Publications by authors named "Nathanael Heckmann"

80 Publications

Cemented Vs Cementless Femoral Fixation for Total Hip Arthroplasty After Displaced Femoral Neck Fracture: A Nationwide Analysis of Short-Term Complications and Readmission Rates.

J Arthroplasty 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Active patients with displaced femoral neck fractures are often treated with total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, optimal femoral fixation in these patients is controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare early complication and readmission rates in patients with hip fracture treated with THA receiving cemented vs cementless femoral fixation.

Methods: The National Readmissions Database was queried to identify patients undergoing primary THA for femoral neck fracture from 2016 to 2017. Postoperative complications and unplanned readmissions at 30, 90, and 180 days were compared between patients treated with cemented and cementless THA. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare differences between groups and account for confounding variables.

Results: Of 17,491 patients identified, 4427 (25.3%) received cemented femoral fixation and 13,064 (74.7%) cementless. The cemented group was significantly older (77.2 vs 71.1, P < .001), had more comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index: 4.44 vs 3.92, P < .001), and had a greater proportion of women (70.5% vs 65.2%, P < .001) compared with the cementless group. On multivariate analysis, cemented fixation was associated with reduced rates of periprosthetic fracture (odds ratio: 0.052, 95% confidence interval: 0.003-0.247, P = .004) at 30 days but similar readmission rates at 30, 90, and 180 days (odds ratio range: 1.012-1.114, P > .05) postoperatively compared with cementless fixation. Cemented fixation was associated with greater odds of medical complications at 180 days postoperatively (odds ratio:: 1.393, 95% confidence interval: 1.042-1.862, P = .025).

Conclusion: Cemented femoral fixation was associated with a lower short-term incidence of periprosthetic fractures, higher incidence of medical complications, and equivalent unplanned readmission rates within 180 days postoperatively compared with cementless fixation in patients undergoing THA for femoral neck fracture.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.06.029DOI Listing
July 2021

Delayed debridement of open tibia fractures beyond 24 and 48 h does not appear to increase infection and reoperation risk.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose: Surgical debridement is critical to the treatment of open tibia fractures, although the effects of delayed debridement have not been well-established. Other factors such as Gustilo-Anderson type, prompt initiation of antibiotics, and time to definitive closure may be more predictive of infection than time to surgery. We sought to determine the effect of a prolonged delay to surgical debridement with respect to infection and reoperation rates for open tibia fractures.

Methods: All open diaphyseal tibia fractures with > 12-week follow-up were evaluated. Patient demographics, Gustilo-Anderson type, and rates of deep infection and all-cause reoperation were recorded. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on time to surgery: early (< 24 h), delayed (24-48 h), and late (> 48 h). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between time to surgery, fracture type, infection, and reoperation.

Results: In total, 96 open tibia fractures with average follow-up of 59.3 weeks and infection rate of 13.5% were included. Infection rates for the early, delayed, and late groups were 13.3%, 17.2%, and 9.1%, respectively (p = 0.70). Reoperation rates for the early, delayed, and late groups were 29.8%, 31.0%, and 22.7%, respectively (p = 0.80). The groups did not vary in proportion of Gustilo-Anderson fracture types; infection rates between Gustilo-Anderson types were similar (p = 0.57). Type IIIA-C fractures required more reoperations than other fracture types (p = 0.01).

Conclusion: Delayed surgical debridement of open tibia fractures did not result in greater rates of infection or reoperation. Gustilo-Anderson classification was more predictive of reoperation, with Type IIIA-C injuries having a significantly higher reoperation rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-021-03057-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Limb Length Discrepancy in Total Hip Arthroplasty: Is the Lesser Trochanter a Reliable Measure of Leg Length?

J Arthroplasty 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Limb length discrepancy (LLD) after total hip arthroplasty may affect clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. Preoperative LLD estimates on anteroposterior pelvic radiographs fail to account for anatomical limb variation distal to the femoral reference points. The objective of this study is to determine how variations in lower limb skeletal lengths contribute to true LLD.

Methods: Full-length standing anteroposterior radiographs were used to measure bilateral leg length, femoral length, and tibial length. Leg length was evaluated using 2 different proximal reference points: the center of the femoral head (COH) and the lesser trochanter (LT). Mean side-to-side discrepancy (MD) and percentage asymmetry (%AS) for each measurement were evaluated in the overall cohort and when stratified by patient demographic variables.

Results: One hundred patients were included with an average age of 62.9 ± 11.2 years. Average femoral length was 434.0 ± 39.8 mm (MD 4.3 ± 3.5 mm) and tibial length was 379.9 ± 34.6 mm (MD 5.9 ± 12.7 mm). Average COH-talus was 817.5 ± 73.2 mm (MD 6.4 ± 5.1 mm). Average LT-talus was 760.5 ± 77.6 mm (MD 5.8 ± 5.1 mm). Absolute asymmetry >10 mm was detected in 16% of patients for COH-talus and 15% for LT-talus, while %AS >1.5% was detected in 13% of patients for COH-talus and 18% for LT-talus. Female gender was associated with increased femoral length %AS (P = .037).

Conclusion: Approximately 1 in 6 patients have an LLD of >10 mm when measured from either the LT or COH. Surgeons using either of these common femoral reference points to estimate LLD on pelvic radiographs should consider these findings when planning for hip reconstruction.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.06.009DOI Listing
June 2021

Spinopelvic Biomechanics and Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Primer for Clinical Practice.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck Medical Center of USC, Los Angeles, CA.

