Publications by authors named "Neil Coombes"

10 Publications

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Genetic and physical mapping of loci for resistance to blackleg disease in canola (Brassica napus L.).

Sci Rep 2020 03 10;10(1):4416. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

NSW Department of Primary Industries, Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2650, Australia.

Sustainable canola production is essential to meet growing human demands for vegetable oil, biodiesel, and meal for stock feed markets. Blackleg, caused by the fungal pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans is a devastating disease that can lead to significant yield loss in many canola production regions worldwide. Breakdown of race-specific resistance to L. maculans in commercial cultivars poses a constant threat to the canola industry. To identify new alleles, especially for quantitative resistance (QR), we analyzed 177 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from an RP04/Ag-Outback cross. DH lines were evaluated for QR under field conditions in three experiments conducted at Wagga Wagga (2013, 2014) and Lake Green (2015), and under shade house conditions using the 'ascospore shower' test. DH lines were also characterized for qualitative R gene-mediated resistance via cotyledon tests with two differential single spore isolates, IBCN17 and IBCN76, under glasshouse conditions. Based on 18,851 DArTseq markers, a linkage map representing 2,019 unique marker bins was constructed and then utilized for QTL detection. Marker regression analysis identified 22 significant marker associations for resistance, allowing identification of two race-specific resistance R genes, Rlm3 and Rlm4, and 21 marker associations for QR loci. At least three SNP associations for QR were repeatedly detected on chromosomes A03, A07 and C04 across phenotyping environments. Physical mapping of markers linked with these consistent QR loci on the B. napus genome assembly revealed their localization in close proximity of the candidate genes of B. napus BnaA03g26760D (A03), BnaA07g20240D (A07) and BnaC04g02040D (C04). Annotation of these candidate genes revealed their association with protein kinase and jumonji proteins implicated in defense resistance. Both Rlm3 and Rlm4 genes identified in this DH population did not show any association with resistance loci detected under either field and/or shade house conditions (ascospore shower) suggesting that both genes are ineffective in conferring resistance to L. maculans in Australian field conditions. Taken together, our study identified sequence-based molecular markers for dissecting R and QR loci to L. maculans in a canola DH population from the RP04/Ag-Outback cross.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61211-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064481PMC
March 2020

Molecular Diversity Analysis and Genetic Mapping of Pod Shatter Resistance Loci in L.

Front Plant Sci 2017 30;8:1765. Epub 2017 Nov 30.

Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (an alliance between NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute, Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia.

Seed lost due to easy pod dehiscence at maturity (pod shatter) is a major problem in several members of Brassicaceae family. We investigated the level of pod shatter resistance in Ethiopian mustard () and identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for targeted introgression of this trait in Ethiopian mustard and its close relatives of the genus . A set of 83 accessions of , collected from the Australian Grains Genebank, was evaluated for pod shatter resistance based on pod rupture energy (RE). In comparison to (RE = 2.16 mJ), accessions had higher RE values (2.53 to 20.82 mJ). A genetic linkage map of an F population from two contrasting selections, BC73526 (shatter resistant with high RE) and BC73524 (shatter prone with low RE) comprising 300 individuals, was constructed using a set of 6,464 high quality DArTseq markers and subsequently used for QTL analysis. Genetic analysis of the F and F derived lines revealed five statistically significant QTL (LOD ≥ 3) that are linked with pod shatter resistance on chromosomes B1, B3, B8, and C5. Herein, we report for the first time, identification of genetic loci associated with pod shatter resistance in . These characterized accessions would be useful in breeding programs for introgression of pod shatter resistance alleles in to elite breeding lines. Molecular markers would assist marker-assisted selection for tracing the introgression of resistant alleles. Our results suggest that the value of the germplasm collections can be harnessed through genetic and genomics tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5716317PMC
November 2017

Genome-wide Association Study Identifies New Loci for Resistance to in Canola.

Front Plant Sci 2016 24;7:1513. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Marcroft Grains Pathology, Horsham VIC, Australia.

