (vs 29% and 28% respectively for non micro event bettors). Placing a higher proportion of bets on micro events was also related to problem gambling. Micro event bettors were likely to: be younger, well educated and single; engaged in a wider variety of gambling activities; and to have high trait impulsivity. Micro event betting appears to appeal almost exclusively to bettors with gambling problems, so a ban would represent a highly targeted intervention to reduce gambling-related harm.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-018-9810-yDOI Listing
March 2019

Are direct messages (texts and emails) from wagering operators associated with betting intention and behavior? An ecological momentary assessment study.

J Behav Addict 2018 Dec 24;7(4):1079-1090. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

3 Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQUniversity , Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background And Aims: Direct messaging via text messages (texts) and emails is a widely used method to advertise sports and race-betting offers. However, they have attracted little research, as this advertising is not in the public domain. This study aimed to determine whether betting expenditure is related to receiving direct wagering messages, and the specific inducements they promote. We hypothesized that receiving direct messages, particularly texts, would be related to betting expenditure within 24 hr.

Methods: In this ecological momentary assessment study, regular sports (n = 98) and race (n = 104) bettors from Australia completed short daily surveys over 1 week that captured exposure to direct messages, betting behavior in the previous 24 hr, and betting intention for the next 24 hr. Respondents were asked to forward any texts and emails received to the researchers, who coded them for inducement content.

Results: Longitudinal analyses found that receiving emails was positively associated with betting intention, whereas texts were positively associated with higher likelihood of betting and betting expenditure. These effects persisted when controlling for problem gambling status and signature betting events. Refund stake and bonus odds inducements were positively associated with likelihood of race betting (although not in multivariate models), as were bonus winnings inducements for sports betting.

Discussion And Conclusions: Direct messages, particularly texts, are powerful marketing tools, encouraging a nearly immediate, and arguably impulsive, betting response, which may increase gambling-related problems. Overseeing this private form of advertising presents challenges to regulators, and to public health efforts that aim to reduce gambling harm.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.99DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376386PMC
December 2018

Types of change strategies for limiting or reducing gambling behaviors and their perceived helpfulness: A factor analysis.

Psychol Addict Behav 2018 Sep;32(6):679-688

Turning Point, Eastern Health.

Gamblers engage with a broad range of resources and strategies to limit or reduce their gambling. However, there is limited research examining the uptake and helpfulness of the full range of strategies gamblers employ. The aim of this study was to compile a comprehensive inventory of change strategies and then group these using principal component analysis based on perceived helpfulness. We also aimed to determine whether there are differences in the helpfulness of strategies by demographic, gambling severity, and readiness indicators. The Change Strategies Questionnaire-Version 1 contained 99 strategies, and 489 gamblers (including 333 problem gamblers) identified the most frequently endorsed strategy as remind yourself of negative consequences of gambling (92%) and think about how money could be better spent (92%). Principal components analysis identified 15 strategy groupings: cognitive, well-being, consumption control, behavioral substitution, financial management, urge management, self-monitoring, information seeking, spiritual, avoidance, social support, exclusion, planning, feedback, and limit finances. There were differences in the helpfulness of strategies by age and gambling severity. Few strategies were correlated with confidence to manage an urge to gamble. Overall, change strategies were viewed as moderately helpful. The top five strategies were all used by at least 90% of gamblers, and these strategies were all cognitive in nature. This study provides important information for the development of interventions targeting gambling behavior. Furthermore, it suggests that interventions for problem gambling should target cognitive, feedback, planning, and urge management strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000393DOI Listing
September 2018

Where's the Bonus in Bonus Bets? Assessing Sports Bettors' Comprehension of their True Cost.

J Gambl Stud 2019 Jun;35(2):587-599

Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, CQUniversity, University Drive, Bundaberg, QLD, 4670, Australia.

