Publications by authors named "Navneet Kaur"

261 Publications

Challenges and Developments in Secure Routing Protocols for Healthcare in WBAN: A Comparative Analysis.

Wirel Pers Commun 2021 Aug 22:1-40. Epub 2021 Aug 22.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chandigarh University, Mohali, India.

The rise in life expectancy of humans, COVID-19 pandemic and growing cost of medical services has brought up huge challenges for the government and healthcare industry. Due to unhealthy lifestyle, there is an increased need for continual health monitoring and diagnosis of diseases. Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is attracted attention of researchers as various biosensors can be embedded in or worn on the body of human beings for the measurement of health parameters. The patient's health data is then sent wirelessly to the physician for health analysis. The biosensors used to measure physiological parameters have limited power due to its small size and hence smaller form factor. For the longevity of the network, it is imperative to transmit the data in an energy-efficient manner. Moreover, the health information of the patient is stringently private. Hence, the privacy and security of transmitted information needs to be ensured. It necessitates the development of effective, lightweight and secure routing protocols that provides security with minimal use of resources. This paper has identified the numerous security requirements in WBANs and has provided the extensive review on existing secure routing protocols reported in the literature. A comparative analysis of the various existing state-of-the art secure routing protocols and critical analysis based on security techniques along with different performance parameters has been presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11277-021-08969-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8380194PMC
August 2021

Esthetic Root Coverage by Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft with Management of Repeated Rupture of Palatal Arterial Bleeding: A Rare Case Report.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2021 Jun 5;13(Suppl 1):S861-S864. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Guru Nanak Dev Dental College and RI, Sunam, Punjab, India.

Nowadays, patients are much concerned about esthetics of the oro-facial region. Gingival recession is considered as one of the major esthetic problems creating complex situations by compromising oral esthetics. This can be treated successfully by means of several mucogingival surgical procedures which can be used to accomplish satisfactory root coverage without any loss of interdental soft- and hard-tissue height. Grafts are also very useful in such scenarios. Our case reports the connective tissue graft technique used in the treatment of gingival recession. The objective of this case was to evaluate the efficacy of connective tissue graft (CTG) and also to mention the management of complications on the donor site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_550_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375926PMC
June 2021

The Role of Religiosity and Guilt in Symptomatology and Outcome of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

Psychopharmacol Bull 2021 Jun;51(3):38-49

Rakesh, MD, Arvind, MD, Dutt, MD, Mamta, PhD, Bhavneesh, MD, Kavita, MD, Navneet, MBBS, Shrutika, MD, Priyanka, MD, Arun, MD, Harkamal, MD, Jagdeep, MD, Department of Psychiatry, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Punjab, India.

Importance: Religiosity and guilt are commonly featured in obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). The role of religiosity and guilt in OCD has been frequently studied in the literature and suggested that greater religiosity/spirituality, paranormal beliefs, and magical ideation have often been associated with enhanced obsessive-compulsive behavior. India being a multi-religious country, it is particularly notable that a research was required to assess the role of religiosity and guilt in symptomatology and outcome in OCD, a condition in which religious themes are often present. It has also been documented that the fear of guilt for doing something irresponsibly may lead to OCD symptoms.

Objective: The study aimed to seek the role of religiosity and guilt in symptomatology and outcome of OCD. This study also aimed to assess the pattern of symptomatology of patients with OCD and the relation between religiosity and guilt.

Settings And Design: This was a single-centered, prospective study for one year with six months follow-up.

Methods And Material: Fifty OCD subjects of either gender, aged between 18 years and 45 years were included in this study and were assessed using Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Belief into Action Scale, and The Guilt Inventory instruments for the measurement of OCD severity, religiosity, and guilt, respectively. All the recorded data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20.1.

Results: At baseline, OCD severity was positively correlated with religiosity and guilt, while after 6-month follow-up, OCD severity was negatively correlated with religiosity and positively correlated with guilt.

Conclusion: Religiosity and guilt have significant effect on the symptomatology and outcome of OCD.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8374933PMC
June 2021

Findings of prosthetic valve endocarditis in the balloon-expandable trans-catheter aortic valve: review of the literature and tips of management.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Aug 16;16(1):234. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Prosthetic valve endocarditis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a rare complication associated with a high mortality rate. Nonetheless, the rapid expansion of TAVI in recent years has proportionally increased the number of patients exposed to the risk of developing transcatheter valve infection. A 71-year-old female with recent history of TAVI was diagnosed with prosthetic valve obstruction secondary to endocarditis. The characteristics of clinical presentation of endocarditis in the balloon-expandable transcatheter valve and the intra-operative findings are discussed with a review of the literature and tips of management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-021-01609-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8365921PMC
August 2021

Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as blueberry muffin baby with associated mediastinal mass.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2021 Sep-Oct;87(5):701-703

Department of Dermatology Venereology and Leprology, Geetanjali Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/IJDVL_867_19DOI Listing
October 2019

When sarcoidosis mimics immunodeficiency.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jul 14;14(7). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Rheumatology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, USA.

Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. A 28-year-old previously healthy woman presented with multifocal pneumonia, mediastinal lymphadenopathy which was thought to be caused by actinomyces infection. Despite antibiotics, she developed cavitary lung lesions and had worsening lymphadenopathy prompting evaluation for alternative aetiologies like malignancy, autoimmune or immunodeficiency disorders. Further workup also revealed low CD4, CD8 cell counts, elevated soluble interleukin-2 levels. Over the due course of time, she developed granulomatous pan-uveitis, classical skin lesions leading to the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Our case highlights the rare manifestations of sarcoidosis which can mimic immunodeficiency disorders especially when these patients develop secondary infections. Our goal is to raise awareness among clinicians about these atypical presentations of sarcoidosis which can lead to substantial delay in diagnosis thus leading to progression of the disease in the absence of appropriate treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2021-243557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280903PMC
July 2021

Role of Mind-Body Intervention on Lipid Profile: A Cross-sectional Study.

Int J Yoga 2021 May-Aug;14(2):168-172. Epub 2021 May 10.

S-VYASA University, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Background: Yoga is a combination of physical-breathing and meditative techniques that assist in the unification of the mind-body, which improves the quality of life. It was shown that long-term Yoga practitioners had superior control over respiratory rate, reduced stress and anxiety, and a better-controlled lipid profile.

Purpose: We aimed to investigate the lipid profile of long-term yoga practitioners who were practicing yoga for more than 1 year in comparison with the nonyoga group.

Methods: A nationwide survey was conducted in which the long-term yoga practitioners ( = 76) and nonyoga practitioners ( = 80) were recruited for assessment for the lipid parameters.

Results: The mean (standard deviation) values of both groups were within normal range with serum cholesterol at 189.715 ± 20.4 and 180.88 ± 29.7 and triglycerides at 216.72 ± 92.5 and 207.665 ± 88.3, low-density lipoprotein at 126.65 ± 18.5 and 120.775 ± 26.5, and high-density lipoprotein at 47.17 ± 6.6 and 44.99 ± 7.0, respectively, in yoga and no-yoga groups.

Conclusion: The lipid profile values were similar in yoga and nonyoga practitioners in the 2017 survey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_51_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191221PMC
May 2021

Trends in small organic fluorescent scaffolds for detection of oxidoreductase.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Nov 15;191:113441. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, Punjab, 140001, India. Electronic address:

Oxidoreductases are diverse class of enzymes engaged in modulating the redox homeostasis and cellular signaling cascades. Abnormal expression of oxidoreductases including thioredoxin reductase, azoreductase, cytochrome oxidoreductase, tyrosinase and monoamine oxidase leads to the initiation of numerous disorders. Thus, enzymes are the promising biomarkers of the diseased cells and their accurate detection has utmost significance for clinical diagnosis. The detection method must be extremely selective, sensitive easy to use, long self-life, mass manufacturable and disposable. Fluorescence assay approach has been developed potential substitute to conventional techniques used in enzyme's quantification. The fluorescent probes possess excellent stability, high spatiotemporal ratio and reproducibility represent applications in real sample analysis. Therefore, the enzymatic transformations have been monitored by small activatable organic fluorescent probes. These probes are generally integrated with enzyme's substrate/inhibitors to improve their binding affinity toward the enzyme's catalytic site. As the recognition unit bio catalyzed, the signaling unit produces the readout signals and provides novel insights to understand the biochemical reactions for diagnosis and development of point of care devices. Several structural modifications are required in fluorogenic scaffolds to tune the selectivity for a particular enzyme. Hence, the fluorescent probes with their structural features and enzymatic reaction mechanism of oxidoreductase are the key points discussed in this review. The basic strategies to detect each enzyme are discussed. The selectivity, sensitivity and real-time applications are critically compared. The kinetic parameters and futuristic opportunities are present, which would be enormous benefits for chemists and biologists to understand the facts to design and develop unique fluorophore molecules for clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113441DOI Listing
November 2021

Acceptability of Contraceptive Services in the Emergency Department: A Cross-sectional Survey.

West J Emerg Med 2021 May 24;22(3):769-774. Epub 2021 May 24.

Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Introduction: Unintended pregnancy disproportionately affects marginalized populations and has significant negative health and financial impacts on women, their families, and society. The emergency department (ED) is a promising alternative setting to increase access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services including contraception, especially among marginalized populations. The primary objective of this study was to determine the extent to which adult women of childbearing age who present to the ED would be receptive to receiving contraception and/or information about contraception in the ED. As a secondary objective, we sought to identify the barriers faced in attempting to obtain SRH care in the past.

Methods: We conducted a quantitative, cross-sectional, assisted, in-person survey of women aged 18-50 in the ED setting at two large, urban, academic EDs between June 2018-September 2019. The survey was approved by the institutional review board. Survey items included demographics, interest in contraception initiation and/or receiving information about contraception in the ED, desire to conceive, prior SRH care utilization, and barriers to SRH.

