Publications by authors named "Nawal Al-Hamad"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Infant and young child feeding patterns in Kuwait: results of a cross-sectional survey.

Public Health Nutr 2017 Aug 5;20(12):2201-2207. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

1Department of Public Health Research,Dasman Diabetes Institute,Kuwait City,Kuwait.

Objective: The beneficial role of breast-feeding for maternal and child health is now well established. Its possible role in helping to prevent diabetes and obesity in children in later life means that more attention must be given to understanding how patterns of infant feeding are changing. The present study describes breast-feeding profiles and associated factors in Kuwait. Design/Setting/Subjects Interviews with 1484 recent mothers were undertaken at immunisation clinics across Kuwait. Descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression of results were performed.

Results: Rates of breast-feeding initiation in Kuwait were high (98·1 %) but by the time of discharge from hospital, only 36·5 % of mothers were fully breast-feeding, 37·0 % were partially breast-feeding and 26·5 % were already fully formula-feeding. Multiple social and health reasons were given for weaning the child, with 87·6 % of mothers who had stopped breast-feeding completely doing so within 3 months postpartum. Nationality (P<0·001), employment status 6 months prior to delivery (P<0·001), mode of delivery (P=0·01), sex of the child (P=0·026) and breast-feeding information given by nurses (P=0·026) were all found to be significantly associated with breast-feeding. Few women (5·6 %) got information on infant nutrition and feeding from nursing staff, but those who did were 2·54 times more likely to be still breast-feeding at discharge from hospital. Over 70 % of mothers had enjoyed breast-feeding and 74 % said they would be very likely to breast-feed again.

Conclusions: In Kuwait where the prevalence of both obesity and type 2 diabetes is growing rapidly, the public health role of breast-feeding must be recognised and acted upon more than it has in the past.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980017001094DOI Listing
August 2017

Burden of musculoskeletal disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

Authors:
Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mohammad H Forouzanfar Stein Emil Vollset Charbel El Bcheraoui Farah Daoud Ashkan Afshin Raghid Charara Ibrahim Khalil Hideki Higashi Mohamed Magdy Abd El Razek Aliasghar Ahmad Kiadaliri Khurshid Alam Nadia Akseer Nawal Al-Hamad Raghib Ali Mohammad AbdulAziz AlMazroa Mahmoud A Alomari Abdullah A Al-Rabeeah Ubai Alsharif Khalid A Altirkawi Suleman Atique Alaa Badawi Lope H Barrero Mohammed Basulaiman Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi Neeraj Bedi Isabela M Bensenor Rachelle Buchbinder Hadi Danawi Samath D Dharmaratne Faiez Zannad Maryam S Farvid Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad Farshad Farzadfar Florian Fischer Rahul Gupta Randah Ribhi Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Masako Horino Damian G Hoy Mohamed Hsairi Abdullatif Husseini Mehdi Javanbakht Jost B Jonas Amir Kasaeian Ejaz Ahmad Khan Jagdish Khubchandani Ann Kristin Knudsen Jacek A Kopec Raimundas Lunevicius Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Reza Malekzadeh Kedar Mate Alem Mehari Michele Meltzer Ziad A Memish Mojde Mirarefin Shafiu Mohammed Aliya Naheed Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer In-Hwan Oh Eun-Kee Park Emmanuel Kwame Peprah Farshad Pourmalek Mostafa Qorbani Anwar Rafay Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Rahman Shiri Sajjad Ur Rahman Rajesh Kumar Rai Saleem M Rana Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Ali Shaikh Ivy Shiue Abla Mehio Sibai Diego Augusto Santos Silva Jasvinder A Singh Jens Christoffer Skogen Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Kingsley N Ukwaja Ronny Westerman Naohiro Yonemoto Seok-Jun Yoon Mustafa Z Younis Zoubida Zaidi Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Stephen S Lim Haidong Wang Theo Vos Mohsen Naghavi Alan D Lopez Christopher J L Murray Ali H Mokdad

Ann Rheum Dis 2017 Aug 16;76(8):1365-1373. Epub 2017 Feb 16.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Objectives: We used findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 to report the burden of musculoskeletal disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR).