Wagering inducements with bonus bets are prominently marketed and often have play-through conditions requiring further expenditure. However, these conditions are not usually presented in the inducement advertisement and may be difficult to locate. The play-through conditions themselves are complex and may lead bettors to miscalculate the inducement's true cost. Therefore, in relation to inducements with bonus bets, this study aimed to assess: (1) whether their perceived attractiveness varies with the amount and type of information provided about their play-through conditions; (2) bettors' comprehension of their true cost; and (3) whether bettors' comprehension of their true cost varies with problem gambling severity. A sample of 299 Australian sports bettors completed an online survey and rated the attractiveness of three variations of an inducement. Promo1 simply noted that "terms and conditions apply"; promo2 included the terms and conditions immediately below the offer; and promo3 revealed the true cost of the offer. Respondents were asked to calculate the true cost before this was revealed. The study found that detailing key terms and conditions for an offer directly below the advertisement impacts negatively on its perceived attractiveness. Moreover, nearly three in five bettors underestimated the additional amount they would need to bet to access any winnings from the bonus bet. No significant differences were found amongst gambler risk groups. The results imply that current approaches to marketing these inducements are likely to lead consumers to overestimate their attractiveness and underestimate their cost. To enhance responsible gambling practice, these promotional offers should be presented in ways that enable informed decision-making.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-018-9800-0DOI Listing
June 2019

Gambling Risk Groups are Not All the Same: Risk Factors Amongst Sports Bettors.

J Gambl Stud 2019 Mar;35(1):225-246

Department of Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Marketing, La Trobe Business School, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia.

Sports betting is increasing worldwide, with an associated increase in sports betting-related problems. Previous studies have examined risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors and have identified demographic, behavioural, marketing, normative and impulsiveness factors. These studies have generally compared those in problem gambling, or a combination of moderate risk and problem gambling, groups to non-problem gamblers, often due to statistical power issues. However, recent evidence suggests that, at a population level, the bulk of gambling-related harm stems from low risk and moderate risk gamblers, rather than problem gamblers. Thus it is essential to understand the risk factors for each level of gambling-related problems (low risk, moderate risk, problem) separately. The present study used a large sample (N = 1813) to compare each gambling risk group to non-problem gamblers, first using bivariate and then multivariate statistical techniques. A range of demographic, behavioural, marketing, normative and impulsiveness variables were included as possible risk factors. The results indicated that some variables, such as gambling expenditure, number of accounts with different operators, number of different types of promotions used and impulsiveness were significantly higher for all risk groups, while others such as some normative factors, age, gender and particular sports betting variables only applied to those with the highest level of gambling-related problems. The results generally supported findings from previous literature for problem gamblers, and extended these findings to low risk and moderate risk groups. In the future, where statistical power allows, risk factors should be assessed separately for all levels of gambling problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-018-9765-zDOI Listing
March 2019

Does the uptake of wagering inducements predict impulse betting on sport?

J Behav Addict 2018 Mar 6;7(1):146-157. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

4 La Trobe Business School, La Trobe University , Bundoora, VIC, Australia.

Background and aims Marketing inducements for addictive products, such as wagering, can prompt impulse purchasing by triggering consumption reminders, urges, and cravings. Wagering inducements incentivize betting by providing bonus bets, money-back guarantees, deposits into betting accounts, and discounts. Their promotion during sporting events, push marketing efforts directed at consumers, and ease of uptake at the point-of-sale, may trigger betting on impulse. This study examined whether the uptake of wagering inducements predicted impulse betting on sport. Methods Australian sports bettors (N = 1,813) completed an online survey measuring their proportion of planned bets, impulse bets before match commencement, and impulse bets during play; frequency of using wagering inducements; and several psychological, behavioral, and demographic variables. Results More frequent users of wagering inducements had a greater tendency to place impulse in-play bets, which were also predicted by problem gambling, higher buying impulsiveness, higher frequency of watching sports, younger age, and higher educational status. Sports bettors with a greater tendency to place impulse bets before match commencement also tended to have higher buying impulsiveness and to be younger, but they used inducements less frequently, and tended to be female, less-educated and non-problem, moderate risk, or problem gamblers. Discussion and conclusions Uptake of wagering inducements appeared to be particularly effective in stimulating impulse in-play betting among problem gamblers and frequent sports viewers. These results suggest that a more cautious approach to the regulation of both in-play bets and wagering inducements may be required to better protect young adults from gambling problems and harm.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6035013PMC
March 2018

Understanding persuasive attributes of sports betting advertisements: A conjoint analysis of selected elements.

