Publications by authors named "Neil Cagney"

2 Publications

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Quantitative analysis of particulate matter release during orthodontic procedures: a pilot study.

Br Dent J 2020 Nov 12. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Orthodontics, Institute of Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 2AD, UK.

Introduction Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through aerosol has been suggested, particularly in the presence of highly concentrated aerosols in enclosed environments. It is accepted that aerosols are produced during a range of dental procedures, posing potential risks to both dental practitioners and patients. There has been little agreement concerning aerosol transmission associated with orthodontics and associated mitigation.Methods Orthodontic procedures were simulated in a closed side-surgery using a dental manikin on an acrylic model using composite-based adhesive. Adhesive removal representing debonding was undertaken using a 1:1 contra-angle handpiece (W&H Synea Vision WK-56 LT, Bürmoos, Austria) and fast handpiece with variation in air and water flow. The removal of acid etch was also simulated with the use of combined 3-in-1 air-water syringe. An optical particle sizer (OPS 3330, TSI Inc., Minnesota, USA) and a portable scanning mobility particle sizer (NanoScan SMPS Nanoparticle Sizer 3910, TSI Inc., Minnesota, USA) were both used to assess particulate matter ranging in dimension from 0.08 to 10 μm.Results Standard debonding procedure (involving air but no water) was associated with clear increase in the 'very small' and 'small' (0.26-0.9 μm) particles but only for a short period. Debonding procedures without supplementary air coolant appeared to produce similar levels of aerosol to standard debonding. Debonding in association with water tended to produce large increases in aerosol levels, producing particles of all sizes throughout the experiment. The use of water and a fast handpiece led to the most significant increase in particles. Combined use of the 3-in-1 air-water syringe did not result in any detectable increase in the aerosol levels.Conclusions Particulate matter was released during orthodontic debonding, although the concentration and volume was markedly less than that associated with the use of a fast handpiece. No increase in particulates was associated with prolonged use of a 3-in-1 air-water syringe. Particulate levels reduced to baseline levels over a short period (approximately five minutes). Further research within alternative, open environments and without air exchange systems is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41415-020-2280-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7658615PMC
November 2020

The efficacy of an extraoral scavenging device on reduction of splatter contamination during dental aerosol generating procedures: an exploratory study.

Br Dent J 2020 Sep 11. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Post-CCST Speciality Registrar in Orthodontics, Barts Health NHS Trust, The Royal London Dental Hospital, London, UK.

Introduction This study was conducted in light of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which brought UK dentistry to a standstill. The market has seen a recent influx of unproven extraoral scavengers (EOSs), which claim to reduce the risk of particulate spread.Aims To investigate the efficacy of a commercially available EOS device on contamination reduction during dental aerosol generating procedures (AGPs). The secondary aim was to investigate differences between open and closed dental operatories.Method Dental procedures were simulated on a dental manikin using citric acid (10%) added to the water lines with universal indicating paper (UIP) placed in strategic locations in the operatory, on the clinician and assistant. Chromatic change related to settling of splatter containing citric acid on the UIP was analysed to calculate percentage intensity of splatter contamination.Results EOSs resulted in 20% reduction in frequency and 75% reduction in mean intensity of contamination of operatory sites. There was a 33% and 76% reduction in mean intensity contamination for clinician and assistant, respectively. Use of rubber dam and four-handed dentistry resulted in further reduction.Discussion This exploratory study demonstrates contamination by splatter in a simulated dental setting. The concern in dentistry regarding aerosol requires further quantitative investigation of smaller particles.Conclusions The routine use of four-handed dentistry and rubber dam should continue where possible to maximise risk mitigation during AGPs. However, on the basis of our findings, the use of an EOS device can further mitigate the magnitude and concentration of splatter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41415-020-2112-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484927PMC
September 2020