Methods: The burden of musculoskeletal disorders was calculated for the EMR's 22 countries between 1990 and 2013. A systematic analysis was performed on mortality and morbidity data to estimate prevalence, death, years of live lost, years lived with disability and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

Results: For musculoskeletal disorders, the crude DALYs rate per 100 000 increased from 1297.1 (95% uncertainty interval (UI) 924.3-1703.4) in 1990 to 1606.0 (95% UI 1141.2-2130.4) in 2013. During 1990-2013, the total DALYs of musculoskeletal disorders increased by 105.2% in the EMR compared with a 58.0% increase in the rest of the world. The burden of musculoskeletal disorders as a proportion of total DALYs increased from 2.4% (95% UI 1.7-3.0) in 1990 to 4.7% (95% UI 3.6-5.8) in 2013. The range of point prevalence (per 1000) among the EMR countries was 28.2-136.0 for low back pain, 27.3-49.7 for neck pain, 9.7-37.3 for osteoarthritis (OA), 0.6-2.2 for rheumatoid arthritis and 0.1-0.8 for gout. Low back pain and neck pain had the highest burden in EMR countries.

Conclusions: This study shows a high burden of musculoskeletal disorders, with a faster increase in EMR compared with the rest of the world. The reasons for this faster increase need to be explored. Our findings call for incorporating prevention and control programmes that should include improving health data, addressing risk factors, providing evidence-based care and community programmes to increase awareness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-210146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5738600PMC
August 2017

The Burden of Mental Disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013.

PLoS One 2017 17;12(1):e0169575. Epub 2017 Jan 17.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is witnessing an increase in chronic disorders, including mental illness. With ongoing unrest, this is expected to rise. This is the first study to quantify the burden of mental disorders in the EMR. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD) 2013. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) allow assessment of both premature mortality (years of life lost-YLLs) and nonfatal outcomes (years lived with disability-YLDs). DALYs are computed by adding YLLs and YLDs for each age-sex-country group. In 2013, mental disorders contributed to 5.6% of the total disease burden in the EMR (1894 DALYS/100,000 population): 2519 DALYS/100,000 (2590/100,000 males, 2426/100,000 females) in high-income countries, 1884 DALYS/100,000 (1618/100,000 males, 2157/100,000 females) in middle-income countries, 1607 DALYS/100,000 (1500/100,000 males, 1717/100,000 females) in low-income countries. Females had a greater proportion of burden due to mental disorders than did males of equivalent ages, except for those under 15 years of age. The highest proportion of DALYs occurred in the 25-49 age group, with a peak in the 35-39 years age group (5344 DALYs/100,000). The burden of mental disorders in EMR increased from 1726 DALYs/100,000 in 1990 to 1912 DALYs/100,000 in 2013 (10.8% increase). Within the mental disorders group in EMR, depressive disorders accounted for most DALYs, followed by anxiety disorders. Among EMR countries, Palestine had the largest burden of mental disorders. Nearly all EMR countries had a higher mental disorder burden compared to the global level. Our findings call for EMR ministries of health to increase provision of mental health services and to address the stigma of mental illness. Moreover, our results showing the accelerating burden of mental health are alarming as the region is seeing an increased level of instability. Indeed, mental health problems, if not properly addressed, will lead to an increased burden of diseases in the region.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0169575PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5240956PMC
August 2017

Total Energy Expenditure in Obese Kuwaiti Primary School Children Assessed by the Doubly-Labeled Water Technique.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016 10 13;13(10). Epub 2016 Oct 13.

Stable Isotope Biochemistry Laboratory, Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Rankine Avenue, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride, Glasgow G75 0QF, UK.