J Behav Addict 2017 Dec 13;6(4):658-668. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

3 School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University , Coolangatta, QLD, Australia.

Background and aims Despite recent growth in sports betting advertising, minimal research has examined the influence of different advertising message attributes on betting attitudes and behaviors. This study aimed to identify which attributes of sports betting advertisements most engage attention, interest, desire and likelihood of betting among non-problem, low-risk, moderate-risk, and problem gamblers. Methods A novel approach utilizing an experimental design incorporating conjoint analysis examined the effects of: three message formats (commentary, on-screen display, and studio crossover); four appeals (neutral, jovial, ease of placing the bet, and sense of urgency); three types of presenters (match presenter, sports betting operator, and attractive non-expert female presenter); and four bet types (traditional, exotic key event, risk-free, and micro-bet). A professional film company using paid actors produced 20 mock television advertisements simulating typical gambling messages based on the conjoint approach. These were embedded into an online survey of 611 Australian adults. Results The most attention-grabbing attributes were type of presenter and type of bet. The attractive non-expert female presenter gained more attention from all gambler groups than other presenters. The type of bet was most persuasive in converting attention into likely betting among all gambler groups, with the risk-free bet being much more persuasive than other bet types. Problem gamblers were distinct by their greater attraction to in-play micro-bets. Discussion and conclusion Given the potential for incentivized bets offering financial inducements and for in-play micro-bets to undermine harm minimization and consumer protection, regulators and wagering operators should reconsider whether these bet types are consistent with their responsible gambling objectives.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.6.2017.062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6034954PMC
December 2017

On the Spur of the Moment: Intrinsic Predictors of Impulse Sports Betting.

J Gambl Stud 2018 Jun;34(2):413-428

School of Health, Medical and Applied Science, CQUniversity, University Drive, Bundaberg, QLD, 4670, Australia.

Betting on impulse, without thoughtful consideration, research or informed decision-making, may cause financial and other harms and lead to the development of gambling problems. Impulse betting undermines responsible consumption of gambling because it reflects self-regulatory failure, impaired control, unreflective decision-making and betting more than planned. In this paper we define impulse gambling and report on a study that aimed to understand more about the intrinsic characteristics of sports bettors who have a greater tendency to bet on impulse. Specifically, the study aimed to identify behavioural, psychological and socio-demographic predictors of impulse sports betting. A sample of 1816 Australian sports bettors completed an online survey that measured the proportion of their bets placed on impulse both before and during sporting events, as well as bets that were researched and planned in advance. Impulse betting was common, accounting for nearly one-half of all past-year sports bets by respondents. Over three-quarters of respondents had placed one or more impulse bets in the last year and one in seven respondents had made all of their sports bets on impulse. More impulsive sports bettors were characterised as having higher trait impulsiveness, higher problem gambling severity, more frequent sports betting and a shorter history of sports betting. They favoured betting on in-match contingencies instead of overall match outcomes. While health promotion strategies are needed to discourage impulse betting, research into contextual factors that arouse urges to bet would also provide direction for harm minimisation measures that help consumers to resist impulsive betting decisions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-017-9719-xDOI Listing
June 2018

Psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling.

J Behav Addict 2017 Sep 29;6(3):416-424. Epub 2017 Aug 29.

