Publications by authors named "Nawshad Muhammad"

46 Publications

Biocompatibility performance evaluation of high flux hydrophilic CO3Ap/HAP/PSF composite membranes for hemodialysis application.

Artif Organs 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Gujrat, 50700, Punjab, Pakistan.

CO3Ap/HAP additive was obtained by calcination of wasted chicken bones at 900°C. Intermolecular attraction exists between CO3Ap/HAP additive and blended Polysulfone polymer. EDX and FTIR analysis were carried out to check the elemental composition and bonding chemistry of prepared additive. The instantaneous de-mixing process generated consistent finger-like networks in CO3Ap/HAP/PSF based composite membranes whilst sponge-like structure was shown by PSF as revealed by SEM images. The increase in weight % of additive loading is also confirmed by EDX analysis. Furthermore, the interaction mechanism of CO3Ap/HAP additive with Polysulfone medium was analyzed by FTIR exploration. The water absorption experiment defined a 93% expansion in hydrophilic performance. Change in porosity occurs with additive loading and PWP flux improved up to 11 times. Approximately, antifouling results revealed that 87% of water flux was recovered after treating with a protein solution, whereas a 30% improvement in antifouling capability in case of bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution occurred. In vitro cytotoxicity, and clotting times study was carried out to evaluate virulent behavior and anticoagulation activity of formulated membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aor.13937DOI Listing
February 2021

Activated carbon-alginate beads impregnated with surfactant as sustainable adsorbent for efficient removal of methylene blue.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Feb 4;176:233-243. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology, Bannu 28100, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

A cost-effective and sustainable Calligonum polygonoides biomass based activated carbon (AC) was synthesized. The prepared AC was utilized in the fabrication of carbon-alginate beads for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) textile dye from aqueous solution. The surface morphology, surface functional groups, elemental analysis and thermal behavior of the prepared beads were investigated using different analytical techniques. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to investigate the adsorption capacity of the beads. Effect of different parameters such as initial pH of MB solution, dose of adsorbent, contact time, initial concentration of MB and temperature were evaluated. The kinetic studies identified pseudo-second order model. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied and fitted to the experimental equilibrium data. The beads showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 769 mg/g in basic pH at 30 °C while using 400 mg·L of MB solution. The adsorption process was found to be endothermic and spontaneous as confirmed by the thermodynamic data. The fabricated beads were subjected to recycling which exhibited same adsorption efficiency after six regeneration cycles. The results showed that the AC-alginate beads impregnated with SDS have high adsorption capability and would be used for the efficient removal of cationic dyes from wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.017DOI Listing
February 2021

Editorial: Properties and Applications of Ionic Liquids in Energy and Environmental Science.

Front Chem 2020 15;8:627213. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM) COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.627213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769932PMC
December 2020

Electro-Catalytic process for the Synthesis of Organic Compounds and their Biological Applications.

Curr Org Synth 2020 Dec 11. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

National Fundamental Research Laboratory of New Hazardous Chemicals Assessment & Accident Analysis, Institute of Applied Electrochemistry, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029,. China.

In fact, electrochemical method (EC) is a specific and eco-friendly technique with several advantages over common organic synthesis methods. During EC no as such external catalysts are required to initiate the reaction, the current potential in itself acts as a catalyst. Most of the inactive organic compounds can be converted to active species by EC method. This method results in the synthesis of compounds with high yield and purity. This method is also good to be applied for the synthesis of thermally sensitive organic compounds. Such synthesis has significant selectivity and reactivity which enable the synthesis of such compounds that are not feasible while using the conventional methods. This review provides insight into the utilization of EC method in the synthesis of organic compounds and their derivatives. Various prerequisites for such synthesis have been highlighted. The EC method application for preparation of derivatives of benzofuran, and benzoxazole, oxidation of N, N, N', N'tetramethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine, 5-diethoxy-4-morpholinoaniline, organic compounds containing C=N, benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and tetratomic Thioethers have been discussed in detail. In addition, the electrochemical synthesis of biomedical important compounds has been presented. The compounds synthesized through EC methods shows potential antimicrobial activity. Deferent researchers work to study the potential biological application of organic compounds synthesized through EC process. The anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and other important biological activities has been investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570179417999201211205249DOI Listing
December 2020

