Publications by authors named "Neelam Sharma"

132 Publications

Targeting Endothelin in Alzheimer's Disease: A Promising Therapeutic Approach.

Biomed Res Int 2021 6;2021:7396580. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

Endothelin is a chemical mediator that helps in maintaining balance within the blood-brain barrier by regulating the levels of toxicants and molecules which pass through the brain, suggesting that a rise in its production determines Alzheimer's disease. The inequity in the amyloid occurs due to a problem in its clearance from the brain initiating the production of reactive oxygen species and superoxide that activates a cascade wherein the release of inflammatory mediators and various enzymes like endothelin-converting enzymes take place. Furthermore, the cascade increases the levels of endothelin in the brain from endothelial cells. Endothelin levels are upregulated, which can be regulated by modulating the action of endothelin-converting enzymes and endothelin receptors. Hence, endothelin paves a pathway in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In this article, we have covered various mechanisms and preclinical studies that support and direct endothelin involvement in the progression of Alzheimer's disease by using various search tools such as PubMed, Science Direct, and Medline. Conclusive outcome data were extracted that all together defy contrivance pathways, potential drugs, endothelin receptors, and endothelin enzymes in our article giving profound importance to target endothelin for prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/7396580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440097PMC
September 2021

Development of a new set of genic SSR markers in the genus : in silico mining, characterization and validation.

3 Biotech 2021 Oct 10;11(10):430. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Tissue Culture and Cryopreservation Unit, ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India.

is an important genus of around 360 medicinally important species, majority of which are not well characterized. Despite its importance, very few genomic resources are available for L. Till date, the number of informative and robust simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based markers is limited and very few efforts have been made for their development. A set of robust, freely accessible and informative SSR markers for is a pre-requisite for any molecular systematic as well as improvement studies in this group of pharmacologically valuable plants. In view of the importance of these plants, Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequences of 18 species were surveyed for the development of a large set of non-redundant SSR markers. A total of 5808 perfect SSR with an average length of 17 bp and relative abundance of 214 loci/Mb were identified in the analysed 47,487 EST sequences using Krait software. Mapping of the ESTs resulted in gene ontology annotations of 49.14% of the sequences. Based on these perfect SSRs, 2902 primer pairs were designed, and 60 markers were randomly selected and validated on a set of Royle accessions. Among the screened markers, 39 (65%) were found to be cross-species transferable. This is the first report of the largest set of functional, novel genic SSR markers in , which will be a valuable resource for future characterization, genotype identification, conservation and genomic studies in the various species of this group of important medicinal plants.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-021-02969-4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02969-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433281PMC
October 2021

Exploring the Role of Orexinergic Neurons in Parkinson's Disease.

Neurotox Res 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting about 2% of the population. A neuropeptide, orexin, is linked with sleep abnormalities in the parkinsonian patient. This study aimed to review the changes in the orexinergic system in parkinsonian subjects and the effects of orexin. A number of search techniques were used and presumed during the search, including cloud databank searches of PubMed and Medline using title words, keywords, and MeSH terms. PD is characterised by motor dysfunctions (postural instability, rigidity, tremor) and cognitive disorders, sleep-wake abnormalities grouped under non-motor disorders. The Orexinergic system found in the hypothalamus is linked with autonomic function, neuroprotection, learning and memory, and the sleep-wake cycle. Prepro-orexin, a precursor peptide (130 amino acids), gives rise to orexins (Orx-A and Orx-B). Serum orexin level measurement is vital for evaluating several neurological disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and PD). Orexinergic neurons are activated by hypoglycemia and ghrelin, while they are restrained by food consumption and leptin. Orexinergic system dysfunctioning was found to be linked with non-motor symptoms (sleep abnormalities) in PD. Orexinergic neuron's behaviour may be either inhibitory or excitatory depending on the environment in which they are present. As well, orexin antagonists are found to improve the abnormal sleep pattern. Since the orexinergic system plays a role in several psychological and neurological disorders, therefore, these disorders can be managed by targeting this system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-021-00411-4DOI Listing
September 2021

B3Pred: A Random-Forest-Based Method for Predicting and Designing Blood-Brain Barrier Penetrating Peptides.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Aug 11;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Computational Biology, Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, Okhla 110020, India.

The blood-brain barrier is a major obstacle in treating brain-related disorders, as it does not allow the delivery of drugs into the brain. We developed a method for predicting blood-brain barrier penetrating peptides to facilitate drug delivery into the brain. These blood-brain barrier penetrating peptides (B3PPs) can act as therapeutics, as well as drug delivery agents. We trained, tested, and evaluated our models on blood-brain barrier peptides obtained from the B3Pdb database. First, we computed a wide range of peptide features. Then, we selected relevant peptide features. Finally, we developed numerous machine-learning-based models for predicting blood-brain barrier peptides using the selected features. The random-forest-based model performed the best with respect to the top 80 selected features and achieved a maximal 85.08% accuracy with an AUROC of 0.93. We also developed a webserver, B3pred, that implements our best models. It has three major modules that allow users to predict/design B3PPs and scan B3PPs in a protein sequence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13081237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8399279PMC
August 2021

Computer-aided prediction of inhibitors against STAT3 for managing COVID-19 associated cytokine storm.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Aug 21;137:104780. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Computational Biology, Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, Okhla Phase 3, New Delhi, 110020, India. Electronic address:

Background: Proinflammatory cytokines are correlated with the severity of disease in patients with COVID-19. IL6-mediated activation of STAT3 proliferates proinflammatory responses that lead to cytokine storm promotion. Thus, STAT3 inhibitors may play a crucial role in managing the COVID-19 pathogenesis. The present study discusses a method for predicting inhibitors against the STAT3 signaling pathway.