Abnormal spinopelvic motion from spine pathology is associated with inferior outcomes after total hip arthroplasty, including inferior patient-reported outcomes, increased rates of instability, and higher revision rates. Identifying these high-risk patients preoperatively is important to conduct the appropriate workup and formulate a surgical plan. Standing and sitting lateral spinopelvic radiographs are able to identify and quantify abnormal spinopelvic motion. Depending on the type of spinopelvic deformity, some patients may require increased anteversion, increased offset, and large diameter heads or dual mobility articulations to prevent dislocation. This review article will provide the reader with practical information that can be applied to patients regarding the terminology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and management of total hip arthroplasty patients with spinopelvic pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-20-00953DOI Listing
June 2021

Early outcomes of a modern cemented total knee arthroplasty : is tibial loosening a concern?

Bone Joint J 2021 Jun;103-B(6 Supple A):51-58

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Aims: Recent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) designs have featured more anatomical morphologies and shorter tibial keels. However, several reports have raised concerns about the impact of these modifications on implant longevity. The aim of this study was to report the early performance of a modern, cemented TKA design.

Methods: All patients who received a primary, cemented TKA between 2012 and 2017 with a minimum two-year follow-up were included. The implant investigated features an asymmetrical tibial baseplate and shortened keel. Patient demographic details, Knee Society Scores (KSS), component alignment, and the presence of radiolucent lines at final follow-up were recorded. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to estimate survivorship.

Results: A total of 720 of 754 primary TKAs (95.5%) were included with a mean follow-up of 3.9 years (SD 1.3); 562 (78.1%) were cruciate-retaining and 158 (21.9%) were posterior-stabilized. A total of 11 (1.5%) required reoperation for periprosthetic joint infection and seven (1.0%) for aseptic tibial loosening (five cruciate-retaining, two posterior-stabilized). Loosening occurred at a mean of 3.3 years (0.9 to 6.5). There were no cases of loosening in the 33 patients who received a 14 mm × 30 mm tibial stem extension. All-cause survivorship was 96.6% at three years (95% confidence interval (CI) 95.3% to 98.0%) and 96.2% at five years (95% CI 94.8% to 97.7%). Survivorship with revision for aseptic loosening was 99.6% at three years (95% CI 99.1% to 100.0%) and 99.1% at five years (95% CI 98.4% to 99.9%). Tibial components were in significantly more varus in those with aseptic loosening (mean 3.4° (SD 3.7°) vs 1.3° (SD 2.0°); p = 0.015). There were no other differences in demographic, radiological, or surgical characteristics between revised and non-revised TKAs for aseptic loosening (p = 0.293 to 1.00). Mean KSS improved significantly from 57.3 (SD 9.5) preoperatively to 92.6 (SD 8.9) at the final follow-up (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: This is the largest series to date of this design of implant. At short-term follow-up, the rate of aseptic tibial loosening is not overly concerning. Further observation is required to determine if there will be an abnormal rate of loosening at mid- to long-term follow-up. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(6 Supple A):51-58.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B6.BJJ-2020-1972.R1DOI Listing
June 2021

Dose-Dependent Early Postoperative Opioid Use Is Associated with Periprosthetic Joint Infection and Other Complications in Primary TJA.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Opioids are commonly prescribed for postoperative pain following total joint arthroplasty. Despite widespread use, few studies have examined the dose-dependent effect of perioperative opioid use on postoperative complications following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Therefore, we examined the dose-dependent relationship between opioid use and postoperative complications following primary THA and TKA.

Methods: We queried the Premier Healthcare Database to identify adult patients who underwent primary elective THA or TKA from 2004 to 2014, and quantified opioid consumption within the first 3 postoperative days. Opioid consumption was standardized to morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs). Patients were divided into quintiles on the basis of MME exposure: <54, 54 to 82, 83 to 116, 117 to 172, and >172 MMEs. Primary outcomes included postoperative periprosthetic joint infection, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary complications. Secondary outcomes included wound infection, wound dehiscence, and readmission within 30 and 90 days postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to compare differences between groups and to account for confounders.

Results: A total of 1,525,985 patients were identified. The mean age was 65.7 ± 10.8 years, 598,320 patients (39.2%) were male, and 1,174,314 patients (77.0%) were Caucasian. On multiple logistic regression analysis, increasing MME exposure was associated with a dose-dependent increased risk of postoperative complications. Compared with patients receiving <54 MMEs, exposure to >172 MMEs was associated with greater odds of periprosthetic joint infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33 to 1.42), deep venous thromboembolism (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.38), pulmonary embolism (aOR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.25 to 1.34), and pulmonary complications (aOR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.08). Exposure to >172 MMEs was associated with increased risk of wound infection (aOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.33 to 1.41), wound dehiscence (aOR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.31), and readmission within 30 (aOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.22) and 90 days (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.21).

Conclusions: Increasing opioid use within the early postoperative period following THA or TKA was associated with a dose-dependent increased risk of periprosthetic joint infection and venous thromboembolic events.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.21.00045DOI Listing
May 2021

Biomechanical Evaluation of a Cadaveric Flatfoot Model and Lateral Column Lengthening Technique.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Irvine, CA; Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Congress Medical Foundation, Pasadena, CA.

