Publications by authors named "Neeraj Kumar"

723 Publications

Perioperative role of high flow nasal oxygen therapy in elderly patients undergoing emergency lower limb amputation.

Indian J Anaesth 2022 Jun 6;66(Suppl 4):S230-S232. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Anaesthesiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ija.ija_613_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9298942PMC
June 2022

Machine intelligence-driven framework for optimized hit selection in virtual screening.

J Cheminform 2022 Jul 22;14(1):48. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Functional Genomics and Complex System Lab, Biotechnology Division,The Himalayan Centre for High-throughput Computational Biology (HiCHiCoB, A BIC Supported by DBT, India), CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, 176061, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Virtual screening (VS) aids in prioritizing unknown bio-interactions between compounds and protein targets for empirical drug discovery. In standard VS exercise, roughly 10% of top-ranked molecules exhibit activity when examined in biochemical assays, which accounts for many false positive hits, making it an arduous task. Attempts for conquering false-hit rates were developed through either ligand-based or structure-based VS separately; however, nonetheless performed remarkably well. Here, we present an advanced VS framework-automated hit identification and optimization tool (A-HIOT)-comprises chemical space-driven stacked ensemble for identification and protein space-driven deep learning architectures for optimization of an array of specific hits for fixed protein receptors. A-HIOT implements numerous open-source algorithms intending to integrate chemical and protein space leading to a high-quality prediction. The optimized hits are the selective molecules which we retrieve after extreme refinement implying chemical space and protein space modules of A-HIOT. Using CXC chemokine receptor 4, we demonstrated the superior performance of A-HIOT for hit molecule identification and optimization with tenfold cross-validation accuracies of 94.8% and 81.9%, respectively. In comparison with other machine learning algorithms, A-HIOT achieved higher accuracies of 96.2% for hit identification and 89.9% for hit optimization on independent benchmark datasets for CXCR4 and 86.8% for hit identification and 90.2% for hit optimization on independent test dataset for androgen receptor (AR), thus, shows its generalizability and robustness. In conclusion, advantageous features impeded in A-HIOT is making a reliable approach for bridging the long-standing gap between ligand-based and structure-based VS in finding the optimized hits for the desired receptor. The complete resource (framework) code is available at https://gitlab.com/neeraj-24/A-HIOT .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13321-022-00630-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9306080PMC
July 2022

Potential of novel self-assembled functionalized carbon nanotubes for selective tumor targeting.

Pharm Pat Anal 2022 May 21;11(3):111-117. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Department of Regulatory Affairs, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPER), Hyderabad, Telangana, 500 037, India.

Conventional cancer therapies are associated with toxicity toward healthy cells, which need to be addressed by novel therapeutic approaches. US2021/0230592 patent application discloses a carbon nanotube-based approach for tumor targeting, wherein a self-assembling single-wall nanotube complex has been developed and functionalized to deliver a molecule to a cancerous cell. The radiolabeled nanotubes exhibited markedly reduced toxicity as they did not depict any 'over toxicity' up to radioactivity value of 1350 nCi. The single-wall carbon nanotube conjugates were covalently connected to several chelators, therapeutic or diagnostic radionuclides, and showed promising results in the effective cancer management. Besides, this invention with further modifications paves an ideal pathway to researchers in effective diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/ppa-2022-0001DOI Listing
May 2022

Management of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes: A Comprehensive Review of the Perceptions and Practices of Health Care Providers in India.

J Assoc Physicians India 2022 Jul;70(7):11-12

Assistant Manager, Scientific Services, USV Private Limited, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Objectives: This study evaluated the perception and practices of health care providers (physicians, diabetologists, and endocrinologists) regarding the treatment of hypertension in patients with diabetes in India.

Methods: Health care providers throughout India who treated patients with diabetes and hypertension were invited to participate in an online survey and periodic 21 virtual meetings. They were questioned about their perception and practices in managing these patients, and strategies to improve blood pressure (BP).

Results: The online survey was completed by 2,513 health care providers, and 344 participated in virtual meetings. More than 50% reported that 31-50% of their patients with diabetes also had hypertension. Home BP monitoring was recommended by 88%, and lifestyle modifications were consistently recommended. Choice of antihypertensive treatment varied based on comorbidities, and a renin-angiotensin system blocker plus a calcium channel blocker (CCB) was the most common combination for dual antihypertensive therapy. Suggested strategies to improve BP control included patient awareness/education, lifestyle modifications, better follow-up/monitoring, and optimization of therapy.

Conclusion: Indian health care providers were aware of clinical recommendations and practices regarding treatment of patients with diabetes and hypertension, and generally make clinical decisions consistent with current guidelines. Optimization of care for these patients is essential to reduce cardiovascular disease risk and improve patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/japi-11001-0041DOI Listing
July 2022

The Influence of Static Load and Sideways Impact Fall on Extramedullary Bone Plates Used to Treat Intertrochanteric Femoral Fracture: A Preclinical Strength Assessment.