Method: The main dataset comprises 1565 STAT3 inhibitors and 1671 non-inhibitors used for training, testing, and evaluation of models. A number of machine learning classifiers have been implemented to develop the models.

Results: The outcomes of the data analysis show that rings and aromatic groups are significantly abundant in STAT3 inhibitors compared to non-inhibitors. First, we developed models using 2-D and 3-D chemical descriptors and achieved a maximum AUC of 0.84 and 0.73, respectively. Second, fingerprints are used to build predictive models and achieved 0.86 AUC with an accuracy of 78.70% on the validation dataset. Finally, models were developed using hybrid descriptors, which achieved a maximum of 0.87 AUC with 78.55% accuracy on the validation dataset.

Conclusion: We used the best model to identify STAT3 inhibitors in FDA-approved drugs and found few drugs (e.g., Tamoxifen and Perindopril) to manage the cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients. A webserver "STAT3In" (https://webs.iiitd.edu.in/raghava/stat3in/) has been developed to predict and design STAT3 inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378993PMC
August 2021

Decrypting the potential role of α-lipoic acid in Alzheimer's disease.

Life Sci 2021 Aug 25;284:119899. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases with motor disturbances, cognitive decline, and behavioral impairment. It is characterized by the extracellular aggregation of amyloid-β plaques and the intracellular accumulation of tau protein. AD patients show a cognitive decline, which has been associated with oxidative stress, as well as mitochondrial dysfunction. Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA), a natural antioxidant present in food and used as a dietary supplement, has been considered a promising agent for the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Despite multiple preclinical studies indicating beneficial effects of α-LA in memory functioning, and pointing to its neuroprotective effects, to date only a few studies have examined its effects in humans. Studies performed in animal models of memory loss associated with aging and AD have shown that α-LA improves memory in a variety of behavioral paradigms. Furthermore, molecular mechanisms underlying α-LA effects have also been investigated. Accordingly, α-LA shows antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, glioprotective, metal chelating properties in both in vivo and in vitro studies. In addition, it has been shown that α-LA reverses age-associated loss of neurotransmitters and their receptors. The review article aimed at summarizing and discussing the main studies investigating the neuroprotective effects of α-LA on cognition as well as its molecular effects, to improve the understanding of the therapeutic potential of α-LA in patients suffering from neurodegenerative disorders, supporting the development of clinical trials with α-LA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119899DOI Listing
August 2021

Unravelling the potential neuroprotective facets of erythropoietin for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

During the last three decades, recombinant DNA technology has produced a wide range of hematopoietic and neurotrophic growth factors, including erythropoietin (EPO), which has emerged as a promising protein drug in the treatment of several diseases. Cumulative studies have recently indicated the neuroprotective role of EPO in preclinical models of acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative illnesses in the elderly, characterized by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid-ß (Aß) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which serve as the disease's two hallmarks. Unfortunately, AD lacks a successful treatment strategy due to its multifaceted and complex pathology. Various clinical studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have been conducted to identify the various mechanisms by which erythropoietin exerts its neuroprotective effects. The results of clinical trials in patients with AD are also promising. Herein, it is summarized and reviews all such studies demonstrating erythropoietin's potential therapeutic benefits as a pleiotropic neuroprotective agent in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-021-00820-6DOI Listing
August 2021

Mechanistic insights into the role of B cells in rheumatoid arthritis.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Oct 23;99:108078. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease epitomized by severe inflammation that induces tendon, cartilage, and bone damage over time. Although different types of cells undertake pathogenic functions in RA, the B cell's significant involvement has increasingly been known following the development of rheumatoid factor and it has been re-emphasized in recent years. Therefore, the rheumatoid factors and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies are well-known indications of infection and clinical manifestations, and that they can precede the development of illness by several years. The emergence of rituximab a B cell reducing chimeric antidote in 1997 and 1998 transformed B-cell-targeted therapy for inflammatory disorder from a research hypothesis to a functional fact. Ever since, several autoantibody-related conditions were addressed, including the more intriguing indications of effectiveness seen in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Numerous types of B-cell-targeted compounds are currently being researched. From the beginning, one of the primary goals of B-cell therapy was to reinstate some kind of immune tolerance. While B cells have long been recognized as essential autoantibody producers, certain antibody-independent functions and usefulness as a key targeted therapy were not recognized until recently. The knowledge of B cells' diverse physical and pathogenic roles in autoimmune diseases is growing. As a result, the number of successful agents targeting the B cell complex is becoming more ubiquitous. Therefore, in this article, we explore fresh perspectives upon the roles of B cells in arthritis treatment, as well as new evidence regarding the effectiveness of B lymphocytes reduction and the therapeutic outcome of biological markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108078DOI Listing
October 2021

ChAlPred: A web server for prediction of allergenicity of chemical compounds.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Sep 8;136:104746. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Department of Computational Biology, Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, Okhla Phase 3, New Delhi, 110020, India. Electronic address:

Background: Allergy is the abrupt reaction of the immune system that may occur after the exposure to allergens such as proteins, peptides, or chemicals. In the past, various methods have been generated for predicting allergenicity of proteins and peptides. In contrast, there is no method that can predict allergenic potential of chemicals. In this paper, we described a method ChAlPred developed for predicting chemical allergens as well as for designing chemical analogs with desired allergenicity.