The aim of this pilot study was to assess body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in 35 obese 7-9 years old Kuwaiti children (18 girls and 17 boys). Total body water (TBW) and TEE were assessed by doubly-labeled water technique. TBW was derived from the intercept of the elimination rate of deuterium and TEE from the difference in elimination rates of O and deuterium. TBW was used to estimate fat-free mass (FFM), using hydration factors for different ages and gender. Fat mass (FM) was calculated as the difference between body weight and FFM. Body weight was not statistically different but TBW was significantly higher ( = 0.018) in boys (44.9% ± 3.3%) than girls (42.4% ± 3.0%), while girls had significantly higher estimated FM (45.2 ± 3.9 weight % versus 41.6% ± 4.3%; = 0.014). TEE was significantly higher in boys (2395 ± 349 kcal/day) compared with girls (1978 ± 169 kcal/day); = 0.001. Estimated physical activity level (PAL) was significantly higher in boys; 1.61 ± 0.167 versus 1.51 ± 0.870; = 0.034. Our results provide the first dataset of TEE in 7-9 years old obese Kuwaiti children and highlight important gender differences to be considered during the development of school based interventions targeted to combat childhood obesity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13101007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5086746PMC
October 2016

Health in times of uncertainty in the eastern Mediterranean region, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

Authors:
Ali H Mokdad Mohammad Hossein Forouzanfar Farah Daoud Charbel El Bcheraoui Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Ibrahim Khalil Ashkan Afshin Marwa Tuffaha Raghid Charara Ryan M Barber Joseph Wagner Kelly Cercy Hannah Kravitz Matthew M Coates Margaret Robinson Kara Estep Caitlyn Steiner Sara Jaber Ali A Mokdad Kevin F O'Rourke Adrienne Chew Pauline Kim Mohamed Magdy Abd El Razek Safa Abdalla Foad Abd-Allah Jerry P Abraham Laith J Abu-Raddad Niveen M E Abu-Rmeileh Abdulwahab A Al-Nehmi Ali S Akanda Hanan Al Ahmadi Mazin J Al Khabouri Faris H Al Lami Zulfa A Al Rayess Deena Alasfoor Fadia S AlBuhairan Saleh F Aldhahri Suliman Alghnam Samia Alhabib Nawal Al-Hamad Raghib Ali Syed Danish Ali Mohammad Alkhateeb Mohammad A AlMazroa Mahmoud A Alomari Rajaa Al-Raddadi Ubai Alsharif Nihaya Al-Sheyab Shirina Alsowaidi Mohamed Al-Thani Khalid A Altirkawi Azmeraw T Amare Heresh Amini Walid Ammar Palwasha Anwari Hamid Asayesh Rana Asghar Ali M Assabri Reza Assadi Umar Bacha Alaa Badawi Talal Bakfalouni Mohammed O Basulaiman Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi Neeraj Bedi Amit R Bhakta Zulfiqar A Bhutta Aref A Bin Abdulhak Soufiane Boufous Rupert R A Bourne Hadi Danawi Jai Das Amare Deribew Eric L Ding Adnan M Durrani Yousef Elshrek Mohamed E Ibrahim Babak Eshrati Alireza Esteghamati Imad A D Faghmous Farshad Farzadfar Andrea B Feigl Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad Irina Filip Florian Fischer Fortuné G Gankpé Ibrahim Ginawi Melkamu Dedefo Gishu Rahul Gupta Rami M Habash Nima Hafezi-Nejad Randah R Hamadeh Hayet Hamdouni Samer Hamidi Hilda L Harb Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand Mohammad T Hedayati Pouria Heydarpour Mohamed Hsairi Abdullatif Husseini Nader Jahanmehr Vivekanand Jha Jost B Jonas Nadim E Karam Amir Kasaeian Nega Assefa Kassa Anil Kaul Yousef Khader Shams Eldin A Khalifa Ejaz A Khan Gulfaraz Khan Tawfik Khoja Ardeshir Khosravi Yohannes Kinfu Barthelemy Kuate Defo Arjun Lakshmana Balaji Raimundas Lunevicius Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer Reza Malekzadeh Morteza Mansourian Wagner Marcenes Habibolah Masoudi Farid Alem Mehari Abla Mehio-Sibai Ziad A Memish George A Mensah Karzan A Mohammad Ziad Nahas Jamal T Nasher Haseeb Nawaz Chakib Nejjari Muhammad Imran Nisar Saad B Omer Mahboubeh Parsaeian Emmanuel K Peprah Aslam Pervaiz Farshad Pourmalek Dima M Qato Mostafa Qorbani Amir Radfar Anwar Rafay Kazem Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Sajjad Ur Rahman Rajesh K Rai Saleem M Rana Sowmya R Rao Amany H Refaat Serge Resnikoff Gholamreza Roshandel Georges Saade Mohammad Y Saeedi Mohammad Ali Sahraian Shadi Saleh Lidia Sanchez-Riera Maheswar Satpathy Sadaf G Sepanlou Tesfaye Setegn Amira Shaheen Saeid Shahraz Sara Sheikhbahaei Kawkab Shishani Karen Sliwa Mohammad Tavakkoli Abdullah S Terkawi Olalekan A Uthman Ronny Westerman Mustafa Z Younis Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Faiez Zannad Gregory A Roth Haidong Wang Mohsen Naghavi Theo Vos Abdullah A Al Rabeeah Alan D Lopez Christopher J L Murray