Patients with adult acquired flatfoot have progressive worsening of bony alignment with many being unable to perform a heel rise. Following reconstruction, pathologic skeletal alignment is corrected and the ability to perform a heel rise is often restored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between forefoot liftoff forces and skeletal alignment in a cadaveric flatfoot model by assessing the effect of sequential lengthening of the lateral column using an Evans-type calcaneal osteotomy. Bony alignment was measured in 8 cadaveric specimens with the use of a 3-dimensional digitizing system. Transection of the spring ligament, pie-crusting of the plantar fascia, and cyclic axial loading of the foot was performed to create an anatomic and functional flatfoot model. An Evans-type calcaneal osteotomy using 6, 8, 10, and 12 mm wedges was performed. Specimens were mounted to a custom jig that applies tensile loads to the Achilles, peroneus brevis, peroneus longus, and tibialis posterior tendons. Creation of a flatfoot reduced the lateral talo-first metatarsal angle (Meary's angle) by 13° (23.6° ± 2.8° vs 10.6° ± 3.8°, p < .05) and forefoot force by 7% (199.3 N ± 7.3 N vs 185.4 N ± 9 N, p < .05). Sequential lengthening of the lateral column restored skeletal alignment and force transfer to the forefoot (12 mm wedge: Meary's angle 22.7° ± 3.9°, liftoff force 206.8 N ± 7.5 N). The cadaveric flatfoot model demonstrated decreased forefoot forces that were restored with an Evans-type calcaneal osteotomy wedge. This highlights the importance of restoring skeletal alignment when correcting advanced adult acquired flatfoot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2021.04.003DOI Listing
April 2021

The Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma for Improving Pain and Function in Lateral Epicondylitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis with Risk-of-Bias Assessment.

Arthroscopy 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for lateral epicondylitis and evaluate its impact on pain and functional outcomes.

Methods: This study followed Preferred Reporting Items and Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in September 2019 and repeated in April 2020 using electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library. Baseline and 3-, 6-, and 12-month data were extracted for visual analog scale (VAS), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), and modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow (MAYO) scores. Only level 1 studies with patients who had not undergone surgery were included. Outcomes data, study design, demographic variables, PRP formulation, and comparator treatments were recorded. Statistical analyses of pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) were performed and compared with estimated minimal clinically important difference (MCID) values. The Coleman Methodology Score (CMS) was used to assess methodological quality, and the Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment was performed.

Results: This review included 16 level I studies, 9 of which (581 total patients, 281 receiving single injections of PRP) were quantitatively analyzed. The average age was 41.5 years, 56.8% of patients were female, and mean follow-up was 7.5 months. The mean CMS was 78.94 ± 12.74 (range 59 to 97), and 5 of 16 studies were at low risk for bias. Patients who received PRP had significantly improved VAS scores at 3 months (WMD -0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.03, -0.66; P < .01) and 6 months (WMD -0.74; 95% CI -0.98, -0.50; P < .01) compared with those who received autologous whole blood, though MAYO scores were statistically equivalent. Comparing PRP to corticosteroids, VAS and DASH scores were not significantly different at 3 months, although PRP was superior at 6 months for VAS (WMD -1.70; 95% CI -2.65, -0.75; P < .01) and DASH (WMD -6.23; 95% CI -10.78, -1.69; P < .01). Most differences in VAS and DASH scores exceeded the 5% absolute difference estimate for their respective MCIDs but fell short of the 10% estimate.

Conclusion: Considering the small number of comparable studies, lack of quantification of specific PRP content, considerable heterogeneity between randomized control trials, and most effect sizes being equivocal within the framework of 2 estimated MCID values, the authors can neither scientifically support nor discourage the usage of PRP for lateral epicondylitis despite finding statistically significant improvements in pain and functional outcomes.

Level Of Evidence: I, prognostic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.04.061DOI Listing
May 2021

Conversion rates and timing to total knee arthroplasty following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a US population-based study.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Family Center for Sports Medicine at Keck Medicine of USA, USC Epstein, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose: To define the rate of subsequent TKA following ACLR in a large US cohort and to identify factors that influence the risk of later undergoing TKA after ACLR.

Methods: The California's Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) database was queried from 2000 to 2014 to identify patients who underwent primary ACLR (ACL group). An age-and gender-matched cohort that underwent appendectomy was selected as the control group. The cumulative incidence of TKA was calculated and ten-year survival was investigated using Kaplan-Meier analysis with failure defined as conversion to arthroplasty. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to explore the risk factors for conversion to TKA following ACLR.

Results: A total of 100,580 ACLR patients (mean age 34.48 years, 66.1%male) were matched to 100,545 patients from the general population. The ACL cohort had 1374 knee arthroplasty events; conversion rate was 0.71% at 2-year follow-up, 2.04% at 5-year follow-up, and 4.86% at 10-year follow-up. This conversion rate was higher than that of the control group at all time points, with an odds ratio of 3.44 (p<0.001) at 10-year follow-up. Decreasing survivorship following ACLR was observed with increasing age, female gender, and worker's compensation insurance, while increased survivorship was found in patients of Hispanic and Asian Pacific Islander racial heritage and those who underwent concomitant meniscal repair.

