Publications by authors named "Nathaniel D Omans"

4 Publications

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Genome-wide cell-free DNA mutational integration enables ultra-sensitive cancer monitoring.

Nat Med 2020 07 1;26(7):1114-1124. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

New York Genome Center, New York, NY, USA.

In many areas of oncology, we lack sensitive tools to track low-burden disease. Although cell-free DNA (cfDNA) shows promise in detecting cancer mutations, we found that the combination of low tumor fraction (TF) and limited number of DNA fragments restricts low-disease-burden monitoring through the prevailing deep targeted sequencing paradigm. We reasoned that breadth may supplant depth of sequencing to overcome the barrier of cfDNA abundance. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of cfDNA allowed ultra-sensitive detection, capitalizing on the cumulative signal of thousands of somatic mutations observed in solid malignancies, with TF detection sensitivity as low as 10. The WGS approach enabled dynamic tumor burden tracking and postoperative residual disease detection, associated with adverse outcome. Thus, we present an orthogonal framework for cfDNA cancer monitoring via genome-wide mutational integration, enabling ultra-sensitive detection, overcoming the limitation of cfDNA abundance and empowering treatment optimization in low-disease-burden oncology care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0915-3DOI Listing
July 2020

Somatic mutations and cell identity linked by Genotyping of Transcriptomes.

Nature 2019 07 3;571(7765):355-360. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

New York Genome Center, New York, NY, USA.

Defining the transcriptomic identity of malignant cells is challenging in the absence of surface markers that distinguish cancer clones from one another, or from admixed non-neoplastic cells. To address this challenge, here we developed Genotyping of Transcriptomes (GoT), a method to integrate genotyping with high-throughput droplet-based single-cell RNA sequencing. We apply GoT to profile 38,290 CD34 cells from patients with CALR-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms to study how somatic mutations corrupt the complex process of human haematopoiesis. High-resolution mapping of malignant versus normal haematopoietic progenitors revealed an increasing fitness advantage with myeloid differentiation of cells with mutated CALR. We identified the unfolded protein response as a predominant outcome of CALR mutations, with a considerable dependency on cell identity, as well as upregulation of the NF-κB pathway specifically in uncommitted stem cells. We further extended the GoT toolkit to genotype multiple targets and loci that are distant from transcript ends. Together, these findings reveal that the transcriptional output of somatic mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms is dependent on the native cell identity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1367-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6782071PMC
July 2019

Epigenetic evolution and lineage histories of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Nature 2019 05 15;569(7757):576-580. Epub 2019 May 15.

New York Genome Center, New York, NY, USA.

Genetic and epigenetic intra-tumoral heterogeneity cooperate to shape the evolutionary course of cancer. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a highly informative model for cancer evolution as it undergoes substantial genetic diversification and evolution after therapy. The CLL epigenome is also an important disease-defining feature, and growing populations of cells in CLL diversify by stochastic changes in DNA methylation known as epimutations. However, previous studies using bulk sequencing methods to analyse the patterns of DNA methylation were unable to determine whether epimutations affect CLL populations homogeneously. Here, to measure the epimutation rate at single-cell resolution, we applied multiplexed single-cell reduced-representation bisulfite sequencing to B cells from healthy donors and patients with CLL. We observed that the common clonal origin of CLL results in a consistently increased epimutation rate, with low variability in the cell-to-cell epimutation rate. By contrast, variable epimutation rates across healthy B cells reflect diverse evolutionary ages across the trajectory of B cell differentiation, consistent with epimutations serving as a molecular clock. Heritable epimutation information allowed us to reconstruct lineages at high-resolution with single-cell data, and to apply this directly to patient samples. The CLL lineage tree shape revealed earlier branching and longer branch lengths than in normal B cells, reflecting rapid drift after the initial malignant transformation and a greater proliferative history. Integration of single-cell bisulfite sequencing analysis with single-cell transcriptomes and genotyping confirmed that genetic subclones mapped to distinct clades, as inferred solely on the basis of epimutation information. Finally, to examine potential lineage biases during therapy, we profiled serial samples during ibrutinib-associated lymphocytosis, and identified clades of cells that were preferentially expelled from the lymph node after treatment, marked by distinct transcriptional profiles. The single-cell integration of genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional information thus charts the lineage history of CLL and its evolution with therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1198-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6533116PMC
May 2019

Reversible histone glycation is associated with disease-related changes in chromatin architecture.

Nat Commun 2019 03 20;10(1):1289. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Chemical Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Cellular proteins continuously undergo non-enzymatic covalent modifications (NECMs) that accumulate under normal physiological conditions and are stimulated by changes in the cellular microenvironment. Glycation, the hallmark of diabetes, is a prevalent NECM associated with an array of pathologies. Histone proteins are particularly susceptible to NECMs due to their long half-lives and nucleophilic disordered tails that undergo extensive regulatory modifications; however, histone NECMs remain poorly understood. Here we perform a detailed analysis of histone glycation in vitro and in vivo and find it has global ramifications on histone enzymatic PTMs, the assembly and stability of nucleosomes, and chromatin architecture. Importantly, we identify a physiologic regulation mechanism, the enzyme DJ-1, which functions as a potent histone deglycase. Finally, we detect intense histone glycation and DJ-1 overexpression in breast cancer tumors. Collectively, our results suggest an additional mechanism for cellular metabolic damage through epigenetic perturbation, with implications in pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09192-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6426841PMC
March 2019