Publications by authors named "Nazgul Tuleuova"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Aptamer-containing surfaces for selective capture of CD4 expressing cells.

Langmuir 2012 Aug 14;28(34):12544-9. Epub 2012 Aug 14.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616, United States.

Aptamers have recently emerged as an excellent alternative to antibodies because of their inherent stability and ease of modification. In this paper, we describe the development of an aptamer-based surface for capture of cells expressing CD4 antigen. The glass or silicon surfaces were modified with amine-terminated silanes and then modified with thiolated RNA aptamer against CD4. Modification of the surface was first characterized by ellipsometry to demonstrate assembly of biointerface components and to show specific capture of recombinant CD4 protein. Subsequently, surfaces were challenged with model lymphocytes (cell lines) that were either positive or negative for CD4 antigen. Our experiments show that aptamer-functionalized surfaces have similar capture efficiency to substrates containing anti-CD4 antibody. To mimick capture of specific T-cells from a complex cell mixture, aptamer-modified surfaces were exposed to binary mixtures containing Molt-3 cells (CD4+) spiked into Daudi B cells (CD4-). 94% purity of CD4 cells was observed on aptamer-containing surfaces from an initial fraction of 15% of CD4. Given the importance of CD4 cell enumeration in HIV/AIDS diagnosis and monitoring, aptamer-based devices may offer an opportunity for novel cell detection strategies and may yield more robust and less expensive blood analysis devices in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la2050338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3538135PMC
August 2012

Bottom-up signaling from HGF-containing surfaces promotes hepatic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2011 Apr 5;407(2):295-300. Epub 2011 Mar 5.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

The capacity of stem cells to differentiate into specific cell types makes them very promising in tissue regeneration and repair. However, realizing this promise requires novel methods for guiding lineage-specific differentiation of stem cells. In this study, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), an important morphogen in liver development, was co-printed with collagen I (Col) to create arrays of protein spots on glass. Human adipose stem cells (ASCs) were cultured on top of the HGF/Col spots for 2weeks. The effects of surface-immobilized HGF on hepatic differentiation of ASCs were analyzed using RT-PCR, ELISA and immunocytochemistry. Stimulation of stem cells with HGF from the bottom-up caused an upregulation in synthesis of α-fetoprotein and albumin, as determined by immunocytochemistry and ELISA. RT-PCR results showed that the mRNA levels for albumin, α-fetoprotein and α1-antitrypsin were 10- to 20-fold higher in stem cells cultured on the HGF/Col arrays compared to stem cells on Col only spots. Our results show that surfaces containing HGF co-printed with ECM proteins may be used to differentiate mesenchymal stem cells such as ASCs into hepatocyte-like cells. These results underscore the utility of growth factor-containing culture surfaces for stem cell differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.03.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3075384PMC
April 2011

Micropatterning of Aptamer Beacons to Create Cytokine-Sensing Surfaces.

Cell Mol Bioeng 2010 Dec 20;3(4):337-344. Epub 2010 Nov 20.

Aptamer beacons are DNA or RNA probes that bind proteins or small molecules of interest and emit signal directly upon interaction with the target analyte. This paper describes micropatterning of aptamer beacons for detection of IFN-γ-an important inflammatory cytokine. The beacon consisted of a fluorophore-labeled aptamer strand hybridized with a shorter, quencher-carrying complementary strand. Cytokine molecules were expected to displace quenching strands of the beacon, disrupting FRET effect and resulting in fluorescence signal. The glass substrate was first micropatterned with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel microwells (35 μm diameter individual wells) so as to define sites for attachment of beacon molecules. PEG microwell arrays were then incubated with avidin followed by biotin-aptamer-fluorophore constructs. Subsequent incubation with quencher-carrying complementary strands resulted in formation of DNA duplex and caused quenching of fluorescence due to FRET effect. When exposed to IFN-γ, microwells changed fluorescence from low (quencher hybridized with fluorophore-carrying strand) to high (quenching strand displaced by cytokine molecules). The fluorescence signal was confined to microwells, was changing in real-time and was dependent on the concentration of IFN-γ. In the future, we plan to co-localize aptamer beacons and cells on micropatterned surfaces in order to monitor in real-time cytokine secretion from immune cells in microwells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12195-010-0148-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2991185PMC
December 2010