Method: In this study, we have used 403 allergenic and 1074 non-allergenic chemical compounds obtained from IEDB database. The PaDEL software was used to compute the molecular descriptors of the chemical compounds to develop different prediction models. All the models were trained and tested on the 80% training data and evaluated on the 20% validation data using the 2D, 3D and FP descriptors.

Results: In this study, we have developed different prediction models using several machine learning approaches. It was observed that the Random Forest based model developed using hybrid descriptors performed the best, and achieved the maximum accuracy of 83.39% and AUC of 0.93 on validation dataset. The fingerprint analysis of the dataset indicates that certain chemical fingerprints are more abundant in allergens that include PubChemFP129 and GraphFP1014. We have also predicted allergenicity potential of FDA-approved drugs using our best model and identified the drugs causing allergic symptoms (e.g., Cefuroxime, Spironolactone, Tioconazole). Our results agreed with allergenicity of these drugs reported in literature.

Conclusions: To aid the research community, we developed a smart-device compatible web server ChAlPred (https://webs.iiitd.edu.in/raghava/chalpred/) that allows to predict and design the chemicals with allergenic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104746DOI Listing
September 2021

Multifaceted Alzheimer's Disease: Building a Roadmap for Advancement of Novel Therapies.

Neurochem Res 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most prevailing neurodegenerative disorders of elderly humans associated with cognitive damage. Biochemical, epigenetic, and pathophysiological factors all consider a critical role of extracellular amyloid-beta (Aß) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) as pathological hallmarks of AD. In an endeavor to describe the intricacy and multifaceted nature of AD, several hypotheses based on the roles of Aß accumulation, tau hyperphosphorylation, impaired cholinergic signaling, neuroinflammation, and autophagy during the initiation and advancement of the disease have been suggested. However, in no way do these theories have the potential of autonomously describing the pathophysiological alterations located in AD. The complex pathological nature of AD has hindered the recognition and authentication of successful biomarkers for the progression of its diagnosis and therapeutic strategies. There has been a significant research effort to design multi-target-directed ligands for the treatment of AD, an approach which is developed by the knowledge that AD is a composite and multifaceted disease linked with several separate but integrated molecular pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-021-03415-wDOI Listing
August 2021

Exploiting DNA repair pathways for tumor sensitization, mitigation of resistance, and normal tissue protection in radiotherapy.

Cancer Drug Resist 2021 19;4:244-263. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523, USA.

More than half of cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy, which kills tumor cells by directly and indirectly inducing DNA damage, including cytotoxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Tumor cells respond to these threats by activating a complex signaling network termed the DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR arrests the cell cycle, upregulates DNA repair, and triggers apoptosis when damage is excessive. The DDR signaling and DNA repair pathways are fertile terrain for therapeutic intervention. This review highlights strategies to improve therapeutic gain by targeting DDR and DNA repair pathways to radiosensitize tumor cells, overcome intrinsic and acquired tumor radioresistance, and protect normal tissue. Many biological and environmental factors determine tumor and normal cell responses to ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemotherapeutics. These include cell type and cell cycle phase distribution; tissue/tumor microenvironment and oxygen levels; DNA damage load and quality; DNA repair capacity; and susceptibility to apoptosis or other active or passive cell death pathways. We provide an overview of radiobiological parameters associated with X-ray, proton, and carbon ion radiotherapy; DNA repair and DNA damage signaling pathways; and other factors that regulate tumor and normal cell responses to radiation. We then focus on recent studies exploiting DSB repair pathways to enhance radiotherapy therapeutic gain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20517/cdr.2020.89DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323830PMC
June 2021

A spotlight on underlying the mechanism of AMPK in diabetes complications.

Inflamm Res 2021 Sep 28;70(9):939-957. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

Objective: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the centenarian metabolic disorders and is considered as a stellar and leading health issue worldwide. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Diabetes Atlas and National Diabetes Statistics, the number of diabetic patients will increase at an exponential rate from 463 to 700 million by the year 2045. Thus, there is a great need for therapies targeting functions that can help in maintaining the homeostasis of glucose levels and improving insulin sensitivity. 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, by various direct and indirect factors, might help to overcome the hurdles (like insulin resistance) associated with the conventional approach.

Materials And Results: A thorough review and analysis was conducted using various database including MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, with Google scholar using various keywords. This extensive review concluded that various drugs (plant-based, synthetic indirect/direct activators) are available, showing tremendous potential in maintaining the homeostasis of glucose and lipid metabolism, without causing insulin resistance, and improving insulin sensitivity. Moreover, these drugs have an effect against diabetes and are therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of diabetes-associated complications (neuropathy and nephropathy) via mechanism involving inhibition of nuclear translocation of SMAD4 (SMAD family member) expression and association with peripheral nociceptive neurons mediated by AMPK.