Ann Biomed Eng 2022 Jul 12. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam, 781 039, India.

Hip fracture accounts for a large number of hospitalizations, thereby causing substantial economic burden. Majority (> 90%) of all hip fractures are associated to sideways fall. Studies on sideways fall usually involve loading at quasi-static or at constant displacement rate, which neglects the physics of actual fall. Understanding femur resonance frequency and associated mode shapes excited by dynamic loads is also critical. Two commercial extramedullary implants, proximal femoral locking plate (PFLP) and variable angle dynamic hip screw (VA-DHS), were chosen to carry out the preclinical assessments on a simulated Evans-I type intertrochanteric fracture. In this study, we hypothesized that the behavior of the implant depends on the loading types-axial static and transverse impact-and a rigid implanted construct will absorb less impact energy for sideways fall. The in silico models were validated using experimental measurements of full-field strain data obtained from a 2D digital image correlation (DIC) study. Under peak axial load of 3 kN, PFLP construct predicted greater axial stiffness (1.07 kN/mm) as opposed to VA-DHS (0.85 kN/mm), although the former predicted slightly higher proximal stress shielding. Further, with greater mode 2 frequency, PFLP predicted improved performance in resisting bending due to sideways fall as compared to the other implant. Overall, the PFLP implanted femur predicted the least propensity to adverse stress intensities, suggesting better structural rigidity and higher capacity in protecting the fractured femur against fall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10439-022-03013-zDOI Listing
July 2022

Transcriptome analysis reveals cell cycle-related transcripts as key determinants of varietal differences in seed size of Brassica juncea.

Sci Rep 2022 Jul 9;12(1):11713. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS) Pilani, Pilani Campus, Pilani, Rajasthan, India.

Brassica juncea is an important oilseed crop, widely grown as a source of edible oil. Seed size is a pivotal agricultural trait in oilseed Brassicas. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying seed size determination are poorly understood. To elucidate the transcriptional dynamics involved in the determination of seed size in B. juncea, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis using developing seeds of two varieties, small-seeded Early Heera2 (EH2) and bold-seeded Pusajaikisan (PJK), at three distinct stages (15, 30 and 45 days after pollination). We detected 112,550 transcripts, of which 27,186 and 19,522 were differentially expressed in the intra-variety comparisons and inter-variety comparisons, respectively. Functional analysis using pathway, gene ontology, and transcription factor enrichment revealed that cell cycle- and cell division-related transcripts stay upregulated during later stages of seed development in the bold-seeded variety but are downregulated at the same stage in the small-seeded variety, indicating that an extended period of cell proliferation in the later stages increased seed weight in PJK as compared to EH2. Further, k-means clustering and candidate genes-based analyses unravelled candidates for employing in seed size improvement of B. juncea. In addition, candidates involved in determining seed coat color, oil content, and other seed traits were also identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-15938-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9271088PMC
July 2022

Applications of artificial intelligence and machine learning in orthognathic surgery: A scoping review.

J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg 2022 Jul 6. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Medical Officer (Dental) Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Over the recent years, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been progressing rapidly with its ability to mimic human cognitive functions. The potential applications of AI technology in diagnosis, treatment planning, and prognosis prediction have been demonstrated in various studies. The present scoping review aimed to provide an overview of AI and Machine Learning (ML) algorithms and their applications in orthognathic surgery. A comprehensive search was conducted in databases including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and OVID Medline until November 2021. This scoping review was conducted following the PRISMA-ScR guidelines. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 19 studies were included for final review. AI has profoundly impacted the diagnosis and prediction of orthognathic surgeries with a clinically acceptable accuracy range. Furthermore, AI reduces the work burden of the clinician by eliminating the tedious registration procedures, thereby helping in efficient and automated planning. However, focussing on the research gaps, there is a need to foster the AI models/algorithms to contemporize their efficiency in clinical decision making, diagnosis and surgical planning in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jormas.2022.06.027DOI Listing
July 2022

Evaluation of clinical profile and screening guidelines of retinopathy of prematurity in an urban level III neonatal intensive care unit.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 Jul;70(7):2476-2479

Division of Neonatology, Chaitanya Hospital, Chandigarh, India.

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical profile and screening guidelines of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in an urban level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Methods: : Infants with ≤2000-gm birth weight or <34 weeks gestational age were prospectively screened for ROP in an urban level III NICU between January 2018 and December 2020, based on national screening guidelines. Standard guidelines were used for ROP classification and treatment.

Results: In total, 211 infants completed screening; 46 (21.8%) infants developed ROP and 13 (6.2%) had type 1 (laser treatable) ROP. Of the 46 infants with ROP, 44 (95.65%) had zone 2 and two (4.34%) had zone 1 disease. In the 102 infants with ≤1500-gm birth weight, the incidence of ROP and type 1 ROP were 41.18% and 11.76%, respectively. Out of the 109 infants with >1500-gm birth weight, four (3.67%) developed ROP and one (0.91%) infant (an outborn) required treatment.