2 School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University , Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background and aims Few studies have examined the stigma of problem gambling and little is known about those who internalize this prejudice as damaging self-stigma. This paper aimed to identify psychological factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and coping mechanisms associated with the self-stigma of problem gambling. Methods An online survey was conducted on 177 Australian adults with a current gambling problem to measure self-stigma, self-esteem, social anxiety, self-consciousness, psychological distress, symptom severity, most problematic gambling form, stigma coping mechanisms, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results All variables significantly correlated with self-stigma were considered for inclusion in a regression model. A multivariate linear regression indicated that higher levels of self-stigma were associated with: being female, being older, lower self-esteem, higher problem gambling severity score, and greater use of secrecy (standardized coefficients: 0.16, 0.14, -0.33, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively). Strongest predictors in the model were self-esteem, followed by symptom severity score. Together, predictors in the model accounted for 38.9% of the variance in self-stigma. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that the self-stigma of problem gambling may be driven by similar mechanisms as the self-stigma of other mental health disorders, and impact similarly on self-esteem and coping. Thus, self-stigma reduction initiatives used for other mental health conditions may be effective for problem gambling. In contrast, however, the self-stigma of problem gambling increased with female gender and older age, which are associated with gaming machine problems. This group should, therefore, be a target population for efforts to reduce or better cope with the self-stigma of problem gambling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.6.2017.056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5700730PMC
September 2017

Risk Factors for Gambling Problems on Online Electronic Gaming Machines, Race Betting and Sports Betting.

Front Psychol 2017 15;8:779. Epub 2017 May 15.

Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, BundabergQLD, Australia.

Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems. However, most online gamblers also gamble on land-based forms, which may be the source of problems for some. Studies therefore need to identify the problematic mode of gambling (online or offline) to identify those with an online gambling problem. Identifying most problematic form of online gambling (e.g., EGMs, race betting, sports betting) would also enable a more accurate examination of gambling problems attributable to a specific online gambling form. This study pursued this approach, aiming to: (1) determine demographic, behavioral and psychological risk factors for gambling problems on online EGMs, online sports betting and online race betting; (2) compare the characteristics of problematic online gamblers on each of these online forms. An online survey of 4,594 Australian gamblers measured gambling behavior, most problematic mode and form of gambling, gambling attitudes, psychological distress, substance use, help-seeking, demographics and problem gambling status. Problem/moderate risk gamblers nominating an online mode of gambling as their most problematic, and identifying EGMs ( = 98), race betting ( = 291) or sports betting ( = 181) as their most problematic gambling form, were compared to non-problem/low risk gamblers who had gambled online on these forms in the previous 12 months ( = 64, 1145 and 1213 respectively), using bivariate analyses and then logistic regressions. Problem/moderate risk gamblers on each of these online forms were then compared. Risk factors for online EGM gambling were: more frequent play on online EGMs, substance use when gambling, and higher psychological distress. Risk factors for online sports betting were being male, younger, lower income, born outside of Australia, speaking a language other than English, more frequent sports betting, higher psychological distress, and more negative attitudes toward gambling. Risk factors for online race betting comprised being male, younger, speaking a language other than English, more frequent race betting, engaging in more gambling forms, self-reporting as semi-professional/professional gambler, illicit drug use whilst gambling, and more negative attitude toward gambling. These findings can inform improved interventions tailored to the specific characteristics of high risk gamblers on each of these online activities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5430067PMC
May 2017

How Anticipated and Experienced Stigma Can Contribute to Self-Stigma: The Case of Problem Gambling.

Front Psychol 2017 21;8:235. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Experimental Gambling Research Laboratory, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University Bundaberg, QLD, Australia.

The degree to which anticipated and experienced public stigma contribute to self-stigma remains open to debate, and little research has been conducted into the self-stigma of problem gambling. This study aimed to examine which aspects of anticipated and experienced stigma (if any) predict the anticipated level of public stigma associated with problem gambling and the degree of self-stigma felt by people experiencing problem gambling. An online survey of 177 Australians experiencing problem gambling examined whether aspects of the public characterization of problem gambling, anticipated reactions to problem gamblers, and experiences of devaluation and discrimination predicted anticipated level of public stigma and self-stigma. The study found that self-stigma increases with expectations that the public applies a range of negative stereotypes to people with gambling problems, holds demeaning and discriminatory attitudes toward them, and considers them to lead highly disrupted lives. These variables directly predicted anticipated level of public stigma and indirectly predicted self-stigma. These findings lend weight to conceptualizations of self-stigma as an internalization of actual or anticipated public stigma. They also highlight the need for stigma reduction efforts, particularly those that lower negative stereotyping and prejudicial attitudes, to improve currently low rates of help-seeking amongst people with gambling problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5318456PMC
February 2017