Conclusions: In this US statewide study, the rate of TKA after ACLR is higher than reported elsewhere, with significantly increased odds when compared to a control group. Age, gender, concomitant knee procedures and other socioeconomic factors influence the rate of conversion to TKA following ACLR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-021-02966-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Large Individual Bilateral Differences in Tibial Torsion Impact Accurate Contralateral Templating and the Evaluation of Rotational Malalignment.

J Orthop Trauma 2021 Aug;35(8):e277-e282

Department of Orthopaedics, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.

Objective: To determine individual bilateral differences (IBDs) in tibial torsion in a diverse population.

Methods: Computed tomography scans of uninjured bilateral tibiae were used to determine tibial torsion and IBDs in torsion using 4 measurement methods. Age, sex, and self-identified race/ethnicity were also recorded for each subject. Mean tibial torsion and IBDs in torsion were compared in the overall cohort and when stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. Simple and multiple linear regression models were used to correlate demographic variables with tibial torsion and IBDs in torsion.

Results: One hundred ninety-five patients were evaluated. The mean tibial torsion was 27.5 ± 8.3 degrees (range -3 to 47.5 degrees). The mean IBD in torsion was 5.3 ± 4.0 degrees (range 0-23.5 degrees, P < 0.001). 12.3% of patients had IBDs in torsion of ≥10 degrees. In the regression analysis, patients who identified as White had greater average torsion by 4.4 degrees compared with Hispanic/Latinx patients (P = 0.001), whereas age and sex were not significantly associated with absolute torsion. Demographics were not associated with significant differences in IBDs in torsion.

Conclusions: Tibial torsion varies considerably and individual side-to-side differences are common. Race/ethnicity was associated with differences in the magnitude of tibial torsion, but no factors were associated with bilateral differences in torsion. The results of this study may be clinically significant in the context of using the uninjured contralateral limb to help establish rotational alignment during medullary nail stabilization of diaphyseal tibia fractures. In addition, these findings should be considered in the evaluation of tibia rotational malalignment.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOT.0000000000002041DOI Listing
August 2021

The Effect of Functional Pelvic Tilt on the Three-Dimensional Acetabular Cup Orientation in Total Hip Arthroplasty Dislocations.

J Arthroplasty 2021 06 8;36(6):2184-2188.e1. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keck Medical Center of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Anterior and posterior pelvic tilt appears to play a role in total hip arthroplasty (THA) stability. When changing from the standing to the sitting position, the pelvis typically rotates posteriorly while the hips flex and this affects the femoro-acetabular positions. This case-control study compares changes in 3-D acetabular cup orientation during functional pelvic tilt between posterior THA dislocations vs stable THAs.

Methods: Standing and sitting 3-D cup orientation was compared between fifteen posterior dislocations vs 233 prospectively followed stable THAs. 3-D cup orientation was calculated using previously validated trigonometric algorithms on biplanar radiographs. Those algorithms combine the angles in the three anatomical planes (coronal inclination, transverse version, and sagittal ante-inclination) in the standing position with the change in sagittal pelvic tilt from standing to sitting to calculate the 3-D orientation in the sitting position.

Results: The standing cup orientation of the dislocated THAs was only characterized by a lower coronal inclination (P = .039). Compared with the controls, from standing to sitting, they showed less posterior pelvic tilt (P < .001). This led to a significant lower coronal inclination (P < .001) and sagittal ante-inclination (P < .001) in the sitting position but similar transverse version (P = .366).

Conclusions: Comparing posterior THA dislocations to stable THAs, there is a lower increase of all three orientation angles from standing to sitting. This leads to a decreased sitting coronal inclination and sagittal ante-inclination which may lead to an increased risk of impingement ensued by THA instability. By contrast, the transverse version was not significantly different in both positions. This confirms the importance of biplanar data on functional cup orientation.

Level Of Evidence: Diagnostic, Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.12.055DOI Listing
June 2021

Revision Surgery for Instability After Total Hip Arthroplasty: Does Timing Matter?

J Arthroplasty 2021 05 29;36(5):1779-1783.e2. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University, Chicago, IL.

Background: Instability is a common reason for revision surgery after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Recent studies suggest that revisions performed in the early postoperative period are associated with higher complication rates. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of timing of revision for instability on subsequent complication rates.

Methods: The Medicare Part A claims database was queried from 2010 to 2017 to identify revision THAs for instability. Patients were divided based on time between index and revision surgeries: <1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-6, 6-9, 9-12, and >12 months. Complication rates were compared between groups using multivariate analyses to adjust for demographics and comorbidities.

Results: Of 445,499 THAs identified, 9298 (2.1%) underwent revision for instability. Revision THA within 3 months had the highest rate of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI): 14.7% at <1 month, 12.7% at 1-2 months, and 10.6% at 2-3 months vs 6.9% at >12 months (P < .001). Adjusting for confounding factors, PJI risk remained elevated at earlier periods: <1 month (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51-2.23, P < .001), 1-2 months (aOR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.16-1.82, P = .001), 2-3 months (aOR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02-1.78, P = .036). However, revisions performed within 9 months of index surgery had lower rates of subsequent instability than revisions performed >12 months (aOR: 0.67-0.85, P < .050), which may be due to lower rates of acetabular revision and higher rates of head-liner exchange in this later group.

Conclusion: When dislocation occurs in the early postoperative period, delaying revision surgery beyond 3 months from the index procedure may be warranted to reduce risk of PJI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.12.035DOI Listing
May 2021

Medicare Cuts to Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Surgeon Fees in 2021: Will Access to Care Be Jeopardized?