Conclusion: From the available information, it may be concluded that various indirect/direct activators show tremendous potential in maintaining the homeostasis of glucose and lipid metabolism, without resulting in insulin resistance, and may improve insulin sensitivity, as well. Therefore, in a nut shell, it may be concluded that the regulation of APMK functions by various direct/indirect activators may bring promising results. These activators may emerge as a novel therapy in diabetes and its associated complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00011-021-01488-5DOI Listing
September 2021

Current Trends in Neurodegeneration: Cross Talks between Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Inflammation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 11;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Department of Medical Disciplines, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, 410073 Oradea, Romania.

The human body is highly complex and comprises a variety of living cells and extracellular material, which forms tissues, organs, and organ systems. Human cells tend to turn over readily to maintain homeostasis in tissues. However, postmitotic nerve cells exceptionally have an ability to regenerate and be sustained for the entire life of an individual, to safeguard the physiological functioning of the central nervous system. For efficient functioning of the CNS, neuronal death is essential, but extreme loss of neurons diminishes the functioning of the nervous system and leads to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases range from acute to chronic severe life-altering conditions like Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Millions of individuals worldwide are suffering from neurodegenerative disorders with little or negligible treatment available, thereby leading to a decline in their quality of life. Neuropathological studies have identified a series of factors that explain the etiology of neuronal degradation and its progression in neurodegenerative disease. The onset of neurological diseases depends on a combination of factors that causes a disruption of neurons, such as environmental, biological, physiological, and genetic factors. The current review highlights some of the major pathological factors responsible for neuronal degradation, such as oxidative stress, cell death, and neuroinflammation. All these factors have been described in detail to enhance the understanding of their mechanisms and target them for disease management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306752PMC
July 2021

Roles of homologous recombination in response to ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage.

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 Aug 4:1-12. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine and the Mays Cancer Center, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Purpose: Ionizing radiation induces a vast array of DNA lesions including base damage, and single- and double-strand breaks (SSB, DSB). DSBs are among the most cytotoxic lesions, and mis-repair causes small- and large-scale genome alterations that can contribute to carcinogenesis. Indeed, ionizing radiation is a 'complete' carcinogen. DSBs arise immediately after irradiation, termed 'frank DSBs,' as well as several hours later in a replication-dependent manner, termed 'secondary' or 'replication-dependent DSBs. DSBs resulting from replication fork collapse are single-ended and thus pose a distinct problem from two-ended, frank DSBs. DSBs are repaired by error-prone nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), or generally error-free homologous recombination (HR), each with sub-pathways. Clarifying how these pathways operate in normal and tumor cells is critical to increasing tumor control and minimizing side effects during radiotherapy.

Conclusions: The choice between NHEJ and HR is regulated during the cell cycle and by other factors. DSB repair pathways are major contributors to cell survival after ionizing radiation, including tumor-resistance to radiotherapy. Several nucleases are important for HR-mediated repair of replication-dependent DSBs and thus replication fork restart. These include three structure-specific nucleases, the 3' MUS81 nuclease, and two 5' nucleases, EEPD1 and Metnase, as well as three end-resection nucleases, MRE11, EXO1, and DNA2. The three structure-specific nucleases evolved at very different times, suggesting incremental acceleration of replication fork restart to limit toxic HR intermediates and genome instability as genomes increased in size during evolution, including the gain of large numbers of HR-prone repetitive elements. Ionizing radiation also induces delayed effects, observed days to weeks after exposure, including delayed cell death and delayed HR. In this review we highlight the roles of HR in cellular responses to ionizing radiation, and discuss the importance of HR as an exploitable target for cancer radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09553002.2021.1956001DOI Listing
August 2021

Role of Monoamine Oxidase Activity in Alzheimer's Disease: An Insight into the Therapeutic Potential of Inhibitors.

Molecules 2021 Jun 18;26(12). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Surgical Disciplines, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, 410073 Oradea, Romania.

Despite not being utilized as considerably as other antidepressants in the therapy of depression, the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) proceed to hold a place in neurodegeneration and to have a somewhat broad spectrum in respect of the treatment of neurological and psychiatric conditions. Preclinical and clinical studies on MAOIs have been developing in recent times, especially on account of rousing discoveries manifesting that these drugs possess neuroprotective activities. The altered brain levels of monoamine neurotransmitters due to monoamine oxidase (MAO) are directly associated with various neuropsychiatric conditions like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Activated MAO induces the amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition via abnormal cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Additionally, activated MAO contributes to the generation of neurofibrillary tangles and cognitive impairment due to neuronal loss. No matter the attention of researchers on the participation of MAOIs in neuroprotection has been on monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitors, there is a developing frame of proof indicating that monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) inhibitors may also play a role in neuroprotection. The therapeutic potential of MAOIs alongside the complete understanding of the enzyme's physiology may lead to the future advancement of these drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26123724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234097PMC
June 2021

