Publications by authors named "Neda Firouraghi"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A geodatabase of blood pressure level and the associated factors including lifestyle, nutritional, air pollution, and urban greenspace.

BMC Res Notes 2021 Nov 18;14(1):416. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Medical Informatics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: Hypertension is a prevalent chronic disease globally. A multifaceted combination of risk factors is associated with hypertension. Scientific literature has shown the association among individual and environmental factors with hypertension, however, a comprehensive database including demographic, environmental, individual attributes and nutritional status has been rarely studied. Moreover, an integrated spatial-epidemiological approach has been scarcely researched. Therefore, this study aims to provide and describe a geodatabase including individual-based and socio-environmental data related to people living in the city of Mashhad, Iran in 2018.

Data Description: The database has been extracted from the PERSIAN Organizational Cohort study in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The data note includes three shapefiles and a help file. The shapefile format is a digital vector storage format for storing geometric location and associated attribute information. The first shapefile includes the data of population, air pollutants and amount of available green space for each census block of the city. The second shapefile consists of aggregated blood pressure data to the census blocks of the city. The third shapefile comprises the individual characteristics data (i.e., demographic, clinical, and lifestyle). Finally, the fourth file is a guide to the previous data files for users.
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November 2021

Spatio-temporal visualisation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic, urban area in Iran.

Acta Trop 2022 Jan 20;225:106181. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Medical Informatics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a significant public health concern worldwide. Iran is among the most CL-affected countries, being one of the six most endemic countries in the world. This study aimed to provide a spatio-temporal visualisation of CL cases in an endemic urban area in north-eastern Iran identifying high-risk and low-risk areas during the period 2016-2019.

Methods: This ecological study was conducted in the city of Mashhad, north-eastern Iran. All cases (n=2425) were diagnosed based on clinical findings and parasitological tests. The patient data were aggregated at the census tract level (the highest resolution available). CL incidence rates were subjected to Empirical Bayesian smoothing across the census tracts followed by spatial autocorrelation analysis to identify clusters and outliers. Spatial scan statistic was used to explore the purely temporal, purely spatial and spatio-temporal trend of the disease. In all instances, the null hypothesis of no clusters was rejected at p ≤0.05.

Results: The overall crude incidence rate decreased from 34.6 per 100,000 individuals in 2016 to 19.9 per 100,000 in 2019. Cluster analysis identified high-risk areas in south-western Mashhad and low-risk areas in the north-eastern areas. Purely time scan statistics identified March to July as the time period with highest risk for CL occurrence. One most likely purely high-risk spatial cluster and six secondary purely high-risk spatial clusters were identified. Further, two spatio-temporal high-risk clusters, one in the north of the city from April to August and a second in the south-western part from March to September were observed.

Conclusions: Significant spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal patterns of CL distribution were observed in the study area, which should be considered when designing tailored interventions, such as effective resource allocation models, informed control plans and implementation of efficient surveillance systems. Furthermore, this study generated new hypotheses to test potential relationships between socio-economic and environmental risk factors and incidence of CL in high-risk areas.
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January 2022

Spatio-temporal epidemiology of the tuberculosis incidence rate in Iran 2008 to 2018.

BMC Public Health 2021 06 7;21(1):1093. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

Background: Effective reduction of tuberculosis (TB) requires information on the distribution of TB incidence rate across time and location. This study aims to identify the spatio-temporal pattern of TB incidence rate in Iran between 2008 and 2018.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on aggregated TB data (50,500 patients) at the provincial level provided by the Ministry of Health in Iran between 2008 and 2018. The Anselin Local Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* were performed to identify the spatial variations of the disease. Furthermore, spatial scan statistic was employed for purely temporal and spatio-temporal analyses. In all instances, the null hypothesis of no clusters was rejected at p ≤ 0.05.

Results: The overall incidence rate of TB decreased from 13.46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 13.19-13.73) in 2008 to 10.88 per 100,000 (95% CI: 10.65-11.11) in 2018. The highest incidence rate of TB was observed in southeast and northeast of Iran for the whole study period. Additionally, spatial cluster analysis discovered Khuzestan Province, in the West of the country, having significantly higher rates than neighbouring provinces in terms of both total TB and smear-positive pulmonary TB (SPPTB). Purely temporal analysis showed that high-rate and low-rate clusters were predominantly distributed in the time periods 2010-2014 and 2017-2018. Spatio-temporal results showed that the statistically significant clusters were mainly distributed from centre to the east during the study period. Some high-trend TB and SPPTB statistically significant clusters were found.