Conclusion: The majority of infants developing ROP in a level III urban NICU had ≤1500-gm birth weight. Zone 1 ROP was uncommon. Incidence of ROP in heavier infants (>1500-gm birth weight) was low, and treatment was required in a rare instance. In an urban NICU, the burden of ROP screening and treatments shifts to small and low-birth-weight infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_1925_21DOI Listing
July 2022

Expandable pedicle screw may have better fixation than normal pedicle screw: preclinical investigation on instrumented L4-L5 vertebrae based on various physiological movements.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2022 Sep 30;60(9):2501-2519. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, 781 039, Assam, India.

Lumbar spine fracture is typically treated by means of screw fixation, the primary aim of which is to reduce fracture by achieving bony union such that the spinal anatomy is restored. Pedicle screw fixation has certain advantages over conventional vertebral screws, e.g. 3-column fixation and improved surgical alignment. However, expandable pedicle screws have been reported to impart better anchorage as compared to conventional pedicle screws, both in case of healthy and osteoporotic bone. The clinical studies notwithstanding, there is a paucity of preclinical investigations on expandable pedicle screws used on lumbar vertebrae. By employing anatomically viable FE models, the present study intended to estimate stress-strain fields of a functional spinal unit (FSU) of intact L4-L5 vertebra and to further compare the same with FSUs instrumented with normal and expandable pedicle screws under different physiological loading condition. The various physiological loading regimes appeared to have significant influence on the overall load transfer in the L4-L5 vertebrae. The expandable pedicle screw predicted marginally improved anchorage as compared to the normal pedicle screws, with more contact area with the bone resulting in higher stresses (~ 1.6 MPa) and high strain at the contact sites. This is indicative of improved stability albeit having marginally greater risk of screw pullout. Greater area (15-80%) with peak stresses at the bone-screw interfaces also indicates lesser degree of stress shielding. Thus, stability aside, one may expect to have lower loosening issues too with the use of expandable pedicle screws.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-022-02625-wDOI Listing
September 2022

Sustained drug delivery strategies for treatment of common substance use disorders: Promises and challenges.

J Control Release 2022 Aug 1;348:970-1003. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA. Electronic address:

Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a leading cause of death and other ill health effects in the United States and other countries in the world. Several approaches ranging from detoxification, behavioral therapy, and the use of antagonists or drugs with counter effects are currently being applied for its management. Amongst these, drug therapy is the mainstay for some drug abuse incidences, as is in place specifically for opioid abuse or alcohol dependence. The severity of the havocs observed with the SUDs has triggered constant interest in the discovery and development of novel medications as well as suitable or most appropriate methods for the delivery of these agents. The chronic need of such drugs in users warrants the need for their prolonged or sustained systemic availability. Further, the need to improve patient tolerance to medication, limit invasive drug use and overall treatment outcome are pertinent considerations for embracing sustained release designs for medications used in managing SUDs. This review aims to provide an overview on up-to-date advances made with regards to sustained delivery systems for the drugs for treatment of different types of SUDs such as opioid, alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, and cannabis use disorders. The clinical relevance, promises and the limitations of deployed sustained release approaches along with future opportunities are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2022.06.034DOI Listing
August 2022

Clinical and Echocardiographic Profile of Congenital Heart Diseases in the 0-12-Year Age Group in a Tertiary Care Medical Institute in Eastern India: A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Study.

Cureus 2022 Jun 20;14(6):e26114. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Cardiology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, IND.

Background This study aimed to determine the clinical and echocardiography profile of congenital heart diseases (CHDs) among admitted children as well as patients presenting to the outpatient department of the Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, which is a tertiary care and apex institute located in Bihar, India. Methodology A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital from January 2019 to January 2021. In total, 200 patients aged 0-12 were enrolled in the study. The study design was exploratory, with a proforma drafted to study patients with features suggestive of CHDs. All pediatric echocardiography was performed by a trained cardiologist. Records were obtained from the departmental record-keeping register, and reports were available for analyzing the data. For data collection, cardiology and pediatric department registers were reviewed and all CHD data were collected. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 25.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Results Of the 200 children with CHDs, 142 were diagnosed to have acyanotic heart disease (ACHD), while 58 had cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD). Among 200 cases of CHD, ventricular septal defect (VSD) constituted 62 cases comprising 31% of the total CHD cases and 44% of all ACHD cases. Atrial septal defect (ASD) was the second most common CHD comprising 23% of all CHD cases. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) constituted 23 cases accounting for 11.5% of all CHD cases. It was the most common CCHD. Based on the age at the time of presentation, 90 (45%) cases were diagnosed below one year of age. Congestive heart failure (CHF) was most common in ACHD comprising 30% compared to CCHD in which only 7% of cases had CHF. This finding was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Analyzing the symptoms of different CHDs, of both ACHDs and CCHDs, the common symptoms were fast breathing (38%). Conclusions Among ACHD patients, 31% VSD and 21% ASD were noted. In CCHD, TOF was the most common with 11.5% of cases. Respiratory tract conditions were the most common comorbidities encountered. Because this is one of the first studies conducted in Bihar in the pediatric age group, it can help know the prevalence of CHDs in this region and will be useful for developing policies by stakeholders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.26114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9208535PMC
June 2022

Tuberculous myelitis: a prospective follow-up study.