Current Perspective on the Natural Compounds and Drug Delivery Techniques in Glioblastoma Multiforme.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 2;13(11). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Surgical Disciplines, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, 410073 Oradea, Romania.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the debilitating brain tumors, being associated with extremely poor prognosis and short median patient survival. GBM is associated with complex pathogenesis with alterations in various cellular signaling events, that participate in cell proliferation and survival. The impairment in cellular redox pathways leads to tumorigenesis. The current standard pharmacological regimen available for glioblastomas, such as radiotherapy and surgical resection following treatment with chemotherapeutic drug temozolomide, remains fatal, due to drug resistance, metastasis and tumor recurrence. Thus, the demand for an effective therapeutic strategy for GBM remains elusive. Hopefully, novel products from natural compounds are suggested as possible solutions. They protect glial cells by reducing oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis, inhibiting pro-oncogene events and intensifying the potent anti-tumor therapies. Targeting aberrant cellular pathways in the amelioration of GBM could promote the development of new therapeutic options that improve patient quality of life and extend survival. Consequently, our review emphasizes several natural compounds in GBM treatment. We also assessed the potential of drug delivery techniques such as nanoparticles, Gliadel wafers and drug delivery using cellular carriers which could lead to a novel path for the obliteration of GBM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8199612PMC
June 2021

Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology versus Core-Needle Biopsy for Breast Lesions: A Dilemma of Superiority between the Two.

Acta Cytol 2021 30;65(5):411-416. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Surgery, IGMC, Shimla, India.

Introduction: Core-needle biopsy (CNB) is a minimally invasive procedure used in preoperative diagnosis of breast lumps. It has been seen that in few years, the CNB seems to be replacing the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), although no study had yet conclusively proved a superiority of one over the other.

Aims And Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the cytohistological spectrum of palpable breast lesions and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of FNAC versus CNB for breast lesions.

Materials And Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Pathology and Surgery, over a period of 1 year in 152 patients. All the patients were subjected to FNAC and CNB. Cytosmears were stained with May-Grunwald Giemsa and hematoxylin and eosin was done on CNB and excision biopsy (EB) specimens. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated in percentage with 95% confidence interval with reference to CNB/surgical specimens. Kappa statistics were used to compare the level of agreement between FNAC versus CNB and CNB versus surgical specimens.

Results: A total of 152 patients were taken for FNAC and CNB. EB was performed in only 104 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of FNAC verses CNB in correlation with subsequent histopathology were found to be (93.40 vs. 94.06%), (97.50 vs. 100.00%), (99.00 vs. 100.00%), (84.78 vs. 33.33%), and (94.52 vs. 94.23%), respectively.

Conclusion: CNB has overcome the pitfall of FNAC but CNB cannot replace FNAC but both procedures are complementary to each other.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000517005DOI Listing
September 2021

Targeting NLRP3 inflammasome as a chief instigator of obesity, contributing to local adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 19;28(32):43102-43113. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Chrono-Environment Laboratory, UMR CNRS 6249, Bourgogne Franche-Comté University, Besancon, France.

Inflammasome activity plays a vital role in various non-microbial disease states correlated with prolonged inflammation. NLRP3 inflammasome function and IL-1β formation are augmented in obesity and several obesity-linked metabolic disorders (i.e. diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hepatic steatosis, cancer, arthritis, and sleep apnea). Also, several factors are associated with the progression of diseases viz. increased plasma glucose, fatty acids, and β-amyloid are augmented during obesity and activate NLRP3 inflammasome expression. Prolonged NLRP3 stimulation seems to play significant role in various disorders, though better knowledge of inflammasome regulation and action might result in improved therapeutic tactics. Numerous compounds that mitigate NLRP3 inflammasome expression and suppress its chief effector, IL-1β are presently studied in clinical phases as therapeutics to manage or prevent these common disorders. A deep research on the literature available till date for inflammasome in obesity was conducted using various medical sites like PubMed, HINARI, MEDLINE from the internet, and data was collected simultaneously. The present review aims to examine the prospects of inflammasome as a major progenitor in the progression of obesity via directing their role in regulating appetite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14904-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Exploring the therapeutic potential of omega-3 fatty acids in depression.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 14;28(32):43021-43034. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Chrono-Environment Laboratory, UMR CNRS 6249, Bourgogne Franche-Comté University, Besançon, France.

Omega-3 fatty acids have been acknowledged for their number of holdings on an individual's health. Not only in physical valuation but also in managing psychiatric disorders, omega-3 fatty acids have been found to be a powerful formula. It is proclaimed that depressive patients suffer anomaly with the levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the body, coupled with insignificant EPA and DHA. Enhancement in brain functioning, neuronal functions, and paying attention in interacting with the brain cells are some of the additional tasks, being performed by the supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids. The leading and primary source via dietary supplementation involves the involvement of fish and fish products. These are hypothesized to be the best and dominant source for omega-3 fatty acids. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acid is well safe, that physician highly favors intake of these supplements, remarkably in the case of pregnant women. However, treating this serious life-threatening mental disorder leads to many adverse effects when treated with antidepressants. The dose range includes 1g/d to 10g/d, which is to be incorporated by the patient. It is also tested that the combination of EPA and DHA is found to be more efficacious for a person in treating and preventing depressive symptoms. Some studies verify the supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in diet was coequally productive and successful with minimal side effects when analyzed with antidepressants. Despite these facts, much research is still needed and presently in process for long-term safety and studying the role of omega-3 fatty acids in human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14884-5DOI Listing
August 2021

