Publications by authors named "Neeta Goel"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Measuring open defecation in India using survey questions: evidence from a randomised survey experiment.

BMJ Open 2019 09 26;9(9):e030152. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

r.i.c.e, India.

Objectives: To investigate differences in reported open defecation between a question about latrine use or open defecation for every household member and a household-level question.

Setting: Rural India is home to most of the world's open defecation. India's Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2015-2016 estimates that 54% of households in rural India defecate in the open. This measure is based on a question asking about the behaviour of all household members in one question. Yet, studies in rural India find substantial open defecation among individuals living in households with latrines, suggesting that household-level questions underestimate true open defecation.

Participants: In 2018, we randomly assigned latrine-owning households in rural parts of four Indian states to receive one of two survey modules measuring sanitation behaviour. 1215 households were asked about latrine use or open defecation individually for every household member. 1216 households were asked the household-level question used in India's DHS: what type of facility do members of the household usually use?

Results: We compare reported open defecation between households asked the individual-level questions and those asked the household-level question. Using two methods for comparing open defecation by question type, the individual-level question found 20-21 (95% CI 16 to 25 for both estimates) percentage points more open defecation than the household-level question, among all households, and 28-29 (95% CI 22 to 35 for both estimates) percentage points more open defecation among households that received assistance to construct their latrines.

Conclusions: We provide the first evidence that individual-level questions find more open defecation than household-level questions. Because reducing open defecation in India is essential to meeting the Sustainable Development Goals, and exposure to open defecation has consequences for child mortality and development, it is essential to accurately monitor its progress.

Trial Registration Number: Registry for International Development Impact Evaluations (5b55458ca54d1).
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September 2019

Radiation-related cytological changes in oral malignant cells.

Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2004 Jul;47(3):343-7

The Departments of Pathology and Preventive Medicine Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad.

Carcinoma of the oral cavity constitutes approximately 40% of overall malignant tumours in India, with an incidence of about 56,000 cases per year. Radiation responses in oral cancer cells by cytology have not been extensively studied. 102 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity treated by fractionated radiotherapy were studied. Serial scrape smears were taken from each tumour before and after irradiation. The abnormal nuclear counts per 1000 malignant cells were 1.6 and 14.1(p<0.001) for micronucleation, 0.9 and 5.5 (p<0.001) for nuclear budding, 7.6 and 28.1(p<0.001) for binucleation and 2.4 and 11.7(p<0.001) for multinucleation respectively. The study showed a significant rise in radiation induced cytological responses. In addition, radiation changes observed included abnormal and incomplete divisions of a nucleus, fibroblast like appearance cells, and enlargement of nuclear size as well as cytoplasmic granulation. These changes may have an important role to play in understanding the mechanism of cell killing after radiotherapy.
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July 2004