Synthesis of an anti-cariogenic experimental dental composite containing novel drug-decorated copper particles.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Sep 1;114:111040. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Dental Materials, National University of Medical Sciences (NUMS), Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Secondary caries is one of the most major cause for re-placement of dental composite restorations. Targeting the survival of cariogenic bacteria residing on the restoration surface may reduce this problem. The present study aims to evaluate the antibacterial potential as well as assess the physical and chemical properties of experimental dental composites containing novel drug-decorated copper particles (DDCP) as adjunct antibacterial filler particles. These were incorporated at concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 0.10%, 0.20%, and 0.25% (w/w) into experimental composite consisting of methacrylate monomers and silanized silica fillers. RESULTS: Direct contact test revealed that the anti-cariogenic potential of experimental composites was more than the control groups. The cell viability assay showed no toxic effect on MC3T3-E1 cell lines in the MTT assay. The microhardness of experimental composites increased as the percentage of DDCP increased, however, the degree of cure was increased only up till the concentration of 0.20%. The release kinetics of the composites reveals that even after 28 days there was a steady and slow release of copper particles signifying the sustained anti-cariogenic effect. CONCLUSION: The experimental composites have good anti-cariogenic potential, which was sustained for one month without any deleterious effect on the physical and chemical properties of resin dental composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111040DOI Listing
September 2020

Synthesis of enriched boron nitride nanocrystals: A potential element for biomedical applications.

Appl Radiat Isot 2020 Dec 6;166:109404. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Department of Physics, Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology, 64200, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan.

The shortcomings in Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and Hyperthermia for killing the tumor cell desired for the synthesis of a new kind of material suitable to be first used in BNCT and later on enable the conditions for Hyperthermia to destroy the tumor cell. The desire led to the synthesis of large band gap semiconductor nano-size Boron-10 enriched crystals of hexagonal boron nitride (BNNCs). The contents of BNNCs are analyzed with the help of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and counter checked with Raman and XRD. The B-contents in BNNCs produce Li and He nuclei. A Part of the Li and He particles released in the cell is allowed to kill the tumor (via BNCT) whereas the rest produce electron-hole pairs in the semiconductor layer of BNNCs suggested to work in Hyperthermia with an externally applied field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2020.109404DOI Listing
December 2020

Extraction of basil seed mucilage using ionic liquid and preparation of AuNps/mucilage nanocomposite for catalytic degradation of dye.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 10;164:1847-1857. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS University Islamabad, 54600, Lahore Campus, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Basil seeds are widely cultivated throughout the world because of their extensive applications in various fields of life. The Basil seeds mucilage (BSM) exhibits remarkable physical and chemical properties like high water absorbing capacity, emulsifying, and stabilizing properties. The extraction of this mucilage from the seed surface has always been done by physical and chemical methods, which has certain drawbacks. Here, we report for the first time a chemical method for the effective extraction of this mucilage using ionic liquids (ILs); the green solvents. Pyridinium chloride based ILs were investigated for the effective extraction of mucilage and the process was optimized for various variables i.e. time, temperature, basil seed loading, co-solvents, anti-solvents. The extraction yield (up to 25% w/w of mucilage per basil seeds dry weight) was obtained at optimum conditions. Extracted mucilage was characterized by analytical techniques. The extracted BSM was used to prepare AuNps/BSM nanocomposite by stabilizing the gold nanoparticles. The AuNps/BSM nanocomposite was applied for the catalytic degradation of dyes (congo red; 12 min, methyl orange; 4 min, whereas 4-nitrophenol; 6 min).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.073DOI Listing
December 2020

Synthesis and characterization of cellulose/hydroxyapatite based dental restorative composites.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2020 10 12;31(14):1806-1819. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.

The aim of this study was an synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) on cellulose fibers to be used as a new reinforcing agent for dental restorations. The microwave irradiation method was used for synthesis and the materials were characterized with analytical techniques. The prepared dental resin composites were mechanically tested by a universal testing machine and electrodynamic fatigue testing system. FTIR, XRD, SEM/EDS analysis confirmed the successful synthesis of HA on cellulose fibers. The Alamar blue biocompatibility assay showed more than 90% cell viability for the prepared cellulose/HA. The mechanical properties of resin composites improved with cellulose content from 30 wt.% to 50 wt.% in the polymer matrix. Substantially, increasing the cellulose/HA content from 40% to 50% improved the mechanical properties. The results suggested that HA could be successfully synthesized on cellulose fibers using microwave irradiation and contributed to improving the mechanical properties of dental resin composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2020.1777827DOI Listing
October 2020

Smart injectable self-setting bioceramics for dental applications.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Aug 15;113:110956. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, 54000, Pakistan. Electronic address:

A thermo-responsive injectable bioactive glass (BAG) that has the ability to set at body temperature was prepared using pluronic F127 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as the carrier. The injectable composite has the advantage to fill irregular shape implantation sites and quick setting at body temperature. The structural and morphological analysis of injectable BAG before and after setting was done by using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The effect of an ultrasonic scaler for a quick setting of injectable BAG was also investigated. The ultrasonic scaler sets the BAG formulation three-folds faster than at body temperature and homogenized the dispersion. The in vitro bio-adhesion was studied in the bovine tooth in both artificial saliva and deionized water for periodic time intervals, i.e., day 7, 30, 90, and 180, which confirmed the apatite layer formation. The mineral density analysis was used to differentiate the newly formed apatite with tooth apatite. In the MTT assay, the experimental material showed continuous proliferation and cell growth. This indicated that injectable hydrogel promoted cell growth, facilitated proliferation, and had no cytotoxic effect. The SEM and micro-CT results (performed after in vitro bioactivity testing) showed that the injectable BAG had the ability to regenerate dentin, hence this material has the potential to be used for dental and biomedical applications including tooth and bone regeneration in minimally invasive procedures in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.110956DOI Listing
August 2020

Dose Issues in Cancer Chemotherapy.

Oncology 2020 5;98(8):520-527. Epub 2020 May 5.

Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore, Pakistan.

In this review, human methotrexate dosing regimens, as well as their relationship to data from in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal and human studies, are discussed. Low-dose, intermediate-dose, and high-dose therapies are covered. Since in vitro and in vivo screenings of potential cancer drugs are commonplace in the development of cancer chemotherapy, comparisons of the three criteria for effectiveness are important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000506705DOI Listing
August 2020

Effect of protein and oil volume concentrations on emulsifying properties of acorn protein isolate.

Food Chem 2020 Sep 24;324:126894. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSAT University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Punjab, Pakistan.

This study aims to extract acorn protein isolate (API) from locally abundant waste acorn fruit and investigate its emulsification behavior by mixing different protein (0.1-2% w/v) and oil volume concentrations (5-45% v/v). Significant decrease in emulsifying activity index (EAI) and an increase in emulsifying stability index (ESI) were observed with an increase in API concentrations (P < 0.05). Droplet sizes of emulsions and viscosity were observed to decrease significantly (P < 0.05) with increase in API concentration while the increase was observed in interfacial protein concentration (Г). In contrast, increase in oil volume concentration results in increase of droplet sizes, packing fractions and viscosity, while decrease in Г values was observed. The results reveal that main fractions of API (66.2-14.4 kDa) were migrated to oil-water interface for emulsion stabilization. These results demonstrate the potential application of API in food formulation and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126894DOI Listing
September 2020

One-Pot Deconstruction and Conversion of Lignocellulose Into Reducing Sugars by Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquid-Metal Salt System.

Front Chem 2020 15;8:236. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Chemistry of Interfaces, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.

Constantly decreasing fossil resources and exceeding energy demands are the most alarming concerns nowadays. The only way out is to develop efficient, safe, and economical biomass processing protocols that can lead toward biofuels and fine chemicals. This research is one of such consequences involving the deconstruction and conversion of wheat straw carbohydrate constituents into reducing sugars via one-pot reaction promoted by Lewis acidic pyridinium-based ionic liquids (PyILs) mixed with different metal salts (MCl). Various parameters such as the type of metal salt, loading amount of metal salt, time, temperature, particle size of biomass, and water content which affect the deconstruction of wheat straw have been evaluated and optimized. Among the studied ionic liquid (IL) and metal salt systems, the best results were obtained with [BMPy] . The dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) assay was used to determine the percentage of total reducing sugars (TRS) generated during treatment of wheat straw. The deconstructed wheat straw was characterized with various analytical tools, that is, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. The IL-metal salt system was recycled for subsequent treatment of wheat straw. Statistical parameters were calculated from analysis of variance (ANOVA) at the 0.05 level of confidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174784PMC
April 2020

Keratin - Based materials for biomedical applications.

Bioact Mater 2020 Sep 16;5(3):496-509. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Anatomy, School of Biomedical Sciences University of Otago, Otago, 9016, New Zealand.

Keratin constitutes the major component of the feather, hair, hooves, horns, and wool represents a group of biological material having high cysteine content (7-13%) as compared to other structural proteins. Keratin -based biomaterials have been investigated extensively over the past few decades due to their intrinsic biological properties and excellent biocompatibility. Unlike other natural polymers such as starch, collagen, chitosan, the complex three-dimensional structure of keratin requires the use of harsh chemical conditions for their dissolution and extraction. The most commonly used methods for keratin extraction are oxidation, reduction, steam explosion, microbial method, microwave irradiation and use of ionic liquids. Keratin -based materials have been used extensively for various biomedical applications such as drug delivery, wound healing, tissue engineering. This review covers the structure, properties, history of keratin research, methods of extraction and some recent advancements related to the use of keratin derived biomaterials in the form of a 3-D scaffold, films, fibers, and hydrogels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2020.04.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171262PMC
September 2020

Development of new organic-inorganic, hybrid bionanocomposite from cellulose and clay for enhanced removal of Drimarine Yellow HF-3GL dye.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Apr 3;149:1059-1071. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Lahore, Lahore 53700, Pakistan.