Using growth factor arrays and micropatterned co-cultures to induce hepatic differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

Biomaterials 2010 Dec 15;31(35):9221-31. Epub 2010 Sep 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California-Davis, 451 Health Sciences Drive #2519, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

The success in driving embryonic stem cells towards hepatic lineage has been confounded by the complexity and cost of differentiation protocols that employ large quantities of expensive growth factors (GFs). Instead of supplementing culture media with soluble GFs, we investigated cultivation and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) on printed arrays of GFs. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP4) were mixed in solution with fibronectin and collagen (I) and then printed onto silane-modified glass slides to form 500 μm diameter protein spots. mESCs were cultured on top of GF spots for up to 12 days and analyzed by RT-PCR and immunostaining at different time points. The stem cells residing on HGF-containing combinations of GFs exhibited requisite features of hepatic differentiation including pronounced loss in pluripotency (Oct4), transient (up and down) expression of endoderm (Sox17) and upregulation of early hepatic markers--albumin and alpha-fetoprotein. The hepatic differentiation was enhanced further by adding hepatic stellate cells to surfaces that already contained mESCs on GF spots. A combination of co-culture with non-parenchymal liver cells and the optimal GF stimulation was found to induce endoderm and hepatic phenotype earlier and to a much greater extent than the GF arrays or micropatterned co-cultures used individually. While this paper investigated hepatic differentiation of mouse ESCs, our findings and stem cell culture approaches are likely to be relevant for human ESC cultivation. Overall, the platform combining printed GF arrays and heterotypic co-cultures will be broadly applicable for identifying the composition of the microenvironment niche for ESC differentiation into various tissue types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.08.050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2956853PMC
December 2010

Cultivating hepatocytes on printed arrays of HGF and BMP7 to characterize protective effects of these growth factors during in vitro alcohol injury.

Biomaterials 2010 Aug 21;31(23):5936-44. Epub 2010 May 21.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

The goal of the present study was to investigate hepato-protective effects of growth factor (GF) arrays during alcohol injury. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)7 were mixed with collagen (I) and robotically printed onto standard glass slides to create arrays of 500 microm diameter spots. Primary rat hepatocytes were seeded on top of the arrays forming clusters corresponding in size to the underlying protein spots. Cell arrays were then injured in culture by exposure to 100 mm ethanol for 48 h. Hepatocytes residing on GF spots were found to have less apoptosis then cells cultured on collagen-only spots. Least apoptosis (0.3% as estimated by TUNEL assay) was observed on HGF/BMP7/collagen spots whereas most apoptosis (17.3%) was seen on collagen-only arrays. Interestingly, the extent of alcohol-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes varied based on the concentration of printed GF. In addition to preventing apoptosis, printed GFs contributed to maintenance of epithelial phenotype during alcohol injury as evidenced by higher levels of E-cadherin expression in HGF-protected hepatocytes. Importantly, GF microarrays could be used to investigate heterotypic interactions in the context of liver injury. To highlight this, stellate cells - nonparenchymal liver cells involved in fibrosis - were added to hepatocytes residing on arrays of either HGF/collagen or collagen-only spots. Exposure of these cocultures to ethanol followed by RT-PCR analysis revealed that stellate cells residing alongside HGF-protected hepatocytes were significantly less activated (less fibrotic) compared to controls. Overall, our results demonstrate that GF microarray format can be used to screen anti-fibrotic and anti-apoptotic effects of growth factors as well as to investigate how signals delivered to a specific cell type modulate heterotypic cellular interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2893270PMC
August 2010

Development of an aptamer beacon for detection of interferon-gamma.