Results: A total of 505 patients participated in the survey. Participants were predominantly single and Black, with a mean age of 31 years, and reporting not wanting to become pregnant in the next year. Of those participants, 55.2% (n = 279) stated they would be interested in receiving information about birth control AND receiving birth control in the ED if it were available. Of those who reported the ability to get pregnant, and not desiring pregnancy in the next year (n = 279, 55.2%), 32.6% were not currently using anything to prevent pregnancy (n = 91). Only 10.5% of participants stated they had experienced barriers to SRH care in the past (n = 53). Participants who experienced barriers to SRH reported higher interest in receiving information and birth control in the ED (74%, n = 39) compared to those who had not experienced barriers (53%, n = 240); (P = 0.004, 95% confidence interval, 1.30-4.66).

Conclusion: The majority of women of childbearing age indicated the desire to access contraception services in the ED setting. This finding suggests favorable patient acceptability for an implementation study of contraception services in emergency care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5811/westjem.2021.2.49675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203030PMC
May 2021

A case report of open-aorta, direct transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation: an innovative approach to manage the hazard of coronary flow compromise in transcatheter aortic valve re-interventions.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2021 May 17;5(5):ytab137. Epub 2021 May 17.

Division of Cardiology, Bethesda Heart Hospital, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Background: Coronary flow compromise is a significant risk of transcatheter aortic valve therapy. Warranting preservation of coronary flow is even more challenging with transcatheter aortic valve re-intervention since the implantation of a transcatheter valve within a degenerated bioprosthetic or transcatheter valve increases significantly this hazard.

Case Summary: We present a case of heart failure secondary to transcatheter aortic valve degeneration requiring a transcatheter aortic valve re-intervention. Pre-operative imaging studies demonstrated a high risk for iatrogenic coronary flow impairment. The patient underwent a successful surgical removal of the prosthetic valve leaflets followed by direct transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Conclusion: We reviewed the literature on the approach to difficult coronaries in transcatheter aortic valve therapy, and we describe an innovative hybrid approach that may represent a viable alternative in cases where catheter techniques of coronary flow preservation are not applicable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytab137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189306PMC
May 2021

Impact of Intravenous Vitamin C Administration in Reducing Severity of Symptoms in Breast Cancer Patients During Treatment.

Cureus 2021 May 6;13(5):e14867. Epub 2021 May 6.

Internal Medicine, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, PAK.

Introduction Alternative medicine during treatment is often used to make the quality of life (QoL) better. Women with early-stage breast cancer, particularly the ones who possess lower QoL, are more prone to opt for complementary medicine. This study aims to explore the effects exerted by intravenous vitamin C (IVC) on symptoms and adverse events associated with breast cancer treatment. Methods This single-center, parallel-group, single-blind interventional study was conducted in the oncology ward of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. For this study, after informed consent was taken, breast cancer patients with Union for International Cancer Control stages IIA to IIIb were included in the study. Three hundred and fifty (n = 350) patients were randomized into two groups at a ratio of 1:1. Study group was randomized to receive 25 grams per week of IVC at a rate of 15 grams per hour for four weeks in addition to their current standard treatment, and the control group received placebo (normal saline drip with label removed) in addition to their current standard treatment. Results In patients who had received IVC, there was a significant decrease in the mean severity score after 28 days for the following symptoms: nausea (2.65 ± 0.62 vs. 2.59 ± 0.68; p-value: 0.0003), loss of appetite (2.26 ± 0.51 vs. 2.11 ± 0.52; p-value: 0.007), tumor pain (2.22 ± 0.45 vs. 1.99 ± 0.40, p-value: <0.0001), fatigue (3.11 ± 0.32 vs. 2.87 ± 0.29; p-value: <0.0001), and insomnia (2.59 ± 0.35 vs. 2.32 ± 0.36, p-value: <0.0001). Conclusion Our study showed improvement in the mean severity score of nausea, fatigue, tumor pain, loss of appetite, and fatigue. More studies are also needed to assess the long-term effects of IVC in the cancer management. This shall help incorporate the use of IVC in standard practice to make the journey of cancer management comfortable for the patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8177022PMC
May 2021

Association Between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Frequency of Relapses in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis.

Cureus 2021 Apr 9;13(4):e14383. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Family Medicine, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center, Karachi, PAK.

Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the central nervous system affecting the myelin sheath of neurons with a wide range of symptoms. Among various risk factors studied that can increase the relapse, vitamin D is also a potential risk factor. In this study, we will determine the association between vitamin D status and frequency of relapses in patients with MS. Material and methods Seventy-four (74) patients with a confirmed diagnosis of MS, with more than one (01) relapse per year, for a minimum of two years, were included in the case group. Seventy-four (74) participants with a confirmed diagnosis of MS with one (01) or no relapse per year, for a minimum of two years, were included in the control group. After informed consent, the patient blood was drawn via phlebotomy and was sent to the lab for vitamin D levels. Results The mean serum vitamin D level was significantly lower in case group compared to control group (18.21 ± 4.21 ng/mL vs. 29.21 ± 5.72 ng/mL; p-value: < 0.0001). The number of participants with vitamin D level less than 30 ng/mL were significantly higher in patients with case group compared to control group (78.37% vs. 50.0%; p-value: 0.0003) Conclusion In this study, patients with more relapses per year had low level of serum vitamin D. There is emerging strong evidence that vitamin D plays an important role in the pathogenesis, progression, and disease burden of autoimmune disease, including MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110290PMC
April 2021

Comparative Evaluation of Two In Vitro Tests for Detection of Ivermectin Resistance in Haemonchus contortus of Small Ruminants in Uttar Pradesh, India.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Division of Parasitology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, 243122, India.

