Publications by authors named "Nehal Hassan"

2 Publications

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Preventing sepsis; how can artificial intelligence inform the clinical decision-making process? A systematic review.

Int J Med Inform 2021 Apr 10;150:104457. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

School of Pharmacy, Newcastle University, King George VI Building, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that is associated with increased mortality. Artificial intelligence tools can inform clinical decision making by flagging patients at risk of developing infection and subsequent sepsis. This systematic review aims to identify the optimal set of predictors used to train machine learning algorithms to predict the likelihood of an infection and subsequent sepsis.

Methods: This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO database (CRD42020158685). We conducted a systematic literature review across 3 large databases: Medline, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Embase. Quantitative primary research studies that focused on sepsis prediction associated with bacterial infection in adults in all care settings were eligible for inclusion.

Results: Seventeen articles met our inclusion criteria. We identified 194 predictors that were used to train machine learning algorithms, with 13 predictors used on average across all included studies. The most prevalent predictors included age, gender, smoking, alcohol intake, heart rate, blood pressure, lactate level, cardiovascular disease, endocrine disease, cancer, chronic kidney disease (eGFR<60 mL/min), white blood cell count, liver dysfunction, surgical approach (open or minimally invasive), and pre-operative haematocrit < 30 %. All included studies used artificial intelligence techniques, with average sensitivity 75.7 ± 17.88, and average specificity 63.08 ± 22.01.

Conclusion: The type of predictors influenced the predictive power and predictive timeframe of the developed machine learning algorithm. Predicting the likelihood of sepsis through artificial intelligence can help concentrate finite resources to those patients who are most at risk. Future studies should focus on developing more sensitive and specific algorithms.
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April 2021

Nebulized Versus IV Amikacin as Adjunctive Antibiotic for Hospital and Ventilator-Acquired Pneumonia Postcardiac Surgeries: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Crit Care Med 2018 01;46(1):45-52

Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: Nebulized antibiotics offer high efficacy due to significant local concentrations and safety with minimal blood levels. This study evaluates the efficacy and nephrotoxicity of nebulized versus IV amikacin in postcardiothoracic surgical patients with nosocomial pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant Gram- negative bacilli.

Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled study on surgical patients divided into two groups.

Setting: Postcardiac surgery ICU.

Interventions: The first gtroup was administered IV amikacin 20 mg/kg once daily. The second group was prescribed amikacin nebulizer 400 mg twice daily. Both groups were co-administered IV piperacillin/tazobactam empirically.

Patients: Recruited patients were diagnosed by either hospital-acquired pneumonia or ventilator-associated pneumonia where 56 (42.1%) patients were diagnosed with hospital-acquired pneumonia, 51 (38.34%) patients were diagnosed with early ventilator-associated pneumonia, and 26 (19.54%) patients with late ventilator-associated pneumonia.

Measurements And Main Results: Clinical cure in both groups assessed on day 7 of treatment was the primary outcome. Efficacy was additionally evaluated through assessing the length of hospital stay, ICU stay, days on amikacin, days on mechanical ventilator, mechanical ventilator-free days, days to reach clinical cure, and mortality rate. Lower nephrotoxicity in the nebulized group was observed through significant preservation of kidney function (p < 0.001). Although both groups were comparable regarding length of hospital stay, nebulizer group showed shorter ICU stay (p = 0.010), lower number of days to reach complete clinical cure (p = 0.001), fewer days on mechanical ventilator (p = 0.035), and fewer days on amikacin treatment (p = 0.022).

Conclusion: Nebulized amikacin showed better clinical cure rates, less ICU stay, and fewer days to reach complete recovery compared to IV amikacin for surgical patients with nosocomial pneumonia. It is also a less nephrotoxic option associated with less deterioration in kidney function.
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January 2018