Cellulose/clay composites were prepared and applied for the adsorption of Drimarine Yellow HF-3GL direct dye. The prepared composites were characterized by FTIR, TGA, EDX, SEM and XRD techniques. Bagasse was used as a cellulose source, while clay was obtained from local source, which was modified chemically before composite preparation. Adsorption efficiencies were compared of composite I and II as a function of contact time, temperature, pH, initial dye concentration and composite dose. Non-linear kinetic and equilibrium isotherm employed and dye adsorption data fitted well to pseudo-second order kinetics model. Among isotherms, the Redlich-Peterson isotherm well defined the sorption process of dye on to composites. Thermodynamic factors (ΔS°, ΔH° and ΔG°) revealed that the sorption process was spontaneous, exothermic and feasible. Cellulose/clay composite I and II removed 88.64% and 89.95% dye with 60 min at pH 2 and 30 °C, respectively. For reusability, desorption was performed using different eluting agents and NaOH showed higher desorption efficiency. For the treatment of wastewater, the developed composites were applied to textile effluents and color removal of (90-96.07%) and (97-98.23%) was achieved using cellulose/clay composite I and II, respectively. The results showed that cellulose/clay composite are efficient for the removal dyes and could possibly be used for the treatment of textile effluents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.02.012DOI Listing
April 2020

Potential of siltstone and its composites with biochar and magnetite nanoparticles for the removal of cadmium from contaminated aqueous solutions: Batch and column scale studies.

Environ Pollut 2020 Apr 8;259:113938. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Electronic address:

The present study is the first attempt to evaluate the pilot and batch scale adsorption potential of siltstone (SS) and its nanocomposites with biochar (EDB/SS), magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs/SS) and MNPs/EDB/SS for Cd removal from contaminated water. The SS, EDB/SS, MNPs/SS and MNPs/EDB/SS were characterized with FTIR, XRD, BET, SEM, TEM, TGA and point of zero charge (PZC). The effects of adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial Cd concentration, pH and presence of competing ions were evaluated on the Cd removal and its adsorption. The order for Cd removal was: MNPs/EDB/SS > MNPs/SS > EDB/SS > SS (95.86-99.72% > 93.10-98.5% > 89.66.98-98.40% > 74.90-90%). Column scale experiments yielded maximum retention (95%) of Cd even after 2 h of injection at 100 mg Cd/L. The exhausted SS, EDB/SS, MNPs/SS and MNPs/EDB/SS were reused without losing significant adsorption potential. Similarly, maximum Cd adsorption (117.38 mg/g) was obtained with MNPs/EDB/SS at dose 1.0 g/L. The results revealed that coexisting cations reduced the Cd removal due to competition with Cd ions. The experimental results were better explained with Freundlich isotherm model and pseudo 2nd order kinetic models. The results revealed that SS and its composites can be used efficiently for the removal of Cd from contaminated water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.113938DOI Listing
April 2020

Prosthodontics dental materials: From conventional to unconventional.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Jan 7;106:110167. Epub 2019 Sep 7.

Department of Chemistry, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore 54600, Pakistan.

New inventions and innovations in the field of dentistry have potential applications to satisfy the patient's demand. In prosthodontics, a dental prosthesis plays a major role in improving the quality of oral health care. Currently, the trends have shifted towards the implants and implant-supported prosthesis for the replacement of missing teeth. Conventional dentures are patient's preference mainly due to financial constraints. In an attempt to find solutions to current problems, we have come across new materials zirconium, titanium and new inventions like flexible dentures, fenestrated dentures, and CAD/CAM fabricated dentures. Using the progress of past five years in the field of prosthodontics, this comprehensive review focuses on denture base materials, denture liners, removable partial dentures, fixed prosthesis such as crown and bridge materials, implant-supported a fixed denture, artificial teeth materials, impression materials, and ingenious alternatives to conventional dentures. This article also sheds some light on the current promising researches and gives insight into the problems that can be the focus of future researches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2019.110167DOI Listing
January 2020

Effects of Maillard reaction on physicochemical and functional properties of walnut protein isolate.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2019 Oct 5;28(5):1391-1399. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

5Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.