Lancet Glob Health 2016 10 25;4(10):e704-13. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: The eastern Mediterranean region is comprised of 22 countries: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Since our Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010), the region has faced unrest as a result of revolutions, wars, and the so-called Arab uprisings. The objective of this study was to present the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors in the eastern Mediterranean region as of 2013.

Methods: GBD 2013 includes an annual assessment covering 188 countries from 1990 to 2013. The study covers 306 diseases and injuries, 1233 sequelae, and 79 risk factors. Our GBD 2013 analyses included the addition of new data through updated systematic reviews and through the contribution of unpublished data sources from collaborators, an updated version of modelling software, and several improvements in our methods. In this systematic analysis, we use data from GBD 2013 to analyse the burden of disease and injuries in the eastern Mediterranean region specifically.

Findings: The leading cause of death in the region in 2013 was ischaemic heart disease (90·3 deaths per 100 000 people), which increased by 17·2% since 1990. However, diarrhoeal diseases were the leading cause of death in Somalia (186·7 deaths per 100 000 people) in 2013, which decreased by 26·9% since 1990. The leading cause of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) was ischaemic heart disease for males and lower respiratory infection for females. High blood pressure was the leading risk factor for DALYs in 2013, with an increase of 83·3% since 1990. Risk factors for DALYs varied by country. In low-income countries, childhood wasting was the leading cause of DALYs in Afghanistan, Somalia, and Yemen, whereas unsafe sex was the leading cause in Djibouti. Non-communicable risk factors were the leading cause of DALYs in high-income and middle-income countries in the region. DALY risk factors varied by age, with child and maternal malnutrition affecting the younger age groups (aged 28 days to 4 years), whereas high bodyweight and systolic blood pressure affected older people (aged 60-80 years). The proportion of DALYs attributed to high body-mass index increased from 3·7% to 7·5% between 1990 and 2013. Burden of mental health problems and drug use increased. Most increases in DALYs, especially from non-communicable diseases, were due to population growth. The crises in Egypt, Yemen, Libya, and Syria have resulted in a reduction in life expectancy; life expectancy in Syria would have been 5 years higher than that recorded for females and 6 years higher for males had the crisis not occurred.

Interpretation: Our study shows that the eastern Mediterranean region is going through a crucial health phase. The Arab uprisings and the wars that followed, coupled with ageing and population growth, will have a major impact on the region's health and resources. The region has historically seen improvements in life expectancy and other health indicators, even under stress. However, the current situation will cause deteriorating health conditions for many countries and for many years and will have an impact on the region and the rest of the world. Based on our findings, we call for increased investment in health in the region in addition to reducing the conflicts.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(16)30168-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6660972PMC
October 2016

Estimation of the Prevalence of Inadequate and Excessive Iodine Intakes in School-Age Children from the Adjusted Distribution of Urinary Iodine Concentrations from Population Surveys.

J Nutr 2016 06 4;146(6):1204-11. Epub 2016 May 4.

