Publications by authors named "Nergish Desai"

5 Publications

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Antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections: A re-visit after five years and experience over two sites.

Post Reprod Health 2020 Jun 6;26(2):91-100. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Urogynaecology, Birmingham Women's and Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.

Objective: The aim of this study was to repeat a previous audit, performed from 2009 to 2013, for the cohort of 2018 to determine how the resistance rates in urinary pathogens in women over 18 years of age have changed. A secondary aim of the study was to use resistance data from a different UK hospital in the same year to compare differences in resistance rates across different geographic locations.

Study Design: This was a retrospective study of all positive urine cultures grown from female patients attending two different hospitals in the year 2018. Resistance patterns were analysed.

Results: The resistance rate to co-amoxiclav continues to increase with amoxicillin retaining high resistance patterns. There are some significant differences in resistance patterns between the different locations.

Conclusion: Antimicrobial resistance is a significant problem in the UK particularly in antibiotics used to treat UTI. These patterns can vary across different geographical locations and over time; therefore, up-to-date knowledge of local anti-biotic resistance is essential when making an appropriate prescription choice.
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June 2020

Candida auris outbreak: Mortality, interventions and cost of sustaining control.

J Infect 2019 12 23;79(6):601-611. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

UK National Mycology Reference Laboratory, Public Health England South West Laboratory, Science Quarter, Southmead Hospital, BS10 5NB, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: Candida auris has recently emerged as a global cause of multidrug resistant fungal outbreaks. An outbreak occurred at a tertiary care center in London in 2016. Transmission characteristics, interventions, patient outcomes and cost of resources are described.

Methods: Outbreak interventions included patient isolation, contact screening, single-use equipment, environmental screening and decontamination, staff education, and enhanced surveillance. Risk factors for infection were recorded. Survival probabilities of patients with C. auris and other Candida bloodstream infections (BSI) were calculated. Antifungal susceptibility and epidemiological typing were performed. Actual and opportunity costs of interventions were determined.

Results: 34 patients acquired the organism including 8 with BSI. Clinical infection was significantly associated with prolonged hospital stay, haemodialysis and antifungal therapy. Variable susceptibility to amphotericin and the triazoles was seen and isolates clustered with the South Asian strains. No significant difference was detected in the survival probabilities of C. auris BSI compared to other candidemias. Outbreak control cost in excess of £1 million and £58,000/month during the subsequent year.

Conclusion: C. auris outbreaks can be controlled by a concerted infection control strategy but can be expensive. Transmission maybe prolonged due to patient movements and unidentified transmission mechanisms.
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December 2019

Frequent Undetected Ward-Based Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Transmission Linked to Patient Sharing Between Hospitals.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 03;66(6):840-848

Centre for Clinical Infection and Diagnostics Research, Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London and Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust.

Background: Recent evidence suggests that hospital transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is uncommon in UK centers that have implemented sustained infection control programs. We investigated whether a healthcare-network analysis could shed light on transmission paths currently sustaining MRSA levels in UK hospitals.

Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was performed in 2 National Health Service hospital groups and a general district hospital in Southeast London. All MRSA patients identified at inpatient, outpatient, and community settings between 1 November 2011 and 29 February 2012 were included. We identified genetically defined MRSA transmission clusters in individual hospitals and across the healthcare network, and examined genetic differentiation of sequence type (ST) 22 MRSA isolates within and between hospitals and inpatient or outpatient and community settings, as informed by average and median pairwise single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and SNP-based proportions of nearly identical isolates.

Results: Two hundred forty-eight of 610 (40.7%) MRSA patients were linked in 90 transmission clusters, of which 27 spanned multiple hospitals. Analysis of a large 32 patient ST22-MRSA cluster showed that 26 of 32 patients (81.3%) had multiple contacts with one another during ward stays at any hospital. No residential, outpatient, or significant community healthcare contacts were identified. Genetic differentiation between ST22 MRSA inpatient isolates from different hospitals was less than between inpatient isolates from the same hospitals (P ≤ .01).

Conclusions: There is evidence of frequent ward-based transmission of MRSA brought about by frequent patient admissions to multiple hospitals. Limiting in-ward transmission requires sharing of MRSA status data between hospitals.
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March 2018

Evidence for Community Transmission of Community-Associated but Not Health-Care-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Linked to Social and Material Deprivation: Spatial Analysis of Cross-sectional Data.

PLoS Med 2016 Jan 26;13(1):e1001944. Epub 2016 Jan 26.

School of Mathematical Sciences, University Park, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Background: Identifying and tackling the social determinants of infectious diseases has become a public health priority following the recognition that individuals with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by infectious diseases. In many parts of the world, epidemiologically and genotypically defined community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have emerged to become frequent causes of hospital infection. The aim of this study was to use spatial models with adjustment for area-level hospital attendance to determine the transmission niche of genotypically defined CA- and health-care-associated (HA)-MRSA strains across a diverse region of South East London and to explore a potential link between MRSA carriage and markers of social and material deprivation.