In this study, the Maillard reaction (MR) of glucose was applied to improve the physicochemical and functional properties of walnut protein isolate (WNPI). The MR products (MRPs) were prepared with glucose at 0 h (MRP0), 1 h (MRP1), 2 h (MRP2) and 3 h (MRP3) heating at 95 °C. The Infra-Red spectrum showed reduction of amide and S-H functionalities in MRPs with complete intermixing of glucose in MRP3. Scanning electron microscopy indicated changes in the morphology of MRP3 which also exhibited promising antioxidant effect. Significant decrease (< 0.05) in hydrophobicity values (H) and increase (< 0.05) in emulsifying activity/emulsifying stability indexes values were observed for MRPs. Uniform droplet distribution was observed in microscopy of emulsions while an increase in the interfacial protein concentration was obtained for MRPs. These results suggest that MR is useful in improving the utilization of this protein in food product development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-019-00590-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6811473PMC
October 2019

Hemodialysis performance and anticoagulant activities of PVP-k25 and carboxylic-multiwall nanotube composite blended Polyethersulfone membrane.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2019 Oct 18;103:109769. Epub 2019 May 18.

Institute of Bioproduct Development, Department of Bioprocess and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Non-covalent electrostatic interaction between amide nitrogen and carbonyl carbon of shorter chain length of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-k25) was developed with in-house carboxylic oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNT) and then blended with Polyethersulfone (PES) polymer. FTIR analysis was utilized to confirm bonding nature of nano-composites (NCs) of O-MWCNT/PVP-k25 and casting membranes. Non-solvent induces phase separation process developed regular finger-like channels in composite membranes whereas pristine PES exhibited spongy entities as studied by cross sectional analysis report of FESEM. Further, FESEM instrument was also utilized to observe the dispersion of O-MWCNT/PVP based nanocomposite (NCs) with PES and membranes leaching phenomena analysis. Contact angle experiments described 24% improvement of hydrophilic behaviour, leaching ratio of additives was reduced to 1.89%, whereas water flux enhanced up to 6 times. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme based antifouling analysis shown up to 25% improvement, whereas 84% of water flux was regained after protein fouling than pristine PES. Anticoagulant activity was reported by estimating prothrombin, thrombin, plasma re-calcification times and production of fibrinogen cluster with platelets-adhesions photographs and hemolysis experiments. Composite membranes exhibited 3.4 and 3 times better dialysis clearance ratios of urea and creatinine solutes as compared to the raw PES membrane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2019.109769DOI Listing
October 2019

Nonenzymatic amperometric dopamine sensor based on a carbon ceramic electrode of type SiO/C modified with CoO nanoparticles.

Mikrochim Acta 2019 06 25;186(7):471. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Defence Road, Off Raiwind Road, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.

An amperometric nonenzymatic dopamine sensor has been developed. Cobalt oxide (CoO) nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed inside mesoporous SiO/C. A sol-gel process was used for the preparation of this mesoporous composite material (SiO/C). This mesoporous composite has a pore size of around 13-14 nm, a large surface area (S 421 m·g) and large pore volume (0.98 cm·g) as determined by the BET technique. The material compactness was confirmed by SEM images which showing that there is no phase segregation at the magnification applied. The chemical homogeneity of the materials was confirmed by EDX mapping. The SiO/C/CoO nanomaterial was pressed in desk format to fabricate a working electrode for nonenzymatic amperometric sensing of dopamine at a pH value of 7.0 and at a typical working potential of 0.25 V vs SCE. The detection limit, linear response range and sensitivity are 0.018 μmol L, 10-240 μmol L, and 80 μA·μmol L cm, respectively. The response timé of the electrode is less than 1 s in the presence of 60 μmol L of dopamine. The sensor showed chemically stability, high sensitivity and is not interfered by other electroactive molecules present in blood. The repeatability of this sensor was evaluated as 1.9% (RSD; for n = 10 at a 40 μmol Ldopamine level. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of the preparation of a nanostructured composite of type SiO/C/CoO for electrooxidative sensing of dopamine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-019-3605-4DOI Listing
June 2019

Incidence and management of cleft lip and palate in Pakistan.

J Pak Med Assoc 2019 May;69(5):632-639

Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Objective: To compare the occurrence, distribution and management of clefts of lip and palate in local patients with the available data from India and China.

Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised data related to a three-month period from January to March 2015 at two medical centres in Lahore. Data from Pakistani centres was analysed based on province, gender, age and clefts of lip and palate conditions and Spearman's correlation matrix.

Results: Of the 1574 cases, 1061(67.4%) were from Punjab, 361(23%) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 85(5%) Sindh and 67(4.2%) were from Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The incidence of clefts of lip and palate was higher in males than females. There was higher awareness of the need for timely management in new borns with clefts of lip and palate. Some patients seeking secondary treatment were also being surgically corrected. There is no national registry of children born with cleft defect, making it difficult to assess the full scale of the problem..