Neurol Sci 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Microbiology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: Prospective studies regarding tuberculous myelitis are lacking. We aimed to prospectively evaluate patients with tuberculous myelitis to identify the features that distinguish tuberculous myelitis from other myelitis.

Methods: This was a prospective study. Patients presenting with paraparesis/quadriparesis, and MRI showing myelitis were included. All patients were subjected to clinical, neuroimaging, and laboratory evaluation. Diagnosis of definite tuberculous myelitis was made if GeneXpert test in CSF was positive. Probable tuberculous myelitis was diagnosed if there was evidence of tuberculosis elsewhere in the body. Patients were treated with methylprednisolone and antituberculosis treatment. Patients were followed for 6 months. We compared the clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging parameters and response to treatment of tuberculous myelitis with other myelitis. P values were adjusted using the Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) procedure to control false discovery rate.

Results: We enrolled 52 patients. Eighteen (34.6%) patients had tuberculous myelitis. Headache (P = 0.018) was significantly more common in tuberculous myelitis. The CSF protein (P < 0.001), and CSF cell count (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in tuberculous myelitis. On neuroimaging, a LETM was common in tuberculous myelitis. Spinal meningeal enhancement (14; 77.8%), extra-axial collection, and CSF loculation (6; 33.4%), arachnoiditis (3;16.7%), and concomitant spinal tuberculoma (2;11.1%) were other common imaging features of tuberculous myelitis. Tuberculous myelitis patients showed a better response (P = 0.025) to treatment.

Conclusion: Tuberculous myelitis was seen in approximately 35% of all myelitis cases, in a high tuberculosis endemic zone. Headache, markedly elevated CSF protein and spinal meningeal enhancement were distinguishing features. Tuberculous myelitis patients responded well to corticosteroids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-022-06221-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9225802PMC
June 2022

Accelerated Hypertension and Intracerebral Haemorrhage Following First Dose of ChAdOx1-nCOV-19 Vaccination.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2022 Mar-Apr;25(2):322-323. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aian.aian_714_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9175404PMC
March 2022

Performance Evaluation of Cooperative OMA and NOMA Systems in 6G Deployment Scenarios.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 May 24;22(11). Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Software Convergence, Daegu Catholic University, Gyeongsan 38430, Korea.

Optimization of the energy efficiency, fairness, and rates of the system is a vital part of communication systems. Multiple access techniques have a huge potential to enhance such performance parameters. This paper studies the performance of NOMA and OMA systems in a singular cell environment, where the cellular users are distributed randomly, and cooperative relays are considered for better system reliability. The relay nodes forward the signals to the cell-edge users. This paper considers a practical scenario where all the relay equipment is distributed with non-uniform battery power levels. The performance of OMA and NOMA schemes is compared based on the key performance indicators: sum rate, fairness, and energy efficiency. The fairness factor determines fairness in the allocation of resources to all the system's users. The performance of the two schemes is assessed in three deployment scenarios: urban, suburban, and rural scenarios. Through numerical results, it is proved that the performance of the NOMA dominates the OMA scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22113986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9182818PMC
May 2022

Accurate Prediction of Voltage of Battery Electrode Materials Using Attention-Based Graph Neural Networks.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29201, United States.

Performing first-principles calculations to discover electrodes' properties in the large chemical space is a challenging task. While machine learning (ML) has been applied to effectively accelerate those discoveries, most of the applied methods ignore the materials' spatial information and only use predefined features: based only on chemical compositions. We propose two attention-based graph convolutional neural network techniques to learn the average voltage of electrodes. Our proposed methods, which combine both atomic composition and atomic coordinates in 3D-space, improve the accuracy in voltage prediction significantly when compared to composition-based ML models. The first model directly learns the chemical reaction of electrodes and metal ions to predict their average voltage, whereas the second model combines electrodes' ML predicted formation energy () to compute their average voltage. Our -based model demonstrates improved accuracy in transferability from our subset of learned Li ions to Na ions. Moreover, we predicted the theoretical voltage of 10 NaMPOF (M = Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Mn, Co, and Ni) fluorophosphate battery frameworks, which are unavailable in the Material Project database. It could be shown that we can expect average voltages higher than 3.1 V from those Na battery frameworks except from the NaTiPOF and TiPOF pair of electrodes, which offer an average voltage of 1.32 V.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c00029DOI Listing
June 2022

Dissecting the Genetic Architecture of Carbon Partitioning in Sorghum Using Multiscale Phenotypes.