Uncurtaining the pivotal role of ABC transporters in diabetes mellitus.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 3;28(31):41533-41551. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

The metabolic disorders are the edge points for the initiation of various diseases. These disorders comprised of several diseases including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular complications. Worldwide, the prevalence of these disorders is increasing day by day. The world's population is at higher threat of developing metabolic disease, especially diabetes. Therefore, there is an impregnable necessity of searching for a newer therapeutic target to reduce the burden of these disorders. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is marked with the dysregulated insulin secretion and resistance. The lipid and glucose transporters portray a pivotal role in the metabolism and transport of both of these. The excess production of lipid and glucose and decreased clearance of these leads to the emergence of DM. The ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABCT) are important for the metabolism of glucose and lipid. Various studies suggest the key involvement of ABCT in the pathologic process of different diseases. In addition, the involvement of other pathways, including IGF signaling, P13-Akt/PKC/MAPK signaling, and GLP-1 via regulation of ABCT, may help develop new treatment strategies to cope with insulin resistance dysregulated glucose metabolism, key features in DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14675-yDOI Listing
August 2021

Targeting cellular batteries for the therapy of neurological diseases.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 3;28(31):41517-41532. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

The mitochondria, apart from being known as the cell's "powerhouse," are crucial in the viability of nerve cells. Any damage to these cellular organelles can result in their cellular level dysfunction which includes rapidly multiplying reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the mitochondrial membrane, impaired calcium ion homeostasis, and disturbed mitochondrial dynamics by the formation of permeability transition pore in mitochondria. All these impaired biochemical changes lead to various neurological disorders such as progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, impaired mitochondrial functions are particularly prone to damage owing to prolonged lifespan and stretched length of the neurons. At the same time, neurons are highly dependent on ATP, and thus, the mitochondria play a central role in the pathogenesis pertaining to neuronal disorders. Dysfunction in the mitochondria is an early pathological hallmark of neurological disorders, and its early detection with the help of suitable biomarkers can lead to promising treatment in this area. Thus, the drugs which are targeting mitochondrial dysfunctions are the emerging area of research in connection with neurological disorders. This can be evidenced by the great opportunities for mitigation, diagnosis, and treatment of numerous human disorders that entail mitochondrial dysfunction at the nexus of their pathogenesis. Here, we throw light at the mitochondrial pathologies and indications of dysfunctional mitochondria in PD, AD, and PSP. There is also an insight into the possible therapeutic strategies highlighting the need for mitochondria-based medicine and made an attempt for claiming the prerequisite for the therapy of neurological diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14665-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Elucidating the Possible Role of FoxO in Depression.

Neurochem Res 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

Forkhead box-O (FoxO) transcriptional factors perform essential functions in several physiological and biological processes. Recent studies have shown that FoxO is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Changes in the upstream mediators of FoxOs including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and protein kinase B have been associated with depressive disorder and the antidepressant agents are known to alter the phosphorylation of FoxOs. Moreover, FoxOs might be regulated by serotonin or noradrenaline signaling and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis,both of them are associated with the development of the depressive disorder. FoxO also regulates neural morphology, synaptogenesis, and neurogenesis in the hippocampus, which accounts for the pathogenesis of the depressive disorder. The current article underlined the potential functions of FoxOs in the etiology of depressive disorder and formulate few essential proposals for further investigation. The review also proposes that FoxO and its signal pathway might establish possible therapeutic mediators for the management of depressive disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-021-03364-4DOI Listing
June 2021

RAD51AP1 mediates RAD51 activity through nucleosome interaction.

J Biol Chem 2021 07 28;297(1):100844. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Electronic address:

RAD51-associated protein 1 (RAD51AP1) is a key protein in the homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair pathway. Loss of RAD51AP1 leads to defective HR, genome instability, and telomere erosion. RAD51AP1 physically interacts with the RAD51 recombinase and promotes RAD51-mediated capture of donor DNA, synaptic complex assembly, and displacement-loop formation when tested with nucleosome-free DNA substrates. In cells, however, DNA is packaged into chromatin, posing an additional barrier to the complexities of the HR reaction. In this study, we show that RAD51AP1 binds to nucleosome core particles (NCPs), the minimum basic unit of chromatin in which approximately two superhelical turns of 147 bp double-stranded DNA are wrapped around one histone octamer with no free DNA ends remaining. We identified a C-terminal region in RAD51AP1, including its previously mapped DNA-binding domain, as critical for mediating the association between RAD51AP1 and both the NCP and the histone octamer. Using in vitro surrogate assays of HR activity, we show that RAD51AP1 is capable of promoting duplex DNA capture and initiating joint-molecule formation with the NCP and chromatinized template DNA, respectively. Together, our results suggest that RAD51AP1 directly assists in the RAD51-mediated search for donor DNA in chromatin. We present a model, in which RAD51AP1 anchors the DNA template through affinity for its nucleosomes to the RAD51-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233230PMC
July 2021

Status and consolidated list of threatened medicinal plants of India.

Genet Resour Crop Evol 2021 May 25:1-29. Epub 2021 May 25.

