Publications by authors named "Nawal Ahmed"

7 Publications

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The chronic effect of pulsed 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation on amino acid neurotransmitters in three different areas of juvenile and young adult rat brain.

Toxicol Ind Health 2018 Dec 21;34(12):860-872. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

The extensive use of mobile phones worldwide has raised increasing concerns about the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the brain due to the proximity of the mobile phone to the head and the appearance of several adverse neurological effects after mobile phone use. It has been hypothesized that the EMR-induced neurological effects may be mediated by amino acid neurotransmitters. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of EMR (frequency 1800 MHz, specific absorption rate 0.843 W/kg, power density 0.02 mW/cm, modulated at 217 Hz) on the concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, gamma aminobutyric acid, glycine, taurine, and the amide glutamine) in the hippocampus, striatum, and hypothalamus of juvenile and young adult rats. The juvenile and young adult animals were each divided into two groups: control rats and rats exposed to EMR 1 h daily for 1, 2, and 4 months. A subgroup of rats were exposed daily to EMR for 4 months and then left without exposure for 1 month to study the recovery from EMR exposure. Amino acid neurotransmitters were measured in the hippocampus, striatum, and hypothalamus using high-performance liquid chromatography. Exposure to EMR induced significant changes in amino acid neurotransmitters in the studied brain areas of juvenile and young adult rats, being more prominent in juvenile animals. It could be concluded that the alterations in amino acid neurotransmitters induced by EMR exposure of juvenile and young adult rats may underlie many of the neurological effects reported after EMR exposure including cognitive and memory impairment and sleep disorders. Some of these effects may persist for some time after stopping exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748233718798975DOI Listing
December 2018

Apoptotic induction mediated p53 mechanism and Caspase-3 activity by novel promising cyanoacrylamide derivatives in breast carcinoma.

Bioorg Chem 2017 08 1;73:43-52. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. Electronic address:

New cyanoacrylamide derivatives were theoretically examined for their binding abilities to a protein model of apoptosis inhibitor proteins x-IAP and c-IAP1 using molecular modeling. The two compounds 5a and 5b proved promising IAP antagonists, where they have good binding affinity toward the selected active domains. Anticancer activity of all derivatives was performed on different human cancer cell lines (HCT116, Caco, and MCF7) as well as normal line (HBF4). Data revealed that breast carcinoma was more sensitive to the novel compounds than other lines especially compounds 5a and 5b, but all derivatives lost their cytotoxic effect in case of Caco2 cell line and they showed low cytotoxic effect toward HCT116 cells except compound 3. The flow cytometric analysis revealed that the two compounds 5a and 5b induced apoptosis to 46.5% and 54.8% respectively, relative to control 8.06%. In addition, PCR results indicated that the two compounds 5a and 5b induced the expression of p53 gene and decreased induction of BCL2 (anti-apoptotic gene), while the two compounds have no effect on the protein expression of Caspase-9. By monitoring the presence of Caspase-3 which was a mean to detect apoptotic death in breast carcinoma, the two compounds have stimulated the induction of apoptosis by increasing the production of Caspase-3 protein. Finally, it was concluded that the two compounds 5b and 5a have the most promising anti-cancer activity against human breast carcinoma (MCF7), and it is believed that the anticancer activities of these two compounds were due to being the most effective in the inhibition of a member of IAPs groups, leading to activation of p53 gene and the Caspase-3 dependent apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2017.05.012DOI Listing
August 2017

The antioxidant effect of Green Tea Mega EGCG against electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum of rats.

Electromagn Biol Med 2017 11;36(1):63-73. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

a Zoology Department, Faculty of Science , Cairo University , Giza , Egypt.

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of cellular phones may affect biological systems by increasing free radicals and changing the antioxidant defense systems of tissues, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Green tea has recently attracted significant attention due to its health benefits in a variety of disorders, ranging from cancer to weight loss. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EMR (frequency 900 MHz modulated at 217 Hz, power density 0.02 mW/cm, SAR 1.245 W/kg) on different oxidative stress parameters in the hippocampus and striatum of adult rats. This study also extends to evaluate the therapeutic effect of green tea mega EGCG on the previous parameters in animals exposed to EMR after and during EMR exposure. The experimental animals were divided into four groups: EMR-exposed animals, animals treated with green tea mega EGCG after 2 months of EMR exposure, animals treated with green tea mega EGCG during EMR exposure and control animals. EMR exposure resulted in oxidative stress in the hippocampus and striatum as evident from the disturbances in oxidant and antioxidant parameters. Co-administration of green tea mega EGCG at the beginning of EMR exposure for 2 and 3 months had more beneficial effect against EMR-induced oxidative stress than oral administration of green tea mega EGCG after 2 months of exposure. This recommends the use of green tea before any stressor to attenuate the state of oxidative stress and stimulate the antioxidant mechanism of the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15368378.2016.1194292DOI Listing
February 2017

Sex and Immunogen-Specific Benefits of Immunotherapy Targeting Islet Amyloid Polypeptide in Transgenic and Wild-Type Mice.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2016 14;7:62. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Psychiatry, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by the deposition of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) as amyloid in islets, a process thought to be toxic to β-cells. To determine the feasibility of targeting these aggregates therapeutically, we vaccinated transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress human IAPP and were fed a high-fat diet to promote their diabetic phenotype. Our findings indicate that prophylactic vaccination with IAPP and its derivative IAPP7-19-TT, protects wild-type female mice, but not males, from obesity-induced early mortality, and the derivative showed a strong trend for prolonging the lifespan of Tg females but not males. Furthermore, IAPP7-19-TT-immunized Tg females cleared a glucose bolus more efficiently than controls, while IAPP-immunized Tg females showed an impaired ability to clear a glucose bolus compared to their adjuvant injected Tg controls. Interestingly, IAPP or IAPP7-19-TT treatments had no effect on glucose clearance in Tg males. Overall, these beneficial effects of IAPP targeted immunization depend on Tg status, sex, and immunogen. Hence, future studies in this field should carefully consider these variables that clearly affect the therapeutic outcome. In conclusion, IAPP targeting immunotherapy may have benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2016.00062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4907063PMC
July 2016

The anticonvulant effect of cooling in comparison to α-lipoic acid: a neurochemical study.