Front Plant Sci 2022 18;13:790005. Epub 2022 May 18.

Advanced Plant Technology, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, United States.

Carbon partitioning in plants may be viewed as a dynamic process composed of the many interactions between sources and sinks. The accumulation and distribution of fixed carbon is not dictated simply by the sink strength and number but is dependent upon the source, pathways, and interactions of the system. As such, the study of carbon partitioning through perturbations to the system or through focus on individual traits may fail to produce actionable developments or a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying this complex process. Using the recently published sorghum carbon-partitioning panel, we collected both macroscale phenotypic characteristics such as plant height, above-ground biomass, and dry weight along with microscale compositional traits to deconvolute the carbon-partitioning pathways in this multipurpose crop. Multivariate analyses of traits resulted in the identification of numerous loci associated with several distinct carbon-partitioning traits, which putatively regulate sugar content, manganese homeostasis, and nitrate transportation. Using a multivariate adaptive shrinkage approach, we identified several loci associated with multiple traits suggesting that pleiotropic and/or interactive effects may positively influence multiple carbon-partitioning traits, or these overlaps may represent molecular switches mediating basal carbon allocating or partitioning networks. Conversely, we also identify a carbon tradeoff where reduced lignin content is associated with increased sugar content. The results presented here support previous studies demonstrating the convoluted nature of carbon partitioning in sorghum and emphasize the importance of taking a holistic approach to the study of carbon partitioning by utilizing multiscale phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.790005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9159972PMC
May 2022

Internet of Things Framework for Oxygen Saturation Monitoring in COVID-19 Environment.

IEEE Internet Things J 2022 Mar 5;9(5):3631-3641. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Faculty of Computing and Information TechnologyKing Abdulaziz University Jeddah 21589 Saudi Arabia.

The pandemic/epidemic of COVID-19 has affected people worldwide. A huge number of lives succumbed to death due to the sudden outbreak of this corona virus infection. The specified symptoms of COVID-19 detection are very common like normal flu; asymptomatic version of COVID-19 has become a critical issue. Therefore, as a precautionary measurement, the oxygen level needs to be monitored by every individual if no other critical condition is found. It is not the only parameter for COVID-19 detection but, as per the suggestions by different medical organizations such as the World Health Organization, it is better to use oximeter to monitor the oxygen level in probable patients as a precaution. People are using the oximeters personally; however, not having any clue or guidance regarding the measurements obtained. Therefore, in this article, we have shown a framework of oxygen level monitoring and severity calculation and probabilistic decision of being a COVID-19 patient. This framework is also able to maintain the privacy of patient information and uses probabilistic classification to measure the severity. Results are measured based on latency of blockchain creation and overall response, throughput, detection, and severity accuracy. The analysis finds the solution efficient and significant in the Internet of Things framework for the present health hazard in our world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JIOT.2021.3098158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8956365PMC
March 2022

Artificial Intelligence-Based Robotic Technique for Reusable Waste Materials.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 6;2022:2073482. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Food Process Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology, Wolkite University, Wolkite, Ethiopia.

Waste management is a critical problem for every country, whether it is developed or developing. Selecting and managing waste are a critical part of preserving the environment and maximizing resource efficiency. In addition to reducing trash and disposal, reusable items are predicted to be of great benefit since they lessen our dependence on raw materials. The usage of compostable trash may be expanded outside fertilizers and dung after the metallic, chemicals, and glass items have been recycled. After a good scrubbing, the glass may be broken down and remelted to create new items. Reusing waste items via garbage recovery is one of the best methods to do so. This document outlines the steps that must be taken to maximize the use of garbage. This work describes a reusable industrial robot arm for grasping and sorting things depending on the resources they contain. Gripping, motion control, and object material categorization are all integrated into a full-automation, reusable system architecture in this study. LeNet also was adjusted to classify garbage into cartons and plastics using an artificial intelligent technique, with the use of a customized LeNet model. Movement in terms of moving the robot in the most efficient way possible, the robot's grabbing, and categorization were incorporated into the movement design process. The system's grabbing and object categorization success rates and computation time are calculated as metrics for evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2073482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9106483PMC
May 2022

Decoding the protein-ligand interactions using parallel graph neural networks.

Sci Rep 2022 05 10;12(1):7624. Epub 2022 May 10.

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA, 99352, USA.