Anal Chem 2010 Mar;82(5):1851-7

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.

Traditional antibody-based affinity sensing strategies employ multiple reagents and washing steps and are unsuitable for real-time detection of analyte binding. Aptamers, on the other hand, may be designed to monitor binding events directly, in real-time, without the need for secondary labels. The goal of the present study was to design an aptamer beacon for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based detection of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)--an important inflammatory cytokine. Variants of DNA aptamer modified with biotin moieties and spacers were immobilized on avidin-coated surfaces and characterized by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The SPR studies showed that immobilization of aptamer via the 3' end resulted in the best binding IFN-gamma (K(d) = 3.44 nM). This optimal aptamer variant was then used to construct a beacon by hybridizing fluorophore-labeled aptamer with an antisense oligonucleotide strand carrying a quencher. SPR studies revealed that IFN-gamma binding with an aptamer beacon occurred within 15 min of analyte introduction--suggesting dynamic replacement of the quencher-complementary strand by IFN-gamma molecules. To further highlight biosensing applications, aptamer beacon molecules were immobilized inside microfluidic channels and challenged with varying concentration of analyte. Fluorescence microscopy revealed low fluorescence in the absence of analyte and high fluorescence after introduction of IFN-gamma. Importantly, unlike traditional antibody-based immunoassays, the signal was observed directly upon binding of analyte without the need for multiple washing steps. The surface immobilized aptamer beacon had a linear range from 5 to 100 nM and a lower limit of detection of 5 nM IFN-gamma. In conclusion, we designed a FRET-based aptamer beacon for monitoring of an inflammatory cytokine-IFN-gamma. In the future, this biosensing strategy will be employed to monitor dynamics of cytokine production by the immune cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac9025237DOI Listing
March 2010

Directing hepatic differentiation of embryonic stem cells with protein microarray-based co-cultures.

Integr Biol (Camb) 2009 Jul 12;1(7):460-8. Epub 2009 Jun 12.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, 451 East Health Sciences St. #2619, Davis, CA, USA.

Embryonic stem cells hold considerable promise in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as a source of tissue-specific cells. However, realizing this promise requires novel methods for guiding lineage-specific differentiation of stem cells. In this study, we developed a micropatterned co-culture platform for stimulating hepatic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Studies of mESC and hepatic cell adhesion preferences revealed that mESCs required fibronectin for attachment, while hepatic cells (HepG2) preferred collagen (I) substrate and did not adhere to fibronectin. Printing columns of collagen (I) and fibronectin spots (300 microm diameter), followed by sequential seeding of the two cell types, allowed the positioning of clusters of mESCs adjacent to groups of hepatic cells within the same microarray. These micropatterned co-cultures were maintained for up to two weeks in hepatic differentiation media supplemented. To examine the differentiation, mESCs were selectively extracted from the co-culture using laser microdissection and analyzed using real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These analyses revealed that mESCs co-cultured with HepG2 cells showed a decrease in pluripotency gene expression concomitant with up-regulation of endodermal genes. In addition, the co-culture format induced a significant increase in the expression of liver genes compared to mESCs cultured alone. In conclusion, micropatterned co-cultures of mESCs and hepatic cells showed a significant promise in driving stem cell differentiation towards hepatic phenotype. In the future, this cell culture platform will be further enhanced to enable efficient conversion of mouse and human ESCs to hepatocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b905757aDOI Listing
July 2009

Cultivating liver cells on printed arrays of hepatocyte growth factor.