Purpose: Resistance against ivermectin in India has been detected solely implementing in vivo tests and there is no published report of resistance employing in vitro methods. The present study was carried out to study ivermectin resistance in H. contortus of small ruminants by two in vitro tests and to determine their efficacy in effectively detecting ivermectin resistance in the field isolates.

Methods: The present study was carried out in the small ruminant farms of the western region of Uttar Pradesh, India. Faecal samples with high egg per gram of faeces for H. contortus were selected. Two in vitro tests namely Micro agar larval development test and larval development assay were performed for assessing ivermectin resistance in field isolates of H. contortus by subjecting the eggs to different concentrations of ivermectin aglycone.

Results: The results of the two in vitro tests implicated towards the susceptibility of H. contortus isolates in the area under study. The standard deviations of the two tests was compared and was found to be statistically non-significant.

Conclusion: It can be said that both in vitro tests are reliable for detecting resistance against different anthelmintics including ivermectin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-021-00398-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Microwave-assisted assembly of AgO-ZnO composite nanocones for electrochemical detection of 4-Nitrophenol and assessment of their photocatalytic activity towards degradation of 4-Nitrophenol and Methylene blue dye.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 27;416:125771. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Chemistry and Centre of Advanced Studies in Chemistry, Panjab University Chandigarh, 160014, India; SAIF/CIL, Panjab University Chandigarh, 160014, India. Electronic address:

4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) is an extensively utilized industrial chemical and one of major toxic water pollutant. Therefore, there is an urgent need to monitor the levels of 4-NP from environmental samples as well as its eradication are extremely important. Keeping this as a motivation, this research for the first-time reports microwave-assisted cost-effective synthesis of silver oxide (AgO)-zinc oxide (ZnO) composite nanocones (CNCs, 80-100 nm) for simultaneous electrochemical detection and photodegradation of 4-NP from aqueous solutions. The AgO-ZnO CNCs modified gold electrode was fabricated for electrochemical detection of 4-NP. Such fabricated sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 1.6 µA µMcm, wide linear detection range of 0.4-26 µM & 28-326 µM, and a low limit of detection of 23 nM. The sensor also exhibited good selectivity in real water samples. Also, an outstanding photocatalytic performance of AgO-ZnO CNCs was evaluated towards UV-assisted degradation of 4-NP and organic water pollutant dye, methylene blue. The AgO-ZnO CNCs exhibited excellent electro- and photocatalytic activities due to the formation of p-n nano-heterojunction comprising of p-type AgO and n-type ZnO semiconductor nanoparticles within the composite. Therefore, herein reported smart CNCs can be projected as applied nano-system for cost-effective and rapid simultaneous detection and removal of 4-NP from aqueous solutions. Such nano-system can be useful for industrial application where detection and removal of 4-NP is a key issue to resolve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125771DOI Listing
August 2021

Sensory Changes and Postmastectomy Pain Following Preservation of Intercostobrachial Nerve in Breast Cancer Surgery: a Prospective Randomized Study.

Indian J Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 5;12(1):108-113. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Department of Anesthesia and critical care, UCMS & GTB Hospital, Delhi, India.

Surgery for breast cancer leads to sensory changes and persistent pain in about 20-60% of patients and is usually attributed to section of the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN). However, the opinion is divided about the benefit of preservation of ICBN. Hence, this study was designed to assess the role of preservation of ICBN on sensory changes and acute and persistent pain following mastectomy. The study was conducted on patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer. At the time of surgery, ICBN was sacrificed in group I ( = 29), and preserved in group II ( = 24). Patients underwent sensory assessment for touch and pain in predefined areas after surgery. They were also assessed for acute post-operative pain and persistent pain (PP) on day 30 and 90 by numeric pain rating scale. PP was also evaluated by douleur neuropathique 4 questionnaire for assessment of its neuropathic character. Preservation of ICBN resulted in significantly better preserved sensation on lateral aspect of mastectomy incision, axilla, and medial aspect of the arm. Frequency and severity of acute post-operative pain were similar between the two groups. However, PP was significantly reduced in ICBN preserved group. At 3 months, 31% patients in group I and 12.5% in group II had clinically significant pain ( = 0.024). DN 4 assessment showed neuropathic character of pain in 20.6% and 8.33% in group I and II respectively. In our study, preservation of ICBN resulted in reduced rates of sensory loss and persistent neuropathic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13193-020-01193-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7960808PMC
March 2021