Department of Statistics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

Background: The urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a biomarker of iodine intake, is used to assess population iodine status by deriving the median UIC, but this does not quantify the percentage of individuals with habitually deficient or excess iodine intakes. Individuals with a UIC <100 μg/L or ≥300 μg/L are often incorrectly classified as having deficient or excess intakes, but this likely overestimates the true prevalence.

Objective: Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate and excess iodine intake in children (aged 4-14 y) with the distribution of spot UIC from iodine surveys.

Methods: With the use of data from national iodine studies (Kuwait, Oman, Thailand, and Qatar) and a regional study (China) in children (n = 6117) in which a repeat UIC was obtained in a subsample (n = 1060), we calculated daily iodine intake from spot UICs from the relation between body weight and 24-h urine volume and within-person variation by using the repeat UIC. We also estimated pooled external within-person proportion of total variances by region. We used within-person variance proportions to obtain the prevalence of inadequate or excess usual iodine intake by using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)/Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) cutoff method.

Results: Median UICs in Kuwait, Oman, China, Thailand, and Qatar were 132, 192, 199, 262, and 333 μg/L, respectively. Internal within-person variance proportions ranged from 25.0% to 80.0%, and pooled regional external estimates ranged from 40.4% to 77.5%. The prevalence of inadequate and excess intakes as defined by the adjusted EAR/UL cutoff method was ∼45-99% lower than those defined by a spot UIC <100 μg/L or ≥300 μg/L (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Applying the EAR/UL cutoff method to iodine intakes from adjusted UIC distributions is a promising approach to estimate the number of individuals with deficient or excess iodine intakes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.115.229005DOI Listing
June 2016

Prevalence and Determinants of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Kuwait.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015 Jul 31;12(8):9036-45. Epub 2015 Jul 31.

Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat 13109, Kuwait.

The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency (ID) of a nationally representative sample of the Kuwait population. We also determined if anemia differed by socioeconomic status or by RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels. The subjects who were made up of 1830 males and females between the ages of 2 months to 86 years, were divided into the following age groups (0-5, 5-11, 12-14, 15-19, 20-49, ≥50 years). Results showed that the prevalence of anemia was 3% in adult males and 17% in females. The prevalence of ID varied according to age between 4% (≥50 years) and 21% (5-11 years) and 9% (12-14 years) and 23% (15-19 years), respectively, in males and females. The prevalence of anemia and ID was higher in females compared to males. Adults with normal ferritin level, but with low RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels had higher prevalence of anemia than those with normal RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels. This first nationally representative nutrition and health survey in Kuwait indicated that anemia and ID are prevalent and ID contributes significantly to anemia prevalence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120809036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4555262PMC
July 2015

Total body water measurement using the 2H dilution technique for the assessment of body composition of Kuwaiti children.

Public Health Nutr 2015 Feb;18(2):259-63

1Food and Nutrition Program,Environment and Life Sciences Research Institute,Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR),PO Box 24885,Safat 13109,Kuwait.

Objective: The 2H dilution technique is the reference method to estimate total body water for body composition assessment. The aims of the present study were to establish the total body water technique at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and assess body composition of Kuwaiti children.

Design: The isotope ratio mass spectrometer was calibrated with defined international reference water standards. A non-random sampling approach was used to recruit a convenience sample of Kuwaiti children. A dose of 2H2O, 1-3 g, was consumed after an overnight fast and 2H enrichment in baseline and post-dose urine samples was measured. Total body water was calculated and used to estimate fat-free mass. Fat mass was estimated as body weight minus fat-free mass.

Setting: The total body water study was implemented in primary schools.

Subjects: Seventy-five boys and eighty-three girls (7-9 years).

Results: Measurements of the isotope ratio mass spectrometer were confirmed to be accurate and precise. Children were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese according to the WHO based on BMI-for-age Z-scores. Normal-weight and overweight girls had significantly higher percentage body fat (median (range): 32·4 % (24·7-39·3 %) and 38·3 % (29·3-44·2 %), respectively) compared with boys (median (range): 26·5 % (14·2-37·1 %) and 34·6 % (29·9-40·2 %), respectively). No gender difference was found in obese children (median 46·5 % v. 45·6 %).