J Arthroplasty 2021 03 8;36(3):791-794. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.01.003DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction on Pitch Accuracy, Velocity, and Movement in Major League Baseball Pitchers.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Dec 16;8(12):2325967120968530. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction is frequently performed on Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. Previous studies have investigated the effects of UCL reconstruction on fastball and curveball velocity, but no study to date has evaluated its effect on fastball accuracy or curveball movement among MLB pitchers.

Purpose/hypothesis: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effects of UCL reconstruction on fastball accuracy, fastball velocity, and curveball movement in MLB pitchers. Our hypothesis was that MLB pitchers who underwent UCL reconstruction would return to their presurgery fastball velocity, fastball accuracy, and curveball movement. The secondary purpose of this study was to determine which factors, if any, were predictive of poor performance after UCL reconstruction.

Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: MLB pitchers who underwent UCL reconstruction surgery between 2011 and 2012 were identified. Performance data including fastball velocity, fastball accuracy, and curveball movement were evaluated 1 year preoperatively and up to 3 years of play postoperatively. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Tukey-Kramer post hoc test was used to determine statistically significant changes in performance over time. Characteristic factors and presurgery performance statistics were compared between poor performers (>20% decrease in fastball accuracy) and non-poor performers.

Results: We identified 56 pitchers with a total of 230,995 individual pitches for this study. After exclusion for lack of return to play (n = 14) and revision surgery (n = 3), 39 pitchers were included in the final analysis. The mean presurgery fastball pitch-to-target distance was 32.9 cm. There was a statistically significant decrease in fastball accuracy after reconstruction, which was present up to 3 years postoperatively ( = .007). The mean presurgery fastball velocity of 91.82 mph did not significantly change after surgery ( = .194). The mean presurgery curveball movement of 34.49 cm vertically and 5.89 cm horizontally also did not change significantly ( = .937 and .161, respectively).

Conclusion: Fastball accuracy among MLB pitchers significantly decreased after UCL reconstruction for up to 3 years postoperatively. There were no statistically significant differences in characteristic factors or presurgery performance statistics between poor and non--poor performers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120968530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747121PMC
December 2020

The "Empty Merchant Sign" in acute patellar tendon ruptures.

Clin Imaging 2021 Feb 18;70:25-32. Epub 2020 Oct 18.

USC Keck School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 1520 San Pablo St., Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

Introduction: We introduce a new sign on a Merchant view present in acute patellar tendon ruptures (APTR). We aim to determine the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of this new radiographic sign and measure the effect of a tutorial on these measures between trainees and non-trainees.

Methods: Lateral and Merchant radiographs (22 images) of knees with four conditions (patellar instability, APTR, quadriceps tendon rupture, and controls) were randomly shown to 50 trainees and non-trainees who were asked to make a diagnosis based on radiographs. A brief tutorial was administered describing the "Empty Merchant Sign" and the same 22 images were randomly shown after the tutorial. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were calculated between the two image types and the effect of tutorial on these measures was assessed.

Results: After the tutorial: 1. the "Empty Merchant Sign" had a higher specificity (100%) and positive predictive value (99%) compared to the lateral radiograph (81% and 64% respectively, P < 0.001), 2. There was significant improvement (from 56% to 95.3%; P < 0.001) in the accuracy of the Merchant view, making it as accurate as the lateral view (95.3% vs. 90.7%, respectively; P = 0.113). There was no difference in the accuracy of the Merchant view between trainees (97.2%) and non-trainees (90.5%) (P = 0.079).

Conclusion: The "Empty Merchant Sign" is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic sign in cases of APTR. With very little training, physicians can identify this sign to diagnose APTRs on a Merchant view.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.09.015DOI Listing
February 2021

Factors Associated With Distal Femoral Osteotomy Survivorship: Data From the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) Registry.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Sep 25;8(9):2325967120951554. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

USC Epstein Family Center for Sports Medicine, Keck Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: Malalignment of the lower extremity can lead to early functional impairment and degenerative changes. Distal femoral osteotomy (DFO) can be performed with arthroscopic surgery to correct lower extremity malalignment while addressing intra-articular abnormalities or to help patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) changes due to alignment deformities.

Purpose: To examine survivorship after DFO and identify the predictors for failure.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: Data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, a statewide discharge database, were utilized to identify patients between the ages of 18 and 40 years who underwent DFO from 2000 to 2014. Patients with a history of lower extremity trauma, infectious arthritis, rheumatological disease, skeletal dysplasia, congenital deformities, malignancy, or concurrent arthroplasty were excluded. Failure was defined as conversion to total or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty, and the identified cohort was stratified based on whether they went on to fail. Age, sex, race, diagnoses, concurrent procedures, and comorbidities were recorded for each admission. Statistically significant differences between patients who required arthroplasty and those who did not were identified using the Student test for continuous variables and a chi-square test for categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier survivorship curves were constructed to estimate 5- and 10-year survival rates. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the risk for conversion to arthroplasty.