Protein-ligand interactions (PLIs) are essential for biochemical functionality and their identification is crucial for estimating biophysical properties for rational therapeutic design. Currently, experimental characterization of these properties is the most accurate method, however, this is very time-consuming and labor-intensive. A number of computational methods have been developed in this context but most of the existing PLI prediction heavily depends on 2D protein sequence data. Here, we present a novel parallel graph neural network (GNN) to integrate knowledge representation and reasoning for PLI prediction to perform deep learning guided by expert knowledge and informed by 3D structural data. We develop two distinct GNN architectures: [Formula: see text] is the base implementation that employs distinct featurization to enhance domain-awareness, while [Formula: see text] is a novel implementation that can predict with no prior knowledge of the intermolecular interactions. The comprehensive evaluation demonstrated that GNN can successfully capture the binary interactions between ligand and protein's 3D structure with 0.979 test accuracy for [Formula: see text] and 0.958 for [Formula: see text] for predicting activity of a protein-ligand complex. These models are further adapted for regression tasks to predict experimental binding affinities and [Formula: see text] crucial for compound's potency and efficacy. We achieve a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.66 and 0.65 on experimental affinity and 0.50 and 0.51 on [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively, outperforming similar 2D sequence based models. Our method can serve as an interpretable and explainable artificial intelligence (AI) tool for predicted activity, potency, and biophysical properties of lead candidates. To this end, we show the utility of [Formula: see text] on SARS-Cov-2 protein targets by screening a large compound library and comparing the prediction with the experimentally measured data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-10418-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9086424PMC
May 2022

An Unusual Patient with Acute Multiple Cranial Palsy, Tongue Fasciculations, and Proximal Weakness.

Neurol India 2022 Mar-Apr;70(2):810-811

Department of Neurology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0028-3886.344674DOI Listing
May 2022

Immobilization of catalase on functionalized magnetic nanoparticles: a statistical approach.

3 Biotech 2022 May 9;12(5):108. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Department of Biotechnology, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab 144011 India.

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) FeO, by virtue of easily modifiable surface, high surface-to-mass ratio and super-paramagnetic properties, are one of suitable candidates for the enzyme immobilization. Optimization of five important variables viz concentration of 3-aminopropyl-tri-ethoxy-silane (APTES), glutaraldehyde (GA) and enzyme, time and temperature of loading was carried out using central composite type of experimental design without blocks giving 50 experiments including eight replicates at the central point. Characterization, stability and reusability studies were also carried out with optimized preparation. Results established the correlation between observed and response surface method (RSM) equation envisaged value ( 0.99, 0.97 and 0.98 for enzyme's activity, its loading over MNPs and corresponding specific activity, respectively. The predicted values suggested by RSM equation were 64.00 mM of APTES, 10.97 µL of GA, 14.50 mg mL of enzyme for 67 min at 22.6 °C, resulted in activity 32.1 U mg MNPs, while specific activity was 97.7 U mg. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the sizes of MNPs (10.5 ± 1.7 nm), APTES-MNPs (10.23 ± 1.74 nm), GA-APTES-MNPs (11.84 ± 1.49 nm) and Catalase-GA-APTES-MNPs (13.32 ± 2.74 nm) were statistically similar. The enzyme MNPs preparation retained 81.65% activity after 144 h at 4 °C (free enzyme retained 7.87%) and 64.34% activity after 20 reuse cycles. Statistical optimized MNPs-based catalase preparation with high activity and magnetic strength was stable and can be used for further studies related to its application as analytical recyclable enzyme or magnetically oriented delivery in the body.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-022-03173-8.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-022-03173-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8994807PMC
May 2022

Correction to: Amelioration Effect of Salicylic Acid Under Salt Stress in Sorghum bicolor L.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2022 Aug;194(8):3802

Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, 110012, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-022-03915-7DOI Listing
August 2022

Next-Generation Intelligent MXene-Based Electrochemical Aptasensors for Point-of-Care Cancer Diagnostics.

Nanomicro Lett 2022 Apr 11;14(1):100. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Industrial Waste Utilization, Nano and Biomaterials, CSIR-Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute (AMPRI), Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal, 462026, MP, India.

Delayed diagnosis of cancer using conventional diagnostic modalities needs to be addressed to reduce the mortality rate of cancer. Recently, 2D nanomaterial-enabled advanced biosensors have shown potential towards the early diagnosis of cancer. The high surface area, surface functional groups availability, and excellent electrical conductivity of MXene make it the 2D material of choice for the fabrication of advanced electrochemical biosensors for disease diagnostics. MXene-enabled electrochemical aptasensors have shown great promise for the detection of cancer biomarkers with a femtomolar limit of detection. Additionally, the stability, ease of synthesis, good reproducibility, and high specificity offered by MXene-enabled aptasensors hold promise to be the mainstream diagnostic approach. In this review, the design and fabrication of MXene-based electrochemical aptasensors for the detection of cancer biomarkers have been discussed. Besides, various synthetic processes and useful properties of MXenes which can be tuned and optimized easily and efficiently to fabricate sensitive biosensors have been elucidated. Further, futuristic sensing applications along with challenges will be deliberated herein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-022-00845-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8995416PMC
April 2022

Author's Reply to "MoNuSAC2020: A Multi-Organ Nuclei Segmentation and Classification Challenge".