Conclusions: The establishment of a state-of-the-art stable isotope laboratory for assessment of body composition provides an opportunity to explore a wide range of applications to better understand the relationship between body size, body composition and risk of developing non-communicable diseases in Kuwait.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980013003534DOI Listing
February 2015

Evidence for nutrition transition in Kuwait: over-consumption of macronutrients and obesity.

Public Health Nutr 2013 Apr 14;16(4):596-607. Epub 2012 Sep 14.

National Nutrition Institute, Cairo, Egypt.

Objectives: To describe nutrient intakes and prevalence of overweight and obesity in a nationally representative sample of Kuwaitis and to compare intakes with reference values.

Design: Cross-sectional, multistage stratified, cluster sample. Settings National nutrition survey covering all geographical areas of the country.

Subjects: Kuwaitis (n 1704) between 3 and 86 years of age.

Results: Obesity was more prevalent among women than men (50 % and 70 % for females aged 19-50 years and ≥51 years, respectively, v. 29 % and 42 % for their male counterparts). Boys were more obese than girls, with the highest obesity rate among those aged 9-13 years (37 % and 24 % of males and females, respectively). Energy intake was higher than the estimated energy requirements for almost half of Kuwaiti children and one-third of adults. The Estimated Average Requirement was exceeded by 78-100 % of the recommendation for protein and carbohydrates. More than two-thirds of males aged ≥4 years exceeded the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for Na. Conversely, less than 20 % of Kuwaitis, regardless of age, consumed 100 % or more of the Estimated Average Requirement for vitamin D, vitamin E, Ca, n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Less than 20 % of children met the recommended level for fibre.

Conclusions: Nutrition transition among Kuwaitis was demonstrated by the increased prevalence of obesity and overweight, increased intakes of energy and macronutrients and decreased intakes of fibre and micronutrients. Interventions to increase awareness about healthy foods combined with modifications in subsidy policies are clearly warranted to increase consumption of low-energy, nutrient-dense foods.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012003941DOI Listing
April 2013

High prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Kuwaiti adults--a wake-up call for public health intervention.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2012 05 23;9(5):1984-96. Epub 2012 May 23.

Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, PO Box 24885, Safat 13109, Kuwait.

The socio-economic development which followed the discovery of oil resources brought about considerable changes in the food habits and lifestyle of the Kuwaiti population. Excessive caloric intake and decreased energy expenditure due to a sedentary lifestyle have led to a rapid increase in obesity, diabetes and other non-communicable chronic diseases in the population. In this paper, we examine the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among Kuwaiti adults (≥20 years) using data from the first national nutrition survey conducted between July 2008 and November 2009. The prevalence of MetS was 37.7% in females and 34.2% in males by NCEP criteria, whereas the values were 40.1% in females and 41.7% in males according to IDF criteria. Prevalence of MetS increased with age and was higher in females than males. The high prevalence of the MetS in Kuwaiti adults warrants urgent public health measures to prevent morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular complications in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph9051984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3386600PMC
May 2012

Waist circumference percentiles for Kuwaiti children and adolescents.

Public Health Nutr 2011 Jan 5;14(1):70-6. Epub 2010 Oct 5.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

Objective: Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases. Yet there are no waist circumference (WC) cut-offs for children in the Arabian Gulf. We developed smoothed WC percentiles for 5-19-year-old Kuwaiti children and adolescents, which could be used in clinical and public health practice. We also examined the percentages of children who had WC ≥ 90th percentile, a value commonly associated with an elevated risk of CVD.

Design: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted by the Kuwait National Nutrition Surveillance System.

Setting: Data were collected from representative primary-, intermediate- and secondary-school children as part of the yearly nutrition and health monitoring. Least mean square regression was used to develop smoothed WC curves.

Subjects: A total of 9593 healthy 5.0-18.9-year-old children of both sexes were studied from all areas of Kuwait. Age, gender, residency, education level, weight, height and WC were collected for all participants.