Key message "We identified both quantitative and quantitative resistance loci to , a fungal pathogen, causing blackleg disease in canola. Several genome-wide significant associations were detected at known and new loci for blackleg resistance. We further validated statistically significant associations in four genetic mapping populations, demonstrating that GWAS marker loci are indeed associated with resistance to One of the novel loci identified for the first time, , conveys adult plant resistance in canola." Blackleg, caused by , is a significant disease which affects the sustainable production of canola (). This study reports a genome-wide association study based on 18,804 polymorphic SNPs to identify loci associated with qualitative and quantitative resistance to . Genomic regions delimited with 694 significant SNP markers, that are associated with resistance evaluated using 12 single spore isolates and pathotypes from four canola stubble were identified. Several significant associations were detected at known disease resistance loci including in the vicinity of recently cloned / genes, and at new loci on chromosomes A01/C01, A02/C02, A03/C03, A05/C05, A06, A08, and A09. In addition, we validated statistically significant associations on A01, A07, and A10 in four genetic mapping populations, demonstrating that GWAS marker loci are indeed associated with resistance to . One of the novel loci identified for the first time, , conveys adult plant resistance and mapped within 13.2 kb from gene of TIR-NBS class. We showed that resistance loci are located in the vicinity of genes of and on the sequenced genome of cv. Darmor-. Significantly associated SNP markers provide a valuable tool to enrich germplasm for favorable alleles in order to improve the level of resistance to in canola.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5075532PMC
October 2016

Genome-wide delineation of natural variation for pod shatter resistance in Brassica napus.

PLoS One 2014 9;9(7):e101673. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (an alliance between NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute, Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia.

Resistance to pod shattering (shatter resistance) is a target trait for global rapeseed (canola, Brassica napus L.), improvement programs to minimise grain loss in the mature standing crop, and during windrowing and mechanical harvest. We describe the genetic basis of natural variation for shatter resistance in B. napus and show that several quantitative trait loci (QTL) control this trait. To identify loci underlying shatter resistance, we used a novel genotyping-by-sequencing approach DArT-Seq. QTL analysis detected a total of 12 significant QTL on chromosomes A03, A07, A09, C03, C04, C06, and C08; which jointly account for approximately 57% of the genotypic variation in shatter resistance. Through Genome-Wide Association Studies, we show that a large number of loci, including those that are involved in shattering in Arabidopsis, account for variation in shatter resistance in diverse B. napus germplasm. Our results indicate that genetic diversity for shatter resistance genes in B. napus is limited; many of the genes that might control this trait were not included during the natural creation of this species, or were not retained during the domestication and selection process. We speculate that valuable diversity for this trait was lost during the natural creation of B. napus. To improve shatter resistance, breeders will need to target the introduction of useful alleles especially from genotypes of other related species of Brassica, such as those that we have identified.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0101673PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4090071PMC
March 2015

Genetic and physical mapping of flowering time loci in canola (Brassica napus L.).

Theor Appl Genet 2013 Jan 7;126(1):119-32. Epub 2012 Sep 7.

EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (an alliance between NSWDPI and Charles Sturt University), Wagga Wagga, Australia.

We identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying variation for flowering time in a doubled haploid (DH) population of vernalisation-responsive canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars Skipton and Ag-Spectrum and aligned them with physical map positions of predicted flowering genes from the Brassica rapa genome. Significant genetic variation in flowering time and response to vernalisation were observed among the DH lines from Skipton/Ag-Spectrum. A molecular linkage map was generated comprising 674 simple sequence repeat, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, sequence characterised amplified region, Diversity Array Technology, and candidate gene based markers loci. QTL analysis indicated that flowering time is a complex trait and is controlled by at least 20 loci, localised on ten different chromosomes. These loci each accounted for between 2.4 and 28.6% of the total genotypic variation for first flowering and response to vernalisation. However, identification of consistent QTL was found to be dependant upon growing environments. We compared the locations of QTL with the physical positions of predicted flowering time genes located on the sequenced genome of B. rapa. Some QTL associated with flowering time on A02, A03, A07, and C06 may represent homologues of known flowering time genes in Arabidopsis; VERNALISATION INSENSITIVE 3, APETALA1, CAULIFLOWER, FLOWERING LOCUS C, FLOWERING LOCUS T, CURLY LEAF, SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE, GA3 OXIDASE, and LEAFY. Identification of the chromosomal location and effect of the genes influencing flowering time may hasten the development of canola varieties having an optimal time for flowering in target environments such as for low rainfall areas, via marker-assisted selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-012-1966-8DOI Listing
January 2013

Molecular mapping of qualitative and quantitative loci for resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans causing blackleg disease in canola (Brassica napus L.).