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2022 04;41(4):1000-1003

We had released MoNuSAC2020 as one of the largest publicly available, manually annotated, curated, multi-class, and multi-instance medical image segmentation datasets. Based on this dataset, we had organized a challenge at the International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) 2020. Along with the challenge participants, we had published an article summarizing the results and findings of the challenge (Verma et al., 2021). Foucart et al. (2022) in their "Analysis of the MoNuSAC 2020 challenge evaluation and results: metric implementation errors" have pointed ways in which the computation of the segmentation performance metric for the challenge can be corrected or improved. After a careful examination of their analysis, we have found a small bug in our code and an erroneous column-header swap in one of our result tables. Here, we present our response to their analysis, and issue an errata. After fixing the bug the challenge rankings remain largely unaffected. On the other hand, two of Foucart et al.'s other suggestions are good for future consideration, but it is not clear that those should be immediately implemented. We thank Foucart et al. for their detailed analysis to help us fix the two errors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2022.3157048DOI Listing
April 2022

Comparison of the oropharyngeal leak pressure between three second generation supraglottic airway devices during laparoscopic surgery in pediatric patients.

Paediatr Anaesth 2022 07 5;32(7):843-850. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Anesthesiology, AIIMS, Patna, India.

Background: Previous studies have shown Proseal LMA and I gel similar to endotracheal intubation in ventilatory ability in pediatric laparoscopic surgeries.

Aims: The primary aim of this study was to assess whether there is a significant difference in the oropharyngeal leak pressure between Ambu Auragrain, I-gel, and Proseal LMA during pediatric laparoscopic surgery.

Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 90 male patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I aged between 6 months and 10 years who were scheduled for laparoscopic single-sided inguinal hernia repair were recruited and randomly allocated to three groups in which airway was secured with Ambu Auragain, I gel, or Proseal LMA. The primary outcome was oropharyngeal leak pressure. The secondary outcomes were peak pressures before and after pneumoperitoneum, fiberoptic view, insertion attempts, insertion time, manipulations, perioperative and postoperative anesthesia-related problems. Continuous variables were compared using the one-way analysis of variance or the Kruskal-Wallis test with post hoc Turkey analysis. Categorical and ordinal data were compared using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test.

Results: Oropharyngeal leak pressure before pneumoperitoneum was higher with I gel as compared to Ambu Auragain (27.36 ± 5.72 cm of H O vs 23.56 ± 5.72 cm of H O) (p = .021) and PLMA (27.36 ± 5.72 cm of H O vs 23.24 ± 4.35 cm of H O) (p = .011). Oropharyngeal leak pressure after pneumoperitoneum was also higher with I gel as compared to Ambu Auragain (31.58 ± 4.35 cm of H O vs 26.83 ± 5.00 cm of H O) (p = .001) and Proseal LMA (31.58 ± 4.35 cm of H O vs 27.03 ± 3.80 cm of H O) (p = .002). Oropharyngeal leak pressures of Ambu Auragain and Proseal LMA were comparable. Postoperative complications were similar in all the supraglottic airway devices. No regurgitation or aspiration-related problem was observed in our study.

Conclusion: I gel had a higher oropharyngeal leak pressure than the other two supraglottic airway devices and therefore may represent a better choice in situations where higher ventilatory pressures may be necessary, for example, in extremes of weight trendelenburg position, etc. CLINICAL TRIAL IDENTIFIER: Clinical trial registry of India (CTRI/2018/11/016445).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pan.14447DOI Listing
July 2022

Amelioration Effect of Salicylic Acid Under Salt Stress in Sorghum bicolor L.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2022 Mar 23. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, 110012, India.

Salinity is a major abiotic stress, limiting plant growth and agriculture productivity worldwide. Salicylic acid is known to alleviate the negative effects of salinity. The present study demonstrated the impact of SA on sorghum, a moderately salt-tolerant crop, grown for food, fodder, fiber, and fuel. A screen house experiment was conducted using sorghum genotypes Haryana Jowar HJ 513 and HJ 541 under 4 salt levels (0, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 dS m NaCl) and 3 SA (0, 25, and 50 mg dm) levels with 12 combinations. The leaves were assayed for electrolyte leakage percentage (ELP), i.e., 88.7 % in HJ 541 and 87.2 % in HJ 513, and osmolyte content. Proline content, total soluble carbohydrate content, and glycine betaine content increased considerably. Photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance declined at higher salt levels. The specific enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and POX increased 41.1 %, 122.0 %, and 72.8 %, respectively, in HJ 513 under salt stress. Combinations of salt treatment and SA decreased ELP and enhanced osmolyte concentration, rates of gaseous exchange attributes, and also the antioxidant enzymatic activity in salt-stressed leaves. The study established that the specific activity of antioxidative enzymes is enhanced further by addition of SA which may protect the cells from oxidative damage under salt stress, thus mitigating salt stress and enhancing the yield of sorghum. SA can ameliorate the salt stress in plants by affecting the metabolic or physiological frameworks. SA application is an effective management strategy towards mitigating salt stress in order to meet agricultural production and sustainability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-022-03853-4DOI Listing
March 2022

Learning accurate personalized survival models for predicting hospital discharge and mortality of COVID-19 patients.