Results: A total of 420 procedures were included for analysis. Overall, 53 knees were converted to arthroplasty. The mean follow-up time was 4.8 years (range, 0.0-14.7 years). The 5-year survivorship was 90.2% (range, 85.7%-93.4%), and the 10-year survivorship was 73.2% (range, 64.7%-79.9%). The mean time to failure was 5.9 years (range, 0.4-13.9 years). Survivorship significantly decreased with increasing age ( = .004). Hypertension and a primary diagnosis of osteoarthrosis were significant risk factors for conversion to arthroplasty (odds ratio [OR], 3.12 [95% CI, 1.38-7.03]; = .006, and OR, 2.42 [95% CI, 1.02-5.77]; = .045, respectively), along with a primary diagnosis of traumatic arthropathy (OR, 10.19 [95% CI, 1.71-60.65]; = .01) and a comorbid diagnosis of asthma (OR, 2.88 [95% CI, 1.23-6.78]; = .02). Patients with Medicaid were less likely (OR, 0.11 [95% CI, 0.01-0.88]; = .04) to undergo arthroplasty compared with patients with private insurance, while patients with workers' compensation were 3.1 times more likely (OR, 3.08 [95% CI, 1.21-7.82]; = .02).

Conclusion: Older age was an independent risk factor for conversion to arthroplasty after DFO in patients ≥18 years but ≤60 years. Hypertension, asthma, and a diagnosis of osteoarthrosis or traumatic arthropathy at the time of surgery were predictors associated with failure, reinforcing the need for careful patient selection. The high survivorship rate of DFO in this analysis supports this procedure as a reasonable alternative to arthroplasty in younger patients with valgus deformities about the knee and symptomatic unicompartmental OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120951554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7522844PMC
September 2020

Atypical Subtrochanteric Femur Fracture and Hip Osteoarthritis Treated with a Revision Monoblock Stem and Strut Allograft: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2020 Jul-Sep;10(3):e2000038

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Case: A 73-year-old woman was diagnosed with a nondisplaced incomplete atypical bisphosphonate-related subtrochanteric femur fracture and ipsilateral hip osteoarthritis. She was treated with a total hip arthroplasty using a monoblock revision stem and a strut allograft to provide adjunctive mechanical and biological support. At the final follow-up, the patient had no pain, the stem was well fixed, and the allograft strut had incorporated; however, a persistent fracture line was noted.

Conclusion: When an atypical femur fracture coexists with hip osteoarthritis, total hip arthroplasty may be a reasonable treatment option to address the fracture and concomitant hip osteoarthritis with a single surgical intervention. However, consideration should be given to using a stem with distal fixation and augmenting the construct with a strut allograft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.20.00038DOI Listing
April 2021

Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty in a Patient with Nail-Patella Syndrome: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2020 Jul-Sep;10(3):e2000216

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California.

Case: A 46-year-old woman with a medical history of nail-patella syndrome (NPS) presented with chronic right knee pain. Radiographic and physical examination revealed isolated medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis and a hypoplastic laterally subluxed patella. The patient was successfully treated with a medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA).

Conclusion: In patients with NPS and osteoarthritis limited to one tibiofemoral compartment, a UKA may be successfully performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.20.00216DOI Listing
April 2021

Functional Anatomy of the Hip Joint.

J Arthroplasty 2021 01 31;36(1):374-378. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Dorr Institute for Arthritis Research and Education, Pasadena, CA.

Background: The functional anatomy of the osteoarthritic hip joint in the sagittal plane has not been defined. The purpose of this study was to define the functional anatomy of the hip using clinical and radiographic analyses.

Methods: 320 hips had preoperative standing and sitting lateral spine-pelvis-hip X-rays. Radiographic pelvic measurements were pelvic incidence (PI) and sacral slope (SS), and hip measurements were anteinclination (AI) and pelvic femoral angle (PFA). Pelvic tilt (PT) was calculated as PI-SS. A triangle model was created from the clinical data that illustrates the functional motion of the hip during postural changes from standing to sitting.

Results: Pelvic motion was coordinated with hip motion, even with spinopelvic imbalance and stiffness. Pelvic motion (ΔSS) varied for all 5 types of imbalance, but pelvic motion (ΔSS) and acetabular motion (ΔAI) changed with a 1:1 ratio and inversely with femoral motion (ΔPFA) with a 1:1 ratio. The triangle model showed similar results with ΔSS, ΔPT, and ΔAI changing in a 1:1:1 ratio, and femur motion inversely changing with a 1:1 ratio.

Conclusion: The functional anatomy of the hip joint can be visually illustrated using a triangle model. Pelvic angles SS, PT, and AI change in unison, whereas femoral motion (ΔPFA) changes inversely with pelvic motion (ΔSS) in a 1:1 ratio. This coordinated mobility explains the limitations of the Lewinnek safe zone, which include only the acetabulum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.07.065DOI Listing
January 2021

Medial Femoral Trochlea Osteochondral Graft: A Quantitative Anatomic Comparison to the Proximal Pole of the Scaphoid.