Theor Appl Genet 2012 Jul 28;125(2):405-18. Epub 2012 Mar 28.

EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute, PMB, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia.

Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is one of the most important diseases of oilseed and vegetable crucifiers worldwide. The present study describes (1) the construction of a genetic linkage map, comprising 255 markers, based upon simple sequence repeats (SSR), sequence-related amplified polymorphism, sequence tagged sites, and EST-SSRs and (2) the localization of qualitative (race-specific) and quantitative (race non-specific) trait loci controlling blackleg resistance in a doubled-haploid population derived from the Australian canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars Skipton and Ag-Spectrum using the whole-genome average interval mapping approach. Marker regression analyses revealed that at least 14 genomic regions with LOD ≥ 2.0 were associated with qualitative and quantitative blackleg resistance, explaining 4.6-88.9 % of genotypic variation. A major qualitative locus, designated RlmSkipton (Rlm4), was mapped on chromosome A7, within 0.8 cM of the SSR marker Xbrms075. Alignment of the molecular markers underlying this QTL region with the genome sequence data of B. rapa L. suggests that RlmSkipton is located approximately 80 kb from the Xbrms075 locus. Molecular marker-RlmSkipton linkage was further validated in an F(2) population from Skipton/Ag-Spectrum. Our results show that SSR markers linked to consistent genomic regions are suitable for enrichment of favourable alleles for blackleg resistance in canola breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-012-1842-6DOI Listing
July 2012

Genome-wide association analyses of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm identifies multiple loci for aluminium resistance.

Genome 2010 Nov;53(11):957-66

EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia.

Aluminium (Al3+) toxicity restricts productivity and profitability of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops grown on acid soils worldwide. Continued gains will be obtained by identifying superior alleles and novel Al3+ resistance loci that can be incorporated into breeding programs. We used association mapping to identify genomic regions associated with Al3+ resistance using 1055 accessions of common wheat from different geographic regions of the world and 178 polymorphic diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. Bayesian analyses based on genetic distance matrices classified these accessions into 12 subgroups. Genome-wide association analyses detected markers that were significantly associated with Al3+ resistance on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3A, 3B, 4A, 4B, 4D, 5B, 6A, 6B, 7A, and 7B. Some of these genomic regions correspond to previously identified loci for Al3+ resistance, whereas others appear to be novel. Among the markers targeting TaALMT1 (the major Al3+-resistance gene located on chromosome 4D), those that detected alleles in the promoter explained most of the phenotypic variance for Al3+ resistance, which is consistent with this region controlling the level of TaALMT1 expression. These results demonstrate that genome-wide association mapping cannot only confirm known Al3+-resistance loci, such as those on chromosomes 4D and 4B, but they also highlight the utility of this technique in identifying novel resistance loci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/G10-058DOI Listing
November 2010

Sponge and dough bread making: genetic and phenotypic relationships with wheat quality traits.

Theor Appl Genet 2010 Sep 22;121(5):815-28. Epub 2010 May 22.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Food Futures Flagship, Canberra, Australia.

