Publications by authors named "Neeraj V Gohad"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Barnacle biology before, during and after settlement and metamorphosis: a study of the interface.

J Exp Biol 2017 01 3;220(Pt 2):194-207. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

Duke University Marine Laboratory, Marine Science and Conservation, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC 28516, USA.

Mobile barnacle cypris larvae settle and metamorphose, transitioning to sessile juveniles with morphology and growth similar to that of adults. Because biofilms exist on immersed surfaces on which they attach, barnacles must interact with bacteria during initial attachment and subsequent growth. The objective of this study was to characterize the developing interface of the barnacle and substratum during this key developmental transition to inform potential mechanisms that promote attachment. The interface was characterized using confocal microscopy and fluorescent dyes to identify morphological and chemical changes to the interface and the status of bacteria present as a function of barnacle developmental stage. Staining revealed patchy material containing proteins and nucleic acids, reactive oxygen species amidst developing cuticle, and changes in bacteria viability at the developing interface. We found that as barnacles metamorphose from the cyprid to juvenile stage, proteinaceous materials with the appearance of coagulated liquid were released into and remained at the interface. It stained positive for proteins, including phosphoprotein, as well as nucleic acids. Regions of the developing cuticle and the patchy material itself stained for reactive oxygen species. Bacteria were absent until the cyprid was firmly attached, but populations died as barnacle development progressed. The oxidative environment may contribute to the cytotoxicity observed for bacteria and has the potential for oxidative crosslinking of cuticle and proteinaceous materials at the interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.145094DOI Listing
January 2017

Synergistic roles for lipids and proteins in the permanent adhesive of barnacle larvae.

Nat Commun 2014 Jul 11;5:4414. Epub 2014 Jul 11.

Biological Sciences, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, South Carolina 29634, USA.

Thoracian barnacles rely heavily upon their ability to adhere to surfaces and are environmentally and economically important as biofouling pests. Their adhesives have unique attributes that define them as targets for bio-inspired adhesive development. With the aid of multi-photon and broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopies, we report that the larval adhesive of barnacle cyprids is a bi-phasic system containing lipids and phosphoproteins, working synergistically to maximize adhesion to diverse surfaces under hostile conditions. Lipids, secreted first, possibly displace water from the surface interface creating a conducive environment for introduction of phosphoproteins while simultaneously modulating the spreading of the protein phase and protecting the nascent adhesive plaque from bacterial biodegradation. The two distinct phases are contained within two different granules in the cyprid cement glands, implying far greater complexity than previously recognized. Knowledge of the lipidic contribution will hopefully inspire development of novel synthetic bioadhesives and environmentally benign antifouling coatings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms5414DOI Listing
July 2014

Confocal microscopy-based goniometry of barnacle cyprid permanent adhesive.

J Exp Biol 2013 Jun 21;216(Pt 11):1969-72. Epub 2013 Feb 21.

School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK.

Biological adhesives are materials of particular interest in the fields of bio-inspired technology and antifouling research. The adhesive of adult barnacles has received much attention over the years; however, the permanent adhesive of the cyprid - the colonisation stage of barnacles - is a material about which very little is presently known. We applied confocal laser-scanning microscopy to the measurement of contact angles between the permanent adhesive of barnacle cyprid larvae and self-assembled monolayers of OH- and CH3-terminated thiols. Measurement of contact angles between actual bioadhesives and surfaces has never previously been achieved and the data may provide insight into the physicochemical properties and mechanism of action of these functional materials. The adhesive is a dual-phase system post-secretion, with the behaviour of the components governed separately by the surface chemistry. The findings imply that the cyprid permanent adhesion process is more complex than previously thought, necessitating broad re-evaluation of the system. Improved understanding will have significant implications for the production of barnacle-resistant coatings as well as development of bio-inspired glues for niche applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.084913DOI Listing
June 2013

Noradrenaline-functionalized hyperbranched fluoropolymer-poly(ethylene glycol) cross-linked networks as dual-mode, anti-biofouling coatings.

ACS Nano 2012 Feb 25;6(2):1503-12. Epub 2012 Jan 25.

Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77842, United States.

The strategy of decorating antibiofouling hyperbranched fluoropolymer-poly(ethylene glycol) (HBFP-PEG) networks with a settlement sensory deterrent, noradrenaline (NA), and the results of biofouling assays are presented. This example of a dual-mode surface, which combines both passive and active modes of antibiofouling, works in synergy to improve the overall antibiofouling efficiency against barnacle cyprids. The HBFP-PEG polymer surface, prior to modification with NA, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy, and a significant distribution of topographical features was observed, with a nanoscopic roughness measurement of 110 ± 8 nm. NA attachment to the surface was probed by secondary ion mass spectrometry to quantify the extent of polymer chain-end substitution with NA, where a 3- to 4-fold increase in intensity for a fragment ion associated with NA was observed and 39% of the available sites for attachment were substituted. Cytoskeletal assays confirmed the activity of tethered NA on adhering oyster hemocytes. Settlement assays showed deterrence toward barnacle cyprid settlement, while not compromising the passive biofouling resistance of the surface. This robust strategy demonstrates a methodology for the incorporation of actively antibiofouling moieties onto a passively antibiofouling network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn204431mDOI Listing
February 2012