J Wrist Surg 2020 Aug 17;9(4):283-288. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Integrative Anatomical Sciences, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

 Treatment of scaphoid proximal pole (SPP) nonunion with a vascularized osteochondral graft from the medial femoral trochlea (MFT) has been described, with positive outcomes thus far. However, our understanding of the congruency between the articular surfaces of these structures is incomplete.  Our purpose was to evaluate the congruency of the MFT and SPP using a quantitative anatomical approach.  The distal femur and ipsilateral scaphoid were dissected from 12 cadavers and scanned with computerized tomography. Three-dimensional models were created and articular surfaces were digitally "dissected." The radius of curvature (RoC) of the radioulnar (RU) and proximodistal (PD) axes of the SPP and MFT, respectively, as well as the orthogonal axes (SPP, anteroposterior [AP]; MFT, mediolateral [ML]) were calculated. The RoC values were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.  The RoC values for the SPP and MFT were not significantly different in the RU-PD plane (  = 0.064). However, RoC values for the SPP and MFT were significantly different in the AP-ML plane (  = 0.001).  For most individuals, the RU curvature of the SPP was similar to the PD curvature of the MFT. For nearly all individuals, the AP curvature of the SPP and the ML curvature of the MFT shared less congruence.  Articular surface congruity may not be a critical factor associated with improvements in wrist function following this procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1708862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7395846PMC
August 2020

Knee Arthroscopy After Total Knee Arthroplasty: Not a Benign Procedure.

J Arthroplasty 2020 12 2;35(12):3575-3580. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Outcomes of knee arthroscopy (KA) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have been limited to small case series with short-term follow-up. The purpose of this study is to report the outcomes of patients who undergo a KA after a TKA using a large longitudinal database.

Methods: The PearlDiver Medicare database was queried for patients who underwent a KA procedure after a TKA on the ipsilateral extremity. A randomly selected control group was created by matching controls to cases in a 3:1 ratio based on age, gender, year of procedure, and Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. Revision for infection and all-cause revision were used as end points.

Results: A total of192 TKA patients who underwent a subsequent KA (TKA + KA group) were compared to 571 TKA patients who did not have a subsequent KA (TKA - KA group). The incidence of revision for infection was 6.3% in the TKA + KA group compared to 2.2% in the TKA - KA group (odds ratio, 2.87; P = .009). The incidence of all-cause revision was 18.8% in the TKA + KA group compared to 5.1% in the TKA - KA group (odds ratio, 4.34; P < .001).

Conclusion: KA after TKA was associated with increased infection-related and all-cause revision. The association between KA and subsequent infection requires further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.06.082DOI Listing
December 2020

Trends in the use of dual mobility bearings in hip arthroplasty.

Bone Joint J 2020 Jul;102-B(7_Supple_B):27-32

Keck School of Medicine of USC, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Aims: Dual mobility (DM) bearings are an attractive treatment option to obtain hip stability during challenging primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) cases. The purpose of this study was to analyze data submitted to the American Joint Replacement Registry (AJRR) to characterize utilization trends of DM bearings in the USA.

Methods: All primary and revision THA procedures reported to AJRR from 2012 to 2018 were analyzed. Patients of all ages were included and subdivided into DM and traditional bearing surface cohorts. Patient demographics, geographical region, hospital size, and teaching affiliation were assessed. Associations were determined by chi-squared analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess outcome variables.

Results: A total of 406,900 primary and 34,745 revision THAs were identified, of which 35,455 (8.7%) and 8,031 (23.1%) received DM implants respectively. For primary THA, DM usage increased from 6.7% in 2012 to 12.0% in 2018. Among revision THA, DM use increased from 19.5% in 2012 to 30.6% in 2018. Patients < 50 years of age had the highest rates of DM implantation in every year examined. For each year of increase in age, there was a 0.4% decrease in the rate of DM utilization (odds ratio (OR) 0.996 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.995 to 0.997); p < 0.001). Females were more likely to receive a DM implant compared to males (OR 1.077 (95% CI 1.054 to 1.100); p < 0.001). Major teaching institutions and smaller hospitals were associated with higher rates of utilization. DM articulations were used more commonly for dysplasia compared with osteoarthritis (OR 2.448 (95% CI 2.032 to 2.949); p < 0.001) during primary THA and for instability (OR 3.130 (95% CI 2.751 to 3.562) vs poly-wear; p < 0.001) in the revision setting.

Conclusion: DM articulations showed a marked increase in utilization during the period examined. Younger patient age, female sex, and hospital characteristics such as teaching status, smaller size, and geographical location were associated with increased utilization. DM articulations were used more frequently for primary THA in patients with dysplasia and for revision THA in patients being treated for instability. Cite this article: 2020;102-B(7 Supple B):27-32.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.102B7.BJJ-2019-1669.R1DOI Listing
July 2020

Saline lavage after a "dry tap".

Bone Joint J 2020 Jun;102-B(6_Supple_A):138-144

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Aims: In patients with a "dry" aspiration during the investigation of prosthetic joint infection (PJI), saline lavage is commonly used to obtain a sample for analysis. The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively the impact of saline lavage on synovial fluid analysis in revision arthroplasty.

Methods: Patients undergoing revision hip (THA) or knee arthroplasty (TKA) for any septic or aseptic indication were enrolled. Intraoperatively, prior to arthrotomy, the maximum amount of fluid possible was aspirated to simulate a dry tap (pre-lavage) followed by the injection with 20 ml of normal saline and re-aspiration (post-lavage). Pre- and post-lavage synovial white blood cell (WBC) count, percent polymorphonuclear cells (%PMN), and cultures were compared.