Microwave mediated synthesis of dopamine functionalized copper sulphide nanoparticles: An effective catalyst for visible light driven degradation of methlyene blue dye.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 19;277:130202. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Chemistry and Centre of Advanced Studies in Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India. Electronic address:

The current work highlights the potential aptitude of copper sulphide (CuS) nanoparticles as cost and energy-effective photo-catalyst for degrading methlyene blue dye under visible light. The surface modified CuS nanoparticles with dopamine (DOP) were prepared by using fast and cost effective microwave assisted methodology. Here, DOP act as biological ligand for the reduction and capping of CuS nanoparticles. The structural and morphological analyses revealed the size controlled synthesis of CuS in presence of DOP with higher thermal stability. The bio-compatibility and non-toxic behaviour of [email protected] nanoparticles was evaluated against L929 cell lines and on E. coli and S. aureus strains. The visible light driven photocatalytic activity of the synthesized [email protected] was scrutinized for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dyes, as a model of water contaminants. The photocatalytic degradation of MB by [email protected] attained 97% after 10 min of visible light irradiation. The effect of catalyst dose, pH, initial concentration of MB dye, electrolytes, contact time, synergic effect of photolysis and catalysis were studied in detail for optimizing the degradation efficiency of [email protected] The mechanism of [email protected] photocatalysis and the formed degraded products were analyzed by using LC/MS technique. The reusability and stability of photocatalyst was confirmed by reusing the catalyst for six successive runs with catalytic performance as high as 80%. Thus, [email protected] NPs acted as cost effective, non-toxic visible light driven photo-catalyst for the degradation of organic dye from waste water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130202DOI Listing
August 2021

In-situ dual effect of Ag-Fe-TiO composite for the photocatalytic degradation of Ciprofloxacin in aqueous solution.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 12;276:130180. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

School of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, 147004, India.

Industrial waste materials such as Fly Ash (FA), Foundry Sand (FS) were used as support material by mixing them with clay to fix the catalyst. Where FA and FS served as an iron (Fe) source to induce the photo-Fenton process. The presence of Fe in FA and FS was affirmed by SEM-EDS characterization. UV-DRS was performed to analyze the bandgap of the composite which reduced from 2.96 to 2.82 eV after doping TiO2 with Ag. This composite was used to initiate photocatalysis. The fixing of catalyst on a support formed the Fe-Ag-TiO2 complex which led to the commencement of the in-situ dual process(i.e. photocatalysis and photo-Fenton) in fixed bed mode. After the optimization of several parameters such as HO dose, the area covered by beads, A/V ratio, Flow rate, pH under solar irradiations for 60 min, 94.4% degradation of CIP was attained. XRD analysis was carried out to confirm the crystallographic phases of the composite anatase and rutile phases of TiO were present in the composite. The systematic leaching of iron took place in this process and was confirmed by iron estimation during the reaction process. To understand the elemental composition of the composite SEM-EDS was performed and the present of TiO, Fe and Ag was affirmed. Composite beads were stable and active even after the 30 recycles as confirmed by SEM-EDS. The intermediate products were analyzed by GC-MS analysis whereas the toxicity of the treated samples was studied by the zone inhibition test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130180DOI Listing
August 2021

Evolution Bites - Timeworn Inefficacious Snakebite Therapy in the Era of Recombinant Vaccines.

Indian Pediatr 2021 03;58(3):219-223

Evolutionary Venomics Lab, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science. Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Correspondence to: Dr Kartik Sunagar, Evolutionary Venomics Lab, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science. Bengaluru 560 012, Karnataka, India.

Snakebite is a neglected tropical disease that inflicts severe socioeconomic burden on developing countries by primarily affecting their rural agrarian populations. India is a major snakebite hotspot in the world, as it accounts for more than 58,000 annual snakebite mortalities and over three times that number of morbidities. The only available treatment for snakebite is a commercially marketed polyvalent antivenom, which is manufactured exclusively against the 'big four' Indian snakes. In this review, we highlight the influence of ecology and evolution in driving inter- and intra-specific venom variations in snakes. We describe the repercussions of this molecular variation on the effectiveness of the current generation Indian antivenoms in mitigating snakebite pathologies. We highlight the disturbing deficiencies of the conventional animal-derived antivenoms, and review next-generation recombinant antivenoms and other promising therapies for the efficacious treatment of this disease.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610842PMC
March 2021

Bacterial flora in the bile: Clinical implications and sensitivity pattern from a tertiary care centre.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2021 Jan 4;39(1):30-35. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

Background: Though preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) has been suggested to be linked with increased perioperative morbidity it is still practiced commonly. We studied the association of PBD and positive biliary culture with surgical site infection and also analysed the common pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity spectrum.

Methods: Prospectively maintained data of patients who underwent various pancreatobiliary surgeries from 2017 to 2019 was analysed. Patients whose intraoperative bile culture reports were available were included in the study. Various factors associated with surgical site infection (SSI), microbial spectrum of bile culture and their sensitivity pattern were analysed.