Tissue Culture and Cryopreservation Unit, ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), Pusa Campus, New Delhi, 110012 India.

A wide array of medicinal plants in India, primarily used by locals for health care, have found wide acceptance and adoption globally (either directly or processed) due to distinct advantages of good results, low or no side-effects and ease of access to general public. Indigenous and traditional systems of medicine in practice since historical times have shown potential (direct or indirect as immune-boosters) against many dreaded ailments including the recent global pandemic of COVID-19. With prediction of sixth mass extinction, there is worldwide concern as majority of these plants, collected from natural stands, are also facing threat of extinction. Since 1990s concerted efforts have been directed towards assessment of threat status, the basic requirement for prioritizing conservation activity to various species of plants and animals. In literature there is staggered information regarding list of threatened plants, including medicinal plants of India, compiled at either state level or national or international level. Analysis of these publications led to collation of a consolidated list of 84 species and the same is presented here. A brief account of conservation efforts in India at national level and supportive policy framework is also included. This compilation is aimed to serve as a comprehensive reference especially for beginners, researchers, conservationists, foresters, pharmaceutical professionals as well as policy makers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10722-021-01199-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8148398PMC
May 2021

Connecting the dots between mitochondrial dysfunction and Parkinson's disorder: focus mitochondria-targeting therapeutic paradigm in mitigating the disease severity.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 29;28(28):37060-37081. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

Mitochondria are unique cell organelles, which exhibit multifactorial roles in numerous cell physiological processes, significantly preserving the integrity of neural synaptic interconnections, mediating ATP production, and regulating apoptotic signaling pathways and calcium homeostasis. Multiple neurological disorders occur as a consequence of impaired mitochondrial functioning, with greater sensitivity of dopaminergic (DA) neurons to mitochondrial dysfunction, due to oxidative nature and low mitochondrial mass, thus supporting the contribution of mitochondrial impairment in Parkinson's disorder (neuronal damage due to curbed dopamine levels). The pathophysiology of the second most common disorder, PD, is potentiated by various mitochondrial homeostasis regulating genes, as discussed in the review. The PD symptoms are known to be aggravated by multiple mitochondria-linked alterations, like reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, Ca2+ buffering, imbalanced mitochondrial dynamics (fission, fusion, mitophagy), biogenetic dysfunctions, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), protein aggregation, neurotoxins, and genetic mutations, which manifest the central involvement of unhealthy mitochondria in neurodegeneration, resulting in retarded DA neurons in region of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), causing PD. Furthermore, the review tends to target altered mitochondrial components, like oxidative stress, inflammation, biogenetic alterations, impaired dynamics, uncontrolled homeostasis, and genetic mutations, to provide a sustainable and reliable alternative in PD therapeutics and to overcome the pitfalls of conventional therapeutic agents. Therefore, the authors elaborate the relationship between PD pathogenesis and mitochondrial dysfunctions, followed by a suitable mitochondria-targeting therapeutic portfolio, as well as future considerations, aiding the researchers to investigate novel strategies to mitigate the severity of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14619-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Exploring the role of polyphenols in rheumatoid arthritis.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 17:1-22. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory and autoimmune disorder which is mainly characterized by inflammation in joints, bone erosions and cartilaginous destruction that leads to joint dysfunction, deformation, and/or permanent functional impairment. The prevalence of RA is increasing, incurring a considerable burden on healthcare systems globally. The exact etiology of RA is unknown, with various pathways implicated in its pathophysiology. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including celecoxib, diclofenac and ibuprofen, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) including azathioprine, methotrexate and cyclosporine, biological agents including anakinra, infliximab, and rituximab and immunosuppressants are used for symptomatic relief in patients with RA, but these medications have severe adverse effects such as gastric ulcers, hypertension, hepatotoxicity and renal abnormalities which restrict their use in the treatment of RA; new RA treatments with minimal side-effects are urgently required. There is accumulating evidence that dietary polyphenols may show therapeutic efficacy in RA through their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, apoptotic, and immunosuppressant activities and modulation of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), IL-1β, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor κ light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB) pathways. While resveratrol, genistein, carnosol, epigallocatechin gallate, curcumin, kaempferol, and hydroxytyrosol have also been studied for the treatment of RA, the majority of data are derived from animal models. Here, we review the various pathways involved in the development of RA and the preclinical and clinical data supporting polyphenols as potential therapeutic agents in RA patients. Our review highlights that high-quality clinical studies are required to decisively establish the anti-rheumatic efficacy of polyphenolic compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1924613DOI Listing
May 2021

SAPdb: A database of short peptides and the corresponding nanostructures formed by self-assembly.

Comput Biol Med 2021 06 10;133:104391. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Computational Biology, Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, New Delhi-110020, India. Electronic address: http://webs.iiitd.edu.in/raghava/.