Conclusion: The results provided an overview of the latest TB spatio-temporal status In Iran and identified decreasing trends of TB in the 2008-2018 period. Despite the decreasing incidence rate, there is still need for screening, and targeting of preventive interventions, especially in high-risk areas. Knowledge of the spatio-temporal pattern of TB can be useful for policy development as the information regarding the high-risk areas would contribute to the selection of areas needed to be targeted for the expansion of health facilities.
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June 2021

Spatio-temporal mapping of breast and prostate cancers in South Iran from 2014 to 2017.

BMC Cancer 2020 Nov 30;20(1):1170. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Medical Informatics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: The most common gender-specific malignancies are cancers of the breast and the prostate. In developing countries, cancer screening of all at risk is impractical because of healthcare resource limitations. Thus, determining high-risk areas might be an important first screening step. This study explores incidence patterns of potential high-risk clusters of breast and prostate cancers in southern Iran.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the province of Kerman, South Iran. Patient data were aggregated at the county and district levels calculating the incidence rate per 100,000 people both for cancers of the breast and the prostate. We used the natural-break classification with five classes to produce descriptive maps. A spatial clustering analysis (Anselin Local Moran's I) was used to identify potential clusters and outliers in the pattern of these cancers from 2014 to 2017.

Results: There were 1350 breast cancer patients (including, 42 male cases) and 478 prostate cancer patients in the province of Kerman, Iran during the study period. After 45 years of age, the number of men with diagnosed prostate cancer increased similarly to that of breast cancer for women after 25 years of age. The age-standardised incidence rate of breast cancer for women showed an increase from 29.93 to 32.27 cases per 100,000 people and that of prostate cancer from 13.93 to 15.47 cases per 100,000 during 2014-2017. Cluster analysis at the county level identified high-high clusters of breast cancer in the north-western part of the province for all years studied, but the analysis at the district level showed high-high clusters for only two of the years. With regard to prostate cancer, cluster analysis at the county and district levels identified high-high clusters in this area of the province for two of the study years.

Conclusions: North-western Kerman had a significantly higher incidence rate of both breast and prostate cancer than the average, which should help in designing tailored screening and surveillance systems. Furthermore, this study generates new hypotheses regarding the potential relationship between increased incidence of cancers in certain geographical areas and environmental risk factors.
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November 2020

A spatial database of colorectal cancer patients and potential nutritional risk factors in an urban area in the Middle East.

BMC Res Notes 2020 Oct 2;13(1):466. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Medical Informatics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer across the world that multiple risk factors together contribute to CRC development. There is a limited research report on impact of nutritional risk factors and spatial variation of CRC risk. Geographical information system (GIS) can help researchers and policy makers to link the CRC incidence data with environmental risk factor and further spatial analysis generates new knowledge on spatial variation of CRC risk and explore the potential clusters in the pattern of incidence. This spatial analysis enables policymakers to develop tailored interventions. This study aims to release the datasets, which we have used to conduct a spatial analysis of CRC patients in the city of Mashhad, Iran between 2016 and 2017.

Data Description: These data include five data files. The file CRCcases_Mashhad contains the geographical locations of 695 CRC cancer patients diagnosed between March 2016 and March 2017 in the city of Mashhad. The Mashhad_Neighborhoods file is the digital map of neighborhoods division of the city and their population by age groups. Furthermore, these files include contributor risk factors including average of daily red meat consumption, average of daily fiber intake, and average of body mass index for every of 142 neighborhoods of the city.
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October 2020

Duration of Vascular Access Usage and Patient Survival in the First Year of Hemodialysis.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2019 11;13(6):398-403

Shiraz Nephrology Urology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Introduction: The central venous catheter (CVC) has been shown to increase mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients compared with the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). However, no study has examined the mortality of HD patients based on the time of conversion from the CVC to AVF. In this study, we investigated the association between patients' survival and length of time of using each access.

Methods: The C5.0 algorithm was used to find rules about the relationship between duration of the different access usage and survival. The cox model was applied to assess the association of the obtained duration categories and mortality.

Results: From 2367 adult patients who received maintenance HD from 2012 to 2014, 705 patients were eligible for the study. Using an AVF for more than 8 months and a CVC for less than 4.2 months had the highest one-year survival rate (91.8% and 87.4%). The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality of less than 2.8 months of AVF usage compared to the longest usage was 6.90 (95% CI: 4.60 - 10.30) before adjustment and 5.03 (95% CI: 3.20 - 8.00) after adjustment for all confounders. For the CVC, the ratio was 8.8 (95% CI: 6.00 - 13.00) when comparing more than 9.2 months of usage with the lowest usage duration before an adjustment and 6.00 (95% CI: 3.80 - 9.41) after adjustment.

Conclusion: Our results presented that regardless of the type of initial vascular access, limiting the length of the time using CVC as well as switching to AVF could significantly improve the survival of HD patients.
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November 2019