Methods And Findings: This study involved spatial analysis of cross-sectional data linked with all MRSA isolates identified by three National Health Service (NHS) microbiology laboratories between 1 November 2011 and 29 February 2012. The cohort of hospital-based NHS microbiology diagnostic services serves 867,254 usual residents in the Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham boroughs in South East London, United Kingdom (UK). Isolates were classified as HA- or CA-MRSA based on whole genome sequencing. All MRSA cases identified over 4 mo within the three-borough catchment area (n = 471) were mapped to small geographies and linked to area-level aggregated socioeconomic and demographic data. Disease mapping and ecological regression models were used to infer the most likely transmission niches for each MRSA genetic classification and to describe the spatial epidemiology of MRSA in relation to social determinants. Specifically, we aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic population traits that explain cross-area extra variation in HA- and CA-MRSA relative risks following adjustment for hospital attendance data. We explored the potential for associations with the English Indices of Deprivation 2010 (including the Index of Multiple Deprivation and several deprivation domains and subdomains) and the 2011 England and Wales census demographic and socioeconomic indicators (including numbers of households by deprivation dimension) and indicators of population health. Both CA-and HA-MRSA were associated with household deprivation (CA-MRSA relative risk [RR]: 1.72 [1.03-2.94]; HA-MRSA RR: 1.57 [1.06-2.33]), which was correlated with hospital attendance (Pearson correlation coefficient [PCC] = 0.76). HA-MRSA was also associated with poor health (RR: 1.10 [1.01-1.19]) and residence in communal care homes (RR: 1.24 [1.12-1.37]), whereas CA-MRSA was linked with household overcrowding (RR: 1.58 [1.04-2.41]) and wider barriers, which represent a combined score for household overcrowding, low income, and homelessness (RR: 1.76 [1.16-2.70]). CA-MRSA was also associated with recent immigration to the UK (RR: 1.77 [1.19-2.66]). For the area-level variation in RR for CA-MRSA, 28.67% was attributable to the spatial arrangement of target geographies, compared with only 0.09% for HA-MRSA. An advantage to our study is that it provided a representative sample of usual residents receiving care in the catchment areas. A limitation is that relationships apparent in aggregated data analyses cannot be assumed to operate at the individual level.

Conclusions: There was no evidence of community transmission of HA-MRSA strains, implying that HA-MRSA cases identified in the community originate from the hospital reservoir and are maintained by frequent attendance at health care facilities. In contrast, there was a high risk of CA-MRSA in deprived areas linked with overcrowding, homelessness, low income, and recent immigration to the UK, which was not explainable by health care exposure. Furthermore, areas adjacent to these deprived areas were themselves at greater risk of CA-MRSA, indicating community transmission of CA-MRSA. This ongoing community transmission could lead to CA-MRSA becoming the dominant strain types carried by patients admitted to hospital, particularly if successful hospital-based MRSA infection control programmes are maintained. These results suggest that community infection control programmes targeting transmission of CA-MRSA will be required to control MRSA in both the community and hospital. These epidemiological changes will also have implications for effectiveness of risk-factor-based hospital admission MRSA screening programmes.
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January 2016

Clonal variation in high- and low-level phenotypic and genotypic mupirocin resistance of MRSA isolates in south-east London.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2015 Dec 27;70(12):3191-9. Epub 2015 Aug 27.

Centre for Clinical Infection and Diagnostics Research, Department of Infectious Diseases, King's College London and Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

Objectives: Both low-level mupirocin resistance (LMR) and high-level mupirocin resistance (HMR) have been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of LMR and HMR in MRSA isolates at five hospitals that have used mupirocin for targeted decolonization as part of successful institutional control programmes.

Methods: All MRSA identified in three microbiology laboratories serving five central and south-east London hospitals and surrounding communities between November 2011 and February 2012 were included. HMR and LMR were determined by disc diffusion testing. WGS was used to derive multilocus sequence types (MLSTs) and the presence of HMR and LMR resistance determinants.

Results: Prevalence of either HMR or LMR amongst first healthcare episode isolates from 795 identified patients was 9.69% (95% CI 7.72-11.96); LMR was 6.29% (95% CI 4.70-8.21) and HMR was 3.40% (95% CI 2.25-4.90). Mupirocin resistance was not significantly different in isolates identified from inpatients at each microbiology laboratory, but was more common in genotypically defined 'hospital' rather than 'community' isolates (OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.36-9.30, P = 0.002). LMR was associated with inpatient stay, previous history of MRSA and age ≥65 years; HMR was associated with age ≥65 years and residential postcode outside London. LMR and HMR varied by clone, with both being low in the dominant UK MRSA clone ST22 compared with ST8, ST36 and ST239/241 for LMR and with ST8 and ST36 for HMR. V588F mutation and mupA carriage had high specificity (>97%) and area under the curve (>83%) to discriminate phenotypic mupirocin resistance, but uncertainty around the sensitivity point estimate was large (95% CI 52.50%-94.44%). Mutations in or near the mupA gene were found in eight isolates that carried mupA but were not HMR.

Conclusions: Mupirocin resistance was identified in <10% of patients and varied significantly by clone, implying that changes in clonal epidemiology may have an important role in determining the prevalence of resistance in conjunction with selection due to mupirocin use.
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December 2015