Conclusions: Based on available data, it is likely that there are many adults who have not been treated when younger..
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May 2019

Preparation of cellulosic Ag-nanocomposites using an ionic liquid.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2019 May - Jun;30(9):785-796. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

a Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM) , COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus , Lahore , Pakistan.

Cellulose-based nanocomposites have gained much attention due to their remarkable biological properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity. In this research work, 1-h-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate ionic liquid was employed as an efficient solvent for preparation of cellulosic Ag-nanocomposites (CRC/AgNPs composite) from Neem plant. Ionic liquid plays a dual role in obtaining cellulose-rich compound (CRC; removing lignin and hemicellulose components) and plant's extract (phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins, etc.) that reduces the AgNO into AgNPs for preparation of CRC/AgNPs composite. The prepared CRC/AgNPs composite was characterized using XRD, FTIR and SEM techniques. The XRD and FTIR spectral analysis showed the characteristic peaks assigned to cellulosic constituent and AgNPs. SEM analysis revealed the particles in the range from 26 to 56 nm. The CRC/AgNPs composite was evaluated for its antibacterial and mechanical properties. The antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli for CRC/AgNPs composite was observed in comparison to CRC. Cell viability and morphology were performed on MC3T3-E1 cells which showed no as such toxicity for the prepared CRC/AgNPs composite. Moreover, the addition of CRC/AgNPs composite as a filler increased the compression strength of polymeric materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2019.1605869DOI Listing
May 2020

Developing a synthetic composite membrane for cleft palate repair.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2019 07 14;13(7):1178-1189. Epub 2019 May 14.

Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield, UK.

An oronasal fistula is a passage between the oral and nasal cavity. Currently, surgical procedures use mucosal flaps or collagen grafts to make a barrier between oral and nasal cavities. Our aim was to develop a cell-free synthetic repair material for closure of nasal fistulas. We surface functionalized electrospun polyurethane (PU) and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) and composite polymer (PU-PLLA) membranes with acrylic acid through plasma polymerization. Membranes were treated in a layer-by-layer approach to develop highly charged electrostatic layer that could bind heparin as a pro-angiogenic glycosaminoglycan. The properties were evaluated through physical, chemical, and mechanical characterization techniques. Cytotoxicity was tested with MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cell lines for 3, 7, and 14 days, and vasculogenesis was assessed by implantation into the chorio-allantoic membrane in chick embryos for 7 days. In vivo biocompatibility was assessed by subcutaneous implantation in rats for 1, 3, and 6 weeks. The membranes consisted of random fibers of PLLA-PU with fiber diameters of 0.47 and 0.12 μm, respectively. Significantly higher cell proliferation and migration of MC3T3 cells at 3, 7, and 14 days were shown on plasma-coated membranes compared with uncoated membranes. Further, it was found that plasma-coated membranes were more angiogenic than controls. In vivo implantation of membranes in rats did not reveal any gross toxicity to the materials, and wound healing was comparable with the native tissue repair (sham group). We therefore present a plasma-functionalized electrospun composite polymer membrane for use in the treatment of fistulas. These membranes are flexible, non-cytotoxic, and angiogenic, and we hope it should lead to permanent closure of oronasal fistula.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/term.2867DOI Listing
July 2019

Synergistic effects of bismuth coupling on the reactivity and reusability of zerovalent iron nanoparticles for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jun 6;669:333-341. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan; School of Civil Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Removal of cadmium (Cd), a highly toxic heavy metal, from aqueous solutions was investigated using nano zerovalent iron (Fe). Cadmium was efficiently removed by Fe, although reactivity and reusability of Fe was significantly promoted by coupling with bismuth (Bi). At a reaction time of 20 min, 85% and 96% Cd was removed by Fe and Bi/Fe, respectively, at first cycle using [Cd] = 10 mg/L and [Fe] = [Bi/Fe] = 1.0 g/L. However, Cd removal efficiency was reduced to 12% and 80% at sixth cycle by Fe and Bi/Fe, respectively. The X-Ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy analysis proved successful formation of Fe by the chemical reduction method and also confirmed coupling of Bi with Fe to form bimetallic Bi/Fe. The oxidation of Fe and Bi/Fe yielded electron that played significant role in the conversion of toxic Cd into non-toxic Cd. The reactivity of electron with Cd was calculated to be 4.3 × 10 M s. The pH of solution showed pronounced effects on the reactivity of both Fe and Bi/Fe. Removal of Cd by both Fe and Bi/Fe followed pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The conversion of Cd into non-toxic Cd proved Fe and Bi/Fe to be highly efficient and rewarding in detoxification of Cd and other toxic metals in aqueous environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.062DOI Listing
June 2019

Greener synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Trianthema portulacastrum extract and evaluation of its photocatalytic and biological applications.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2019 Mar 31;192:147-157. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, 61100, Pakistan.

Synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) through "green" chemistry is an exciting area of research with wide applications. Trianthema portulacastrum's extract containing greater amount of reducing agents has been explored first time for the synthesis of ZnO-NPs that characterized with UV/Vis, XRD, FT-IR, SEM,EDX, HR-TEM and XPS. The particles of ZnO-NPs are crystalline and having the size in the range of 25-90 nm. The cell viability of ZnO-NPs was studied using Mouse pre-osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 sub-clone 14 cells which confirmed its biocompatibility that render for biomedical applications. The antibacterial properties were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli which showed high potency of synthesized ZnO-NPs against these species. The antifungal activities of ZnO-NPs were screened against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus of fungal species. The antioxidant activity of the as-synthesized NPs was also studied using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) substrate. The ZnO-NPs were evaluated for catalytic activity through degradation of Synozol Navy Blue-KBF textile dye using solar irradiation that causes 91% degradation of the dye in 159 min. Mechanistic pathways for the degradation of Synozol Navy Blue-KBF dye using ZnO-NPs were also proposed from the pattern of the degradation of the dye and the resulting by-products. The results concluded that the ZnO-NPs synthesized by green method have high biological and photocatalytic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.01.013DOI Listing
March 2019

Fabrication and performance evaluation of blood compatible hemodialysis membrane using carboxylic multiwall carbon nanotubes and low molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone based nanocomposites.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2019 03 28;107(3):513-525. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Lahore Campus, Defence Road, Off Raiwind Road, Lahore, Pakistan.

This study focused to optimize the performance of polyethersulfone (PES) hemodialysis (HD) membrane using carboxylic functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) and lower molecular weight grade of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-k30). Initially, MWCNT were chemically functionalized by acid treatment and nanocomposites (NCs) of PVP-k30 and c-MWCNT were formed and subsequently blended with PES polymer. The spectra of FTIR of the HD membranes revealed that NCs has strong hydrogen bonding and their addition to PES polymer improved the capillary system of membranes as confirmed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and leaching of the additive decreased to 2% and hydrophilicity improved to 22%. The pore size and porosity of NCs were also enhanced and rejection rate was achieved in the establish dialysis range (<60 kDa). The antifouling studies had shown that NCs membrane exhibited 30% less adhesion of protein with 80% flux recovery ratio. The blood compatibility assessment disclosed that NCs based membranes showed prolonged thrombin and prothrombin clotting times, lessened production of fibrinogen cluster, and greatly suppressed adhesion of blood plasma than a pristine PES membrane. The results also unveiled that PVP-k30/NCs improved the surface properties of the membrane and the urea and creatinine removal increased to 72% and 75% than pure PES membranes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 107A: 513-525, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.36566DOI Listing
March 2019

Effect of extraction methods on structural, physiochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from defatted walnut flour.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2018 Aug 24;27(4):1015-1022. Epub 2018 Feb 24.

4Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

The effect of different extraction methods i.e. extraction with alkali (AEDF), enzyme (EEDF) and enzyme plus shear emulsifying hydrolysis (SEDF) on structure, physiochemical as well as the functional characteristics of dietary fiber (DF) from defatted walnut flour were studied. AEDF process showed significantly higher ( < 0.05) amount of water retention capacity (WRC; 5.39 g/g), water swelling capacity (WSC; 3.16 g/mL), and particle size; while, shown lower value of oil adsorption capacity (OAC; 29 g/g) amongst all. Compared to AEDF, no major differences were observed in network except the matrix in EEDF and SEDF was more porous and honey comb like. DF extracted through AEDF, EEDF and SEDF showed good viscosity and emulsifying activity however, less stability indices. The results from this study suggest that AEDF and EEDF and SEDF had specific effects on the structure-functional properties of DF from defatted walnut flour, which has great potential in food applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-018-0338-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6085258PMC
August 2018

Recent progress in the utilization of biosynthesized polyhydroxyalkanoates for biomedical applications - Review.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 4;120(Pt A):1294-1305. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan. Electronic address:

PHAs (polyhydroxyalkanoates) have emerged as biodegradable plastics more strongly in the 20th century. A wide range of bacterial species along with fungi, plants, oilseed crops and carbon sources have been used extensively to synthesize PHA on large scales. Alteration of PHA monomers in their structures and composition has led to the development of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers with highly specific mechanical properties. This leads to the incorporation of PHA in numerous biomedical applications within the previous decade. PHAs have been fabricated in various forms to perform tissue engineering to repair liver, bone, cartilage, heart tissues, cardiovascular tissues, bone marrow, and to act as drug delivery system and nerve conduits. A large number of animal trials have been carried out to assess the biomedical properties of PHA monomers, which also confirms the high compatibility of PHA family for this field. This review summarizes the synthesis of PHA from different sources, and biosynthetic pathways and biomedical applications of biosynthesized polyhydroxyalkanoates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.09.002DOI Listing
December 2018

Ionic liquid coated iron nanoparticles are promising peroxidase mimics for optical determination of HO.

Mikrochim Acta 2018 05 16;185(6):302. Epub 2018 May 16.

Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM) COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.

Ionic liquid coated nanoparticles (IL-NPs) consisting of zero-valent iron are shown to display intrinsic peroxidase-like activity with enhanced potential to catalyze the oxidation of the chromogenic substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. This results in the formation of a blue green colored product that can be detected with bare eyes and quantified by photometry at 652 nm. The IL-NPs were further doped with bismuth to enhance its catalytic properties. The Bi-doped IL-NPs were characterized by FTIR, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. A colorimetric assay was worked out for hydrogen peroxide that is simple, sensitive and selective. Response is linear in the 30-300 μM HO concentration range, and the detection limit is 0.15 μM. Graphical abstract Schematic of ionic liquid coated iron nanoparticles that display intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. They are capable of oxidizing the chromogenic substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. This catalytic oxidation generated blue-green color can be measured by colorimetry. Response is linear in the range of 30-300 μM HO concentration, and the detection limit is 0.15 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-018-2841-3DOI Listing
May 2018

Ionic liquid as a potential solvent for preparation of collagen-alginate-hydroxyapatite beads as bone filler.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2018 07 6;29(10):1168-1184. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

a Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM) , COMSATS Institute of Information Technology , Lahore , Pakistan.

In this study, collagen/alginate/hydroxyapatite beads having different proportions were prepared as bone fillers for the restoration of osteological defects. Ionic liquid was used to dissolve the collagen and subsequently the solution was mixed with sodium alginate solution. Hydroxyapatite was added in different proportions, with the rationale to enhance mechanical as well as biological properties. The prepared solutions were given characteristic bead shapes by dropwise addition into calcium chloride solution. The prepared beads were characterized using FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM analysis. Microhardness testing was used to evaluate the mechanical properties. The prepared beads were investigated for water adsorption behavior to ascertain its ability for body fluid uptake and adjusted accordingly to the bone cavity. Drug loading and subsequently the antibacterial activity was investigated for the prepared beads. The biocompatibility was assessed using the hemolysis testing and cell proliferation assay. The prepared collagen-alginate-HA beads, having biocompatibility and good mechanical properties, have showed an option of promising biologically active bone fillers for bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2018.1443604DOI Listing
July 2018

Enhanced antimicrobial, anti-oxidant applications of green synthesized AgNPs- an acute chronic toxicity study of phenolic azo dyes & study of materials surface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2018 Mar 13;180:208-217. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

National Fundamental Research Laboratory of New Hazardous Chemicals Assessment & Accident Analysis, Institute of Applied Electrochemistry, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China. Electronic address:

The drug resistant bacteria and textile contaminations of water cause different sever health problem throughout the world. To overcome this issue, new environmental benign materials and methods are needed. Plant metabolites directed synthesis of nanoparticles is considered eco-friendly and easy in synthesis. Therefore, it was explicit for the synthesis of AgNPs. The prepared AgNPs were evaluated for antibacterial, antioxidant, photo-catalytic and electrochemical degradation properties as well as toxicity of degradation products on aquatic life. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) has been used for analyzing the surface chemistry of prepared AgNPs. The particle size determines the interaction of nanoparticles with pathogens. Both Gram positive and negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus areous) are used to determine the anti-microbial potency of the green synthesized AgNPs. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed significant anti-bacterial applications against B. subtilus and S. aureus. The anti-oxidant applications of AgNPs also studied on comparison with vitamin C. The toxicity of the phenolic Azo dyes (PDA) has been studied against Fish, Daphnia and Green Algae. The electrode potential was studied in the electrochemical redox reaction of hydroxy phenol in aqueous media. Simple electrolyte was used to determine the current efficiency. For the stability of electrode multi cyclic voltammetry was also studied during redox reaction, which showed stability under the potential 0.4 to 0.2 V.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2018.02.015DOI Listing
March 2018