Nanostructures generated by self-assembly of peptides yield nanomaterials that have many therapeutic applications, including drug delivery and biomedical engineering, due to their low cytotoxicity and higher uptake by targeted cells owing to their high affinity and specificity towards cell surface receptors. Despite the promising implications of this rapidly expanding field, there is no dedicated resource to study peptide nanostructures. This study endeavours to create a repository of short peptides, which may prove to be the best models to study ordered nanostructures formed by peptide self-assembly. SAPdb has a repertoire of 1049 entries of experimentally validated nanostructures formed by the self-assembly of small peptides. It consists of 328 tripeptides, 701 dipeptides, and 20 single amino acids with some conjugate partners. Each entry encompasses comprehensive information about the peptide, such as chemical modifications, the type of nanostructure formed, experimental conditions like pH, temperature, solvent required for the self-assembly, etc. Our analysis indicates that peptides containing aromatic amino acids favour the formation of self-assembling nanostructures. Additionally, we observed that these peptides form different nanostructures under different experimental conditions. SAPdb provides this comprehensive information in a hassle-free tabulated manner at a glance. User-friendly browsing, searching, and analysis modules have been integrated for easy data retrieval, data comparison, and examination of properties. We anticipate SAPdb to be a valuable repository for researchers engaged in the burgeoning arena of nanobiotechnology. It is freely available at https://webs.iiitd.edu.in/raghava/sapdb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104391DOI Listing
June 2021

Exploring Sonic Hedgehog Cell Signaling in Neurogenesis: Its Potential Role in Depressive Behavior.

Neurochem Res 2021 Jul 30;46(7):1589-1602. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

Depression is the most prevalent form of neuropsychiatric disorder affecting all age groups globally. As per the estimation of the World Health Organization (WHO), depression will develop into the foremost reason for disability globally by the year 2030. The primary neurobiological mechanism implicated in depression remains ambiguous; however, dysregulation of molecular and signaling transductions results in depressive disorders. Several theories have been developed to explain the pathogenesis of depression, however, none of them completely explained all aspects of depressive-pathogenesis. In the current review, we aimed to explore the role of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway in the development of the depressive disorder and its potential as the therapeutic target. Shh signaling has a crucial function in neurogenesis and neural tube patterning during the development of the central nervous system (CNS). Shh signaling performs a basic function in embryogenesis and hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, antidepressants are also known to enhance neurogenesis in the hippocampus, which further suggests the potential of Shh signaling. Furthermore, there is decreased expression of a glioma-associated oncogene (Gli1) and Smoothened (Smo) in depression. Moreover, antidepressants also regulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and wingless protein (Wnt) signaling, therefore, Shh may be implicated in the pathogenesis of the depressive disorder. Deregulation of Shh signaling in CNS results in neurological disorders such as depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-021-03307-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Exploring the recent molecular targets for diabetes and associated complications.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Mar 24;48(3):2863-2879. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Glocal School of Pharmacy, Glocal University, Mirzapur Pole, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Diabetes is likely one of the centenarian diseases which is apprehended with certainty to humans. According to established protocols of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and numerous investigated studies diabetes is analyzed as a stellar and leading health issue worldwide. Although, the implicit costs of this pathology are increasing every year, thus, there is a need to find a novel method which can provide promising results in the management of diabetes and can overcome the side effects associated with the conventional medication. Comprehensive review of this topic was undertaken through various research and review papers which were conducted using MEDLINE, BIOSIS and EMBASE database. Using various keywords, we retrieve the most relevant content for the thorough review on recent targets and novel molecular pathways for targeting diabetes and associated complications. From the detailed analysis, we have highlighted some molecular pathways and novel targets which had shown promising results in both in-vitro and in-vivo studies and may be considered as pipeline target for clinical trials. Furthermore, these targets not only abetted amelioration of diabetes but also helped in mitigation of diabetes associated complications as well. Thus, based on the available information and literature on these potential molecules, conclusive evidence can be drawn which confirms targeting these novel pathways may unleash an array of benefits that have the potential to overpower the benefits obtained from conventional therapy in the management of diabetes thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality associated with diabetic complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06294-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Prevalence of anxiety and depression in cancer patients during radiotherapy: A rural Indian perspective.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Jan-Mar;17(1):218-224

Department of Radiation Oncology, Command Hospital (Southern Command), Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Objective: This cross-sectional, quantitative epidemiological study was aimed at finding the prevalence of depression in cancer patients and correlation of anxiety and depression with various factors such as age, sex, and type of malignancy while coming for treatment to the radiotherapy department of a tertiary cancer hospital, at the onset, midway, and at the end of radiotherapy treatment using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).

Materials And Methods: A total of 100 consecutive cancer patients referred for definitive radiotherapy were included. All patients were administered the HADS. The percentage of respondents with anxiety increased significantly after initiating RT and maximum scores were recorded at the end of treatment. The association between anxiety scores and various factors such as age, site, and sex during various phases of RT was found using Chi-square test.

Results: At the beginning of Radiotherapy (RT), 61% of our patients reported abnormal scores while this percentage increased to almost 89% at the end of treatment, the comparison between the scores at the beginning and at the end reach a statistical significance (P < 0.0005) while the comparison between the scores at the start and midway led to (P < 0.011). According to the subsite, maximum prevalence of anxiety and depression was seen in patients having head and neck malignancies while older age again was a significant factor leading to the symptoms of anxiety and depression.

Conclusion: The diagnosis of cancer carries with it a significant amount of psychological morbidity, both subjectively experienced and objectively observed. Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy further aggravate anxiety by becoming additional stressors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_277_19DOI Listing
March 2021
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