Neurochem Res 2013 May 7;38(5):906-15. Epub 2013 Feb 7.

Medical Division, Medical Physiology Department, National Research Center, El-Bohouth St., P.O. 12622, Giza, Egypt.

Brain cooling has pronounced effects on seizures and epileptic activity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of brain cooling on the oxidative stress and changes in Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activities during status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine in the hippocampus of adult male rat in comparison with α-lipoic acid. Rats were divided into four groups: control, rats treated with pilocarpine for induction of status epilepticus, rats treated for 3 consecutive days with α-lipoic acid before pilocarpine and rats subjected to whole body cooling for 30 min before pilocarpine. The present findings indicated that pilocarine-induced status epilepticus was accompanied by a state of oxidative stress as clear from the significant increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and significant decrease in reduced glutathione and nitric oxide (NO) levels and the activities of catalase, AchE and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase. Pretreatment with α-lipoic acid ameliorated the state of oxidative stress and restored AchE to nearly control activity. However, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity showed a significant decrease. Rats exposed to cooling for 30 min before the induction of status epilepticus revealed significant increases in MDA and NO levels and SOD activity. AchE returned to control value while the significant decrease in Na(+), K(+)-ATPase persisted. The present data suggest that cooling may have an anticonvulsant effect which may be mediated by the elevated NO level. However, brain cooling may have drastic unwanted insults such as oxidative stress and the decrease in Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-013-0995-2DOI Listing
May 2013

Effect of homogenization on the properties and microstructure of Mozzarella cheese from buffalo milk.

Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2012 Apr;11(2):121-35

Dairy Science Department, National Research Center in Dokki, Giza El Buhouth St., Dokki, Egypt.

Background: The name pasta filata refers to a unique plasticizing and texturing treatments of the fresh curd in hot water that imparts to the finished cheese its characteristic fibrous structure and melting properties. Mozzarella cheese made from standardized homogenized and non-homogenized buffalo milk with 3 and 1.5%fat. The effect of homogenization on rheological, microstructure and sensory evaluation was carried out.

Material And Methods: Fresh raw buffalo milk and starter cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus were used. The coagulants were calf rennet powder (HA-LA). Standardized buffalo milk was homogenized at 25 kg/cm2 pressure after heating to 60°C using homogenizer. Milk and cheese were analysed. Microstructure of the cheese samples was investigated either with an application of transmission or scanning electron microscope. Statistical analyses were applied on the obtained data.

Results: Soluble nitrogen total volatile free fatty acids, soluble tyrosine and tryptophan increased with using homogenized milk and also, increased with relatively decrease in case of homogenized Mozzarella cheese. Meltability of Mozzarella cheese increased with increasing the fat content and storage period and decrease with homogenization. Mozzarella cheese firmness increased with homogenization and also, increased with progressing of storage period. Flavour score, appearance and total score of Mozzarella cheese increased with homogenization and storage period progress, while body and texture score decreased with homogenization and increased with storage period progress. Microstructure of Mozzarella cheese showed the low fat cheese tends to be harder, more crumbly and less smooth than normal. Curd granule junctions were prominent in non-homogenized milk cheese.

Conclusion: Homogenization of milk cheese caused changes in the microstructure of the Mozzarella cheese. Microstructure studies of cheese revealed that cheese made from homogenized milk is smoother and has a finer texture than non-homogenized but is also, firmer and more elastic.
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April 2012

Effect of three different intensities of infrared laser energy on the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters in the cortex and hippocampus of rat brain.

Photomed Laser Surg 2008 Oct;26(5):479-88

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of three different intensities of infrared diode laser radiation on amino acid neurotransmitters in the cortex and hippocampus of rat brain.

Background Data: Lasers are known to induce different neurological effects such as pain relief, anesthesia, and neurosuppressive effects; however, the precise mechanisms of these effects are not clearly elucidated. Amino acid neurotransmitters (glutamate, aspartate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA], glycine, and taurine) play vital roles in the central nervous system (CNS).

Materials And Methods: The shaved scalp of each rat was exposed to different intensities of infrared laser energy (500, 190, and 90 mW) and then the rats were sacrificed after 1 h, 7 d, and 14 d of daily laser irradiation. The control groups were exposed to the same conditions but without exposure to laser. The concentrations of amino acid neurotransmitters were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Results: The rats subjected to 500 mW of laser irradiation had a significant decrease in glutamate, aspartate, and taurine in the cortex, and a significant decrease in hippocampal GABA. In the cortices of rats exposed to 190 mW of laser irradiation, an increase in aspartate accompanied by a decrease in glutamine were observed. In the hippocampus, other changes were seen. The rats irradiated with 90 mW showed a decrease in cortical glutamate, aspartate, and glutamine, and an increase in glycine, while in the hippocampus an increase in glutamate, aspartate, and GABA were recorded.

Conclusion: We conclude that daily laser irradiation at 90 mW produced the most pronounced inhibitory effect in the cortex after 7 d. This finding may explain the reported neurosuppressive effect of infrared laser energy on axonal conduction of hippocampal and cortical tissues of rat brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/pho.2007.2190DOI Listing
October 2008
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