Sci Rep 2022 03 16;12(1):4472. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Computing Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Since it emerged in December of 2019, COVID-19 has placed a huge burden on medical care in countries throughout the world, as it led to a huge number of hospitalizations and mortalities. Many medical centers were overloaded, as their intensive care units and auxiliary protection resources proved insufficient, which made the effective allocation of medical resources an urgent matter. This study describes learned survival prediction models that could help medical professionals make effective decisions regarding patient triage and resource allocation. We created multiple data subsets from a publicly available COVID-19 epidemiological dataset to evaluate the effectiveness of various combinations of covariates-age, sex, geographic location, and chronic disease status-in learning survival models (here, "Individual Survival Distributions"; ISDs) for hospital discharge and also for death events. We then supplemented our datasets with demographic and economic information to obtain potentially more accurate survival models. Our extensive experiments compared several ISD models, using various measures. These results show that the "gradient boosting Cox machine" algorithm outperformed the competing techniques, in terms of these performance evaluation metrics, for predicting both an individual's likelihood of hospital discharge and COVID-19 mortality. Our curated datasets and code base are available at our Github repository for reproducing the results reported in this paper and for supporting future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-08601-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8927593PMC
March 2022

Commentary: Clinical Characteristics, Outcomes, and Pathology Analysis in Patients With Dorsal Arachnoid Web.

Neurosurgery 2022 05;90(5):e116

Department of Neurological Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/neu.0000000000001900DOI Listing
May 2022

Genetic Analysis for Resistance to Sclerotinia Stem Rot, Yield and Its Component Traits in Indian Mustard [ (L.) Czern & Coss.].

Plants (Basel) 2022 Feb 28;11(5). Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar 125004, India.

Understanding the mode of gene action that controls seed yield and Sclerotinia stem rot resistance in Indian mustard is critical for boosting yield potential. In a line × tester mating design, ten susceptible lines and four resistant testers were used to conduct genetic analysis. The significance of general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) variances revealed that both additive and non-additive gene actions were involved in the inheritance of Sclerotinia stem rot resistance and yield attributing traits. In addition to 1000-seed weight and number of primary and secondary branches/plant, the genotypes RH 1569 (line) and DRMR 2035 (tester) appeared to be the strongest general combiners for Sclerotinia stem rot resistance. RH 1657 × EC 597317 was the only cross among several that demonstrated a significant desired SCA value for Sclerotinia rot resistance. Regarding SCA effects for yield and component traits, the cross RH 1658 × EC 597328 performed best, with a non-significant but acceptable negative SCA effect for resistance. DRMR 2035, RH 1222-28, RH 1569, RH 1599-41, RH 1657, RH 1658, and EC 597328 are promising genotypes to use as parents in future heterosis breeding and for obtaining populations with high yield potential and greater resistance to Sclerotinia stem rot disease in Indian mustard, based on GCA effects of parents, performance, and SCA effects of hybrids. Days to 50% flowering, number of primary branches/plant, main shoot length, and 1000-seed weight all had a high genotypic coefficient of variability (GCV), broad-sense heritability (hbs), and genetic advance as percent of the mean (GAM) values, as well as significant and desirable correlations and direct effects on seed yield. As a result, these traits have been recognized as the most critical selection criterion for Indian mustard breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants11050671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8912491PMC
February 2022

Tumefactive Demyelinating Brain Lesion Developing after Administration of Adenovector-Based COVID-19 Vaccine: A Case Report.

Neurol India 2022 Jan-Feb;70(1):409-411

Department of Neurology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: Postmarketing surveillance of COVID-19 vaccination reveals that the COVID-19 vaccine administration is associated with several rare but serious neurological complications.

Case Report: We report a case of new-onset tumefactive demyelinating brain lesion that developed after administration of an adenovector-based COVID-19 vaccine. A middle-aged female presented with recent right hemiparesis, which was noticed 2 days after she received the first dose of the vaccine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large subcortical T2/FLAIR hyperintensities involving corpus callosum as well. The patient responded to oral methylprednisolone. At 4 weeks, a follow-up MRI revealed a reduction in size of the lesion.

Conclusion: To conclude, adenovector-based COVID-19 vaccination may be associated with a tumefactive demyelinating lesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0028-3886.338642DOI Listing
March 2022
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