Results: We developed the first smoothed WC curves for Kuwaiti children. Male children had higher WC than female children. WC increased with age in both genders, but larger percentages of male children had WC ≥ 90th percentile. Male children aged >10 years have higher WC percentiles than do female children at the 50th, 75th, 90th and 97th percentiles.

Conclusions: Male children (especially those aged >10 years) are at higher risk than female children. Few health-care professionals routinely measure WC. WC measurement should be promoted as an important tool in paediatric primary care practice. The use of these age- and gender-specific percentiles can impact public health recommendations for Kuwaiti and other Arab children from the Gulf.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980010002600DOI Listing
January 2011

Age- and gender-specific smoothed waist circumference percentiles for Kuwaiti adolescents.

Med Princ Pract 2010 26;19(4):269-74. Epub 2010 May 26.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

Objective: To ascertain abdominal obesity prevalence (waist circumference, WC) in adolescents and to develop smoothed WC percentile charts for Kuwaiti adolescents for public health use.

Subjects And Methods: A cross-sectional study of 4,219 healthy Kuwaiti male and female secondary school students between the ages of 11-19 years was examined. Adolescents were drawn from all geographical regions of the country, as part of the Kuwait Nutrition Surveillance Program (KNSP). The KNSP consists of yearly data collections of variables, including weights, heights, and WCs and several sociodemographic variables. LMS regression was used to develop smoothed WC percentile curves. The final percentile curves presented are the result of smoothing three age-specific curves, termed lambda (L), mu (M), and sigma (S) for each gender.

Results: Between 5.9 and 12.8% of females and 8.0-30.3% males had WC values > or = 90th percentile. Moreover, the mean WC of males was consistently higher than those of females at each age and the percent of adolescents who exceed the 90th percentile increased with age in males, but not in females.

Conclusion: Mean WC was higher in males than in females at every age. In most cases, two to three times greater percentages of males, compared to females, equaled or exceeded the 90th percentile, a value frequently associated with higher cardiovascular risk. These results indicate the urgent need to reduce abdominal obesity, an important indicator of the metabolic syndrome, in Kuwaiti adolescents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000312712DOI Listing
June 2011

Comparison of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 24-hour dietary recalls to assess dietary intake of adult Kuwaitis.

Saudi Med J 2009 Jan;30(1):159-61

Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2009

Development of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for use in United Arab Emirates and Kuwait based on local foods.

Nutr J 2005 May 27;4:18. Epub 2005 May 27.

Hamilton General Hospital, Population Health Research Institute, 237 Barton, Street East, Hamilton, ON L8L 2X2, Canada.

Background: The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is one of the most commonly used tools in epidemiologic studies to assess long-term nutritional exposure. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of a culture specific FFQ for Arab populations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Kuwait.

Methods: We interviewed samples of Arab populations over 18 years old in UAE and Kuwait assessing their dietary intakes using 24-hour dietary recall. Based on the most commonly reported foods and portion sizes, we constructed a food list with the units of measurement. The food list was converted to a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFQ) format following the basic pattern of SFFQ using usual reported portions. The long SFFQ was field-tested, shortened and developed into the final SFFQ. To estimate nutrients from mixed dishes we collected recipes of those mixed dishes that were commonly eaten, and estimated their nutritional content by using nutrient values of the ingredients that took into account method of preparation from the US Department of Agriculture's Food Composition Database.

Results: The SFFQs consist of 153 and 152 items for UAE and Kuwait, respectively. The participants reported average intakes over the past year. On average the participants reported eating 3.4 servings/d of fruits and 3.1 servings/d of vegetables in UAE versus 2.8 servings/d of fruits and 3.2 servings/d of vegetables in Kuwait. Participants reported eating cereals 4.8 times/d in UAE and 5.3 times/d in Kuwait. The mean intake of dairy products was 2.2/d in UAE and 3.4 among Kuwaiti.

Conclusion: We have developed SFFQs to measure diet in UAE and Kuwait that will serve the needs of public health researchers and clinicians and are currently validating those instruments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-4-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1166573PMC
May 2005