Results: Out of 68 patients whose bile culture report were available, PBD was done in 65% (n = 44). Among patients with infected bile (n = 51), biliary stent was present in 78.4% (n = 40). On univariate analysis, the factors associated with SSI were low albumin level (<3.5 mg%), long operative time (>6 h), duration of abdominal drain (>4 days), length of hospital stay, intraoperative bile spillage and infected bile. However, on multivariate analysis, only presence of drain for >4 days (p = 0.04) and positive bile culture (p = 0.02) was linked with increased risk of SSI. Most common organism isolated was E coli (73.2%), with 100% sensitivity to Colistin and Tigecycline shown by gram negative isolates.

Conclusion: Preoperative biliary stenting alone did not increase the risk of SSI, but the positive bile culture correlated with SSI irrespective of PBD. Most biliary pathogens were resistant to commonly used antibiotics and intraoperative bile culture will aid in providing appropriate antibiotic coverage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmmb.2020.10.008DOI Listing
January 2021

Genome wide association analyses to understand genetic basis of flowering and plant height under three levels of nitrogen application in Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 19;11(1):4278. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, 141004, Punjab, India.

Timely transition to flowering, maturity and plant height are important for agronomic adaptation and productivity of Indian mustard (B. juncea), which is a major edible oilseed crop of low input ecologies in Indian subcontinent. Breeding manipulation for these traits is difficult because of the involvement of multiple interacting genetic and environmental factors. Here, we report a genetic analysis of these traits using a population comprising 92 diverse genotypes of mustard. These genotypes were evaluated under deficient (N75), normal (N100) or excess (N125) conditions of nitrogen (N) application. Lower N availability induced early flowering and maturity in most genotypes, while high N conditions delayed both. A genotyping-by-sequencing approach helped to identify 406,888 SNP markers and undertake genome wide association studies (GWAS). 282 significant marker-trait associations (MTA's) were identified. We detected strong interactions between GWAS loci and nitrogen levels. Though some trait associated SNPs were detected repeatedly across fertility gradients, majority were identified under deficient or normal levels of N applications. Annotation of the genomic region (s) within ± 50 kb of the peak SNPs facilitated prediction of 30 candidate genes belonging to light perception, circadian, floral meristem identity, flowering regulation, gibberellic acid pathways and plant development. These included over one copy each of AGL24, AP1, FVE, FRI, GID1A and GNC. FLC and CO were predicted on chromosomes A02 and B08 respectively. CDF1, CO, FLC, AGL24, GNC and FAF2 appeared to influence the variation for plant height. Our findings may help in improving phenotypic plasticity of mustard across fertility gradients through marker-assisted breeding strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83689-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896068PMC
February 2021

Prevalence of prediabetes, and diabetes in Chandigarh and Panchkula region based on glycated haemoglobin and Indian diabetes risk score.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2021 01 11;4(1):e00162. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (S-VYASA) Bengaluru India.

There is a rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes in India. We wanted to review the status of prediabetes and diabetes in the combined population of Chandigarh and Panchkula region based on both Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) and Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c). A total of 1215 subjects were recruited during the screening process, out of which 444 i subjects have been analysed for the current study on the basis of high risk for IDRS (≥60) and their known diabetes status. This study included 431 subjects having high risk for IDRS (≥60) and 13 known subjects with diabetes (IDRS < 60) which were further analysed for biochemical and anthropometric parameters. The prevalence of diabetes was found to be 12.67% and prediabetes 11.69% in the combined population of Chandigarh and Panchkula. There was an increased level of fasting blood glucose (183.12 ± 68.61), postprandial blood glucose (262.57 ± 96.92), triglyceride (193.84 ± 119.88), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) (34.87 ± 15.42) and High Density Lipoprotein(HDL) (4.61 ± 1.39) in the said diabetes population. Mean HDL was found to be decreased in subjects having diabetes. Glucose-induced lipid intolerance study revealed significant alteration in triglyceride, HDL and VLDL. The study has revealed that high prevalence of diabetes in the sampled population when compared with the national average of 8.8%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/edm2.162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831224PMC
January 2021

A Diagnostic Enigma - A Rare Presentation Of Juvenile Fibroadenoma In A Premenarchal Girl.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2021 Jan 29. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Postgraduate Student, Department of Pathology, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, Delhi.

Aim: Reporting a rare case of a teenage girl, with a bizarre clinical presentation of a benign breast condition, that too is uncommon at her age.

Case: A 14-year-old pre-menarche girl presented with a rapidly progressing lump that involved the entire breast within 3 months. It was associated with ulceration of the overlying skin along with destruction of the nipple-areola complex.

Results: During the pre- operative workup, a neoplastic etiology was suspected, but post- operative histopathology revealed it to be giant juvenile fibroadenoma.

Conclusion: This case emphasizes on the benign character of breast masses in the adolescent age group. Despite the massive volume and appearance, the opportunity of a conservative surgical approach should be sought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2021.01.015DOI Listing
January 2021

Risk of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Cureus 2020 Dec 23;12(12):e12246. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Family Medicine, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Center, Karachi, PAK.

Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory, and multisystem disease, which, along with the joints, can involve the cardiovascular system. The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis itself can lead to atherosclerosis, which is considered one of the major causes by which it can affect the cardiovascular system. In this study, we will assess the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as compared to the general population. Method This case-control study was conducted from January 2018 to November 2018. Two-hundred twenty-two (222) patients with diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis were included as cases in the study. Two-hundred eleven (211) patients were included in the study as the control group (patients without rheumatoid arthritis). All the data were recorded in a self-structured questionnaire. Result Participants with rheumatoid arthritis also showed an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) by an odds ratio of 2.50 (95% CI; 0.77-8.14). There was also an increased risk of cardiovascular death in participants with rheumatoid arthritis by an odds ratio of 1.99 (0.58-6.71). Conclusion The study suggests that rheumatoid arthritis along with joint inflammation can also affect the cardiovascular system. Hence, a multidisciplinary team of rheumatologists and cardiologists should manage patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, which will improve morbidity and mortality in such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.12246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823064PMC
December 2020

To inquire the effects of different geometric electrodes on current characteristics of C fullerene molecular junction.

J Mol Model 2021 Jan 25;27(2):47. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, 143005, India.

Two different types of geometric electrode configurations were utilized to form C fullerene based molecular junction. The C molecule was intercalated in-between gold electrodes with two different shapes viz. knife edge and flat edge and the resultant molecular junctions (MJs) were simulated using nonequilibrium Green's function combined with semiempirical extended Huckel theory (EHT). Different transport parameters, namely projected device density of states, current-voltage curve, differential conductance curve, molecular orbitals, and transmission spectra were investigated at discrete bias voltages to gain insight about the various transport phenomena occurring in these molecular junctions. The results show that when the C fullerene is placed in between the flat-edged electrodes, current and conductance are higher in magnitude in comparison to the knife-edged configuration. These deductions give us a new perspective to design advanced molecular devices for electronics applications in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-020-04653-5DOI Listing
January 2021

A descriptive study on prevalence of arm/shoulder problems and its impact on quality of life in breast cancer survivors.

Indian J Cancer 2021 Apr-Jun;58(2):201-206

Department of General Surgery, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Background: Surgery for breast cancer and adjuvant radiotherapy are frequently associated with impairment of arm/shoulder function and development of lymphedema. However, most of the studies in Indian breast cancer survivors (BCSs) have focused on the development of lymphedema even though restriction of shoulder movement and pain are even more prevalent and adversely affect the quality of life (QOL). Hence, this study was conducted with the objectives to (1) study the prevalence of arm/shoulder problems (ASPs) including restricted shoulder mobility (ROM), lymphedema and arm/shoulder pain (2) assessment of the QOL in BCSs (3) to study the impact of ASPs on QOL.

Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on BCSs at an academic center in Delhi These patients underwent a mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection with adjuvant therapies and were within 6 months to 5 years of follow-up. Assessment of ASPs was done using Kwan's arm problem scale (KAPS), and survivors with scores of more than 21.5 were considered to have significant ASPs. Assessment of shoulder movements was done by using a goniometer, lymphedema by measuring arm circumference at multiple points and arm/shoulder pain by using a numerical pain rating scale (NPRS). QOL was assessed using short form (SF-36) questionnaire.

Results: A total of 212 BCSs were studied with a mean duration of follow-up of 2.7 years (range = 6 months - 60 months). The prevalence of ASPs was 49% on KAPS. Prevalence of ROM, lymphedema, and arm/shoulder pain was found to be 51%, 27%, and 12% respectively. Patients with ASPs had poorer QOL scores on SF-36, significantly affecting both physical and mental component summary score. Among ASPs, worst scores were reported for limb swelling.

Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of ASPs in BCSs. Survivorship care plans should appropriately address these issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijc.IJC_22_19DOI Listing
January 2021

Paraoxonase Mimic by a Nanoreactor Aggregate Containing Benzimidazolium Calix and l-Histidine: Demonstration of the Acetylcholine Esterase Activity.

Chemistry 2021 Mar 3;27(18):5737-5744. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, Wonju, 26493, Republic of Korea.

An anion-mediated preorganization approach was used to design and synthesize the benzimidazolium-based calix compound R1⋅2 ClO . X-ray crystallography analysis revealed that the hydrogen-bonding interactions between the benzimidazolium cations and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) helped R1⋅2 ClO encapsulate DMF molecule(s). A nanoreactor, with R1⋅2 ClO and l-histidine (l-His) as the components, was fabricated by using a neutralization method. The nanoreactor could detoxify paraoxon in 30 min. l-His played a vital role in this process. Paraoxonase is a well-known enzyme used for pesticide degradation. The Ellman's reagent was used to determine the percentage inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the presence of the nanoreactor. The results indicated that the nanoreactor inhibited AChE inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202004944DOI Listing
March 2021

Molecular and Alkaloid Characterization of Sensu Lato From Grass Seed Production Areas of the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

Phytopathology 2021 May 21;111(5):831-841. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Oregon State University, Hermiston, OR 97838.