Biomaterials 2009 Aug 17;30(22):3733-41. Epub 2009 Apr 17.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, 451 East Health Sciences Dr. #2519, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Growth factors are commonly present in soluble form during in vitro cell cultivation experiments in order to provide signals for cellular proliferation or differentiation. In contrast to these traditional experiments, we investigated solid-phase presentation of a hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a protein important in liver development and regeneration, on microarrays of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. In our experiments, HGF was mixed in solution with ECM proteins (collagen (I), (IV) or laminin) and robotically printed onto silane-modified glass slides. Primary rat hepatocytes were seeded onto HGF/ECM protein microarrays and formed cellular clusters that corresponded in size to the dimensions of individual protein spots (500 microm diameter). Analysis of liver-specific products, albumin and alpha1-antitrypsin, revealed several fold higher levels of expression of these proteins in hepatocytes cultured on HGF/ECM microarrays compared to cells cultivated on ECM proteins alone. In addition, cultivation of hepatocytes on HGF/ECM protein spots led to spontaneous reorganization of cellular clusters from a monolayer into three-dimensional spheroids. We also investigated the effects of surface-tethered HGF on hepatocytes co-cultivated with stromal cells and observed a significantly higher level of albumin in co-cultures where hepatocytes were stimulated by HGF/ECM spots compared to co-cultures created on ECM protein islands without the growth factor. In summary, our study suggests that incorporation of HGF into ECM protein microarrays has a profound and long-lasting effect on the morphology and phenotype of primary hepatocytes. In the future, the number of growth factors printed on ECM microarrays will be expanded to enable multiplexed and combinatorial screening of inducers of cellular differentiation or proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.03.039DOI Listing
August 2009

Modulating endogenous gene expression of mammalian cells via RNA-small molecule interaction.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008 Nov 31;376(1):169-73. Epub 2008 Aug 31.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California-Davis, 451 Health Sciences Drive, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful technology to silence arbitrary genes by designing small RNA constructs based on the targeted messenger RNA sequences. We recently developed a small molecule-controlled RNAi gene switch that combined the molecular recognition by in vitro selected RNA aptamers with versatile gene silencing by small interfering RNAs, and demonstrated for the first time, posttranscriptional modulation of RNAi through direct RNA-small molecule interaction. In this report, we describe the first application of this technology to regulate an endogenous gene in mammalian cells. As a proof-of-concept demonstration we chose to modulate expression of albumin-serum protein produced by the liver. We designed and constructed a theophylline aptamer-fused short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector targeting albumin mRNA in hepatic (HepG2) cells. Transfection of HepG2 cells with the aptamer-shRNA expression vector allowed to control albumin gene expression by adding theophylline into the culture media in dose dependent fashion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.08.112DOI Listing
November 2008

Exercising spatiotemporal control of cell attachment with optically transparent microelectrodes.

Langmuir 2008 Jun 30;24(13):6837-44. Epub 2008 May 30.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

This paper describes a novel approach of controlling cell-surface interactions through an electrochemical "switching" of biointerfacial properties of optically transparent microelectrodes. The indium tin oxide (ITO) microelectrodes, fabricated on glass substrates, were modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) silane to make glass and ITO regions resistant to protein and cell adhesion. Cyclic voltammetry, with potassium ferricyanide serving as a redox reporter molecule, was used to monitor electron transfer across the electrolyte-ITO interface. PEG silane modification of ITO correlated with diminished electron transfer, judged by the disappearance of ferricyanide redox activity. Importantly, application of reductive potential (-1.4 V vs Ag/AgCl reference) corresponded with reappearance of typical ferricyanide redox peaks, thus pointing to desorption of an insulating PEG silane layer. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) characterization of the silanized ITO surfaces after electrical stimulation indicated complete removal of the silane layer. Significantly, electrical stimulation allowed to "switch" chosen electrodes from nonfouling to protein-adhesive while leaving other ITO and glass regions protected by a nonfouling PEG silane layer. The spatial and temporal control of biointerfacial properties afforded by our approach was utilized to micropattern proteins and cells and to construct micropatterned co-cultures. In the future, control of the biointerfacial properties afforded by this novel approach may allow the organization of multiple cell types into precise geometric configurations in order to create better in vitro mimics of cellular complexity of the native tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la800231eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3677040PMC
June 2008