The genetic and phenotypic relationships among wheat quality predictors and sponge and dough bread making were evaluated in a population derived from a cross between an Australian cultivar 'Chara' and a Canadian cultivar 'Glenlea'. The genetic correlation across sites for sponge and dough loaf volume was high; however, phenotypic correlations across sites for loaf volume were relatively low compared with rheological tests. The large difference between sites was most likely due to temperature differences during grain development reflected in a decrease in the percentage of unextractable polymeric protein and mixing time. Predictive tests (mixograph, extensograph, protein content and composition, micro-zeleny and flour viscosity) showed inconsistent and generally poor correlations with end-product performance (baking volume and slice area) at both sites, with no single parameter being effective as a predictor of end-product performance. The difference in the relationships between genetic and phenotypic correlations highlights the requirement to develop alternative methods of selection for breeders and bakers in order to maximise both genetic gain and predictive assessment of grain quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-010-1352-3DOI Listing
September 2010

Influence of imidacloprid seed treatments on rice germination and early seedling growth.

Pest Manag Sci 2008 Mar;64(3):215-22

EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Yanco Agricultural Institute, Private Mail Bag, Yanco, NSW 2703, Australia.

Background: Seed treatments with the chloronicotinyl insecticide imidacloprid (Gaucho 600 FS) were evaluated to determine whether differences in concentration and exposure regime influence the germination and early growth of rice.

Results: Continuous exposure to imidacloprid (4 days at 2000 mg AI L(-1)) significantly (P < 0.001) reduced normal germination by an average of 18% across the 15 cultivars examined. Nine days after sowing, plants showed no adverse effects from continuous imidacloprid treatment during germination, with shoot lengths and root system dry weights equalling, or occasionally exceeding (P < 0.05), those of untreated plants. Short-term imidacloprid exposure (2 h at 2000 mg L(-1)) at initial seed wetting did not affect germination (P > 0.05), and short-term (1 h) exposure of 48 h pregerminated seed to imidacloprid (2000 mg L(-1)) similarly had no significant effect on early subsequent growth. Plants arising from 48 h pregerminated seed exposed to imidacloprid (1 h) at concentrations up to 4000 mg L(-1) immediately before sowing were not significantly different from control plants at either 9 or 25 days post-sowing.

Conclusion: Results show that imidacloprid will have no adverse effects on plant growth if applied to pregerminated rice shortly before sowing. Continuous exposure of seed during germination had more pronounced effects, and the initial response of different cultivars was highly variable. Cultivars with high levels of sensitivity (such as IR72) require further testing before continuous exposure to imidacloprid during germination can be recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.1499DOI Listing
March 2008

High-resolution mapping of the Alp locus and identification of a candidate gene HvMATE controlling aluminium tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

Theor Appl Genet 2007 Jul 6;115(2):265-76. Epub 2007 Jun 6.

Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research and School of Agricultural Science, University of Tasmania, P.O. Box 46, Kings Meadows, TAS, 6249, Australia.

Aluminium (Al) tolerance in barley is conditioned by the Alp locus on the long arm of chromosome 4H, which is associated with Al-activated release of citrate from roots. We developed a high-resolution map of the Alp locus using 132 doubled haploid (DH) lines from a cross between Dayton (Al-tolerant) and Zhepi 2 (Al-sensitive) and 2,070 F(2 )individuals from a cross between Dayton and Gairdner (Al-sensitive). The Al-activated efflux of citrate from the root apices of Al-tolerant Dayton was 10-fold greater than from the Al-sensitive parents Zhepi 2 and Gairdner. A suite of markers (ABG715, Bmag353, GBM1071, GWM165, HvMATE and HvGABP) exhibited complete linkage with the Alp locus in the DH population accounting 72% of the variation for Al tolerance evaluated as relative root elongation. These markers were used to map this genomic region in the Dayton/Gairdner population in more detail. Flanking markers HvGABP and ABG715 delineated the Alp locus to a 0.2 cM interval. Since the HvMATE marker was not polymorphic in the Dayton/Gairdner population we instead investigated the expression of the HvMATE gene. Relative expression of the HvMATE gene was 30-fold greater in Dayton than Gardiner. Furthermore, HvMATE expression in the F(2:3) families tested, including all the informative recombinant lines identified between HvGABP and ABG715 was significantly correlated with Al tolerance and Al-activated citrate efflux. These results identify HvMATE, a gene encoding a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion protein, as a candidate controlling Al tolerance in barley.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-007-0562-9DOI Listing
July 2007
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