Ergot, caused by sensu lato, is an economically important seed replacement disease of Kentucky bluegrass () and perennial ryegrass () seed crops. sensu stricto is considered the primary species responsible, but genetic diversity and cryptic species within sensu lato have previously been reported. Fifty-six sensu lato isolates collected from ( = 21) and ( = 35) in Oregon and Washington between 2010 and 2014 were characterized via random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), partial internal transcribed spacer (ITS), β-tubulin and elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) sequences, conidial size, and ergot alkaloid chemotype. Based on RAPD analysis, seven isolates from and 33 isolates from collected in Oregon corresponded to sensu stricto, and 13 isolates collected from in Washington and Oregon were identified as . Partial ITS, β-tubulin, and EF-1α sequences identified 10 isolates from as , and seven isolates from and 33 isolates from were identified as sensu stricto. Several isolates generated ambiguous RAPD bands or sequences that prevented identification. Ergot alkaloid chemotype profiling found that ergocornine and its epimer were predominant in sclerotia from . , whereas ergotamine and its epimer were most abundant in sclerotia from . This study confirms the presence of the . sensu lato species complex in the U.S. Pacific Northwest and suggests that more research is needed to characterize and mitigate spp. infection of grass seed crops in North America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-07-20-0289-RDOI Listing
May 2021

Association Mapping of Seed Quality Traits Under Varying Conditions of Nitrogen Application in L. Czern & Coss.

Front Genet 2020 1;11:744. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

DBT Centre of Excellence on Brassicas, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.

Indian mustard () is a major source of vegetable oil in the Indian subcontinent. The seed cake left after the oil extraction is used as livestock feed. We examined the genetic architecture of oil, protein, and glucosinolates by conducting a genome-wide association study (GWAS), using an association panel comprising 92 diverse genotypes. We conducted trait phenotyping over 2 years at two levels of nitrogen (N) application. Genotyping by sequencing was used to identify 66,835 loci, covering 18 chromosomes. Genetic diversity and phenotypic variations were high for the studied traits. Trait performances were stable when averaged over years and N levels. However, individual performances differed. General and mixed linear models were used to estimate the association between the SNP markers and the seed quality traits. Population structure, principal components (PCs) analysis, and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPCs) were included as covariates to overcome the bias due to the population stratification. We identified 16, 23, and 27 loci associated with oil, protein, and glucosinolates, respectively. We also established LD patterns and haplotype structures for the candidate genes. The average block sizes were larger on A-genome chromosomes as compared to the B- genome chromosomes. Genetic associations differed over N levels. However, meta-analysis of GWAS datasets not only improved the power to recognize associations but also helped to identify common SNPs for oil and protein contents. Annotation of the genomic region around the identified SNPs led to the prediction of 21 orthologs of the functional candidate genes related to the biosynthesis of oil, protein, and glucosinolates. Notable among these are: (A09), (B05), (A06), (A06), (B06), and (B06). The identified loci will be very useful for marker-aided breeding for seed quality modifications in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7490339PMC
September 2020

Association genetics of the parameters related to nitrogen use efficiency in Brassica juncea L.

Plant Mol Biol 2021 Jan 30;105(1-2):161-175. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Punjab, 141004, Ludhiana, India.

Key Message: Genome wide association studies allowed prediction of 17 candidate genes for association with nitrogen use efficiency. Novel information obtained may provide better understanding of genomic controls underlying germplasm variations for this trait in Indian mustard. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.) is low and most breeding efforts to combine NUE with crop performance have not succeeded. Underlying genetics also remain unexplored. We tested 92 SNP-genotyped inbred lines for yield component traits, N uptake efficiency (NUPEFF), nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUTEFF), nitrogen harvest index (NHI) and NUE for two years at two nitrogen doses (N without added N and N added @100 kg/ha). Genotypes IC-2489-88, M-633, MCP-632, HUJM 1080, GR-325 and DJ-65 recorded high NUE at low N. These also showed improved crop performance under high N. One determinate mustard genotype DJ-113 DT-3 revealed maximum NUTEFF. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) facilitated recognition of 17 quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Environment specificity was high. B-genome chromosomes (B02, B03, B05, B07 and B08) harbored many useful loci. We also used regional association mapping (RAM) to supplement results from GWAS. Annotation of the genomic regions around peak SNPs helped to predict several gene candidates for root architecture, N uptake, assimilation and remobilization. CAT9 (At1g05940) was consistently envisaged for both NUE and NUPEFF. Major N transporter genes, NRT1.8 and NRT3.1 were predicted for explaining variation for NUTEFF and NUPEFF, respectively. Most significant amino acid transporter gene, AAP1 appeared associated with NUE under limited N conditions. All these candidates were predicted in the regions of high linkage disequilibrium. Sequence information of the predicted candidate genes will permit development of molecular markers to aid breeding for high NUE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-020-01076-xDOI Listing
January 2021
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