Results: A total of 78 patients had data available for analysis; 17 underwent revision THA and 61 underwent revision TKA. A total of 16 patients met modified Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria for PJI. Pre- and post-lavage %PMNs were similar in septic patients (87% vs 85%) and aseptic patients (35% vs 39%). Pre- and post-lavage synovial fluid WBC count were far more disparate in septic (53,553 vs 8,275 WBCs) and aseptic (1,103 vs 268 WBCs) cohorts. At a cutoff of 80% PMN, the post-lavage aspirate had a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 95%. At a cutoff of 3,000 WBCs, the post-lavage aspirate had a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 98%. As the post-lavage synovial WBC count increased, the difference between pre- and post-lavage %PMN decreased (mean difference of 5% PMN in WBC < 3,000 vs mean difference 2% PMN in WBC > 3,000, p = 0.013). Of ten positive pre-lavage fluid cultures, only six remained positive post-lavage.

Conclusion: While saline lavage aspiration significantly lowered the synovial WBC count, the %PMN remained similar, particularly at WBC counts of > 3,000. These findings suggest that in patients with a dry-tap, the %PMN of a saline lavage aspiration has reasonable sensitivity (75%) for the detection of PJI. Cite this article: 2020;102-B(6 Supple A):138-144.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.102B6.BJJ-2019-1679.R1DOI Listing
June 2020

Minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for patient-reported shoulder outcomes.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Jul 3;29(7):1484-1492. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is used when interpreting the importance of outcome data. However, a consensus regarding the MCID for commonly used patient-reported outcomes in shoulder surgery has not been established. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the available literature on shoulder MCID to improve clinical interpretation of shoulder outcome data.

Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies reporting anchor-based MCID values for the patient-reported outcomes recommended by the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES): Veterans Rand 12 score, ASES score, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) score, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) score, Western Ontario Osteoarthritis Score (WOOS), Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI), Pennsylvania Shoulder Score, and Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS).

Results: A total of 14 articles reporting anchor-based MCID values were included in the final analysis. No studies reporting the Western Ontario Osteoarthritis Score (WOOS) were identified. The ASES score (6 studies), OSS (4 studies), and WORC score (2 studies) were the only instruments investigated in more than 1 study. The average reported MCID values for the ASES, OSS, and WORC scores were 15.5 (15% total difference), 275.7 (13% total difference), and 6 (13% total difference), respectively. The vast majority of studies failed to report information necessary to validate the credibility of these MCID values.

Discussion And Conclusion: The current utility of the MCID for patient-report shoulder outcome instruments is limited by poor study methodology, inadequate reporting, and a lack of data. Further research is needed to more clearly define the MCID values for commonly used patient-reported outcomes in shoulder surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2019.12.033DOI Listing
July 2020

Wound Irrigation for Open Fractures.

JBJS Rev 2020 01;8(1):e0061

Department of Orthopedics, Keck Medical Center of USC, Los Angeles, California.

» The optimal regimen for wound irrigation in the setting of an open fracture has been a subject of debate. Basic science evidence as well as results from a recent prospective clinical trial have shed new light on this controversial topic. » While normal saline solution appears to be the optimal irrigation agent, the optimal timing and volume often are determined by the surgeon. Future clinical trials are needed to determine the optimal timing for debridement and irrigation, as well as the ideal volume of irrigant. » Irrigation pressure and the use of pulsatile lavage do not appear to have an effect on outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.RVW.19.00061DOI Listing
January 2020

Population-based Survivorship of Computer-navigated Versus Conventional Total Knee Arthroplasty.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2020 Oct;28(20):857-864

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: The goal of computer navigation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is to improve the accuracy of alignment. However, the relationship between this technology and implant longevity has not been established. The purpose of this study was to analyze survivorship of computer-navigated TKAs compared with traditionally instrumented TKAs.

Methods: The PearlDiver Medicare database was used to identify patients who underwent a primary TKA using conventional instrumentation versus computer navigation between 2005 and 2014. Conventional and computer-navigated cohorts were matched by age, sex, year of procedure, comorbidities, and geographic region. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to estimate survivorship with aseptic mechanical complications, periprosthetic joint infection, and all-cause revision as end points.

Results: During the study period, 75,709 patients who underwent a computer-navigated TKA were identified and matched to a cohort of 75,676 conventional TKA patients from a cohort of 1,607,803 conventional TKA patients. No difference existed in survival between conventional instrumentation (94.7%) and navigated TKAs (95.1%, P = 0.06) at 5 years. A modest decrease was found in revisions secondary to mechanical complications associated with navigation (96.1%) compared with conventional instrumentation (95.7%, P = 0.02) at 5 years. No differences in revision rates because of periprosthetic joint infection were observed (97.9% versus 97.9% event-free survival, P = 0.30). In a subgroup of Medicare patients younger than 65 years of age, use of computer navigation was associated with a decrease in all-cause revision (91.4% versus 89.6% event free survival, P = 0.01) and revision secondary to mechanical complications (89.6% versus 87.8% event-free survival, P = 0.01) at 5 years.

Discussion: Among Medicare patients, no notable difference existed in TKA survival associated with the use of computer navigation at the 5-year follow-up. Use of computer navigation was associated with a slight decrease in revisions secondary to mechanical failure. Although improved survivorship was associated with patients younger than 65 years of age who had a navigated TKA, generalizability of these findings is limited given the unique characteristics of this Medicare subpopulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-19-00548DOI Listing
October 2020

Medicare Reimbursement for Hip and Knee Arthroplasty From 2000 to 2019: An Unsustainable Trend.

J Arthroplasty 2020 05 16;35(5):1174-1178. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: While reimbursement models for physicians continue to evolve, limited data exist regarding recent trends in physician reimbursement for hip and knee arthroplasty. The purpose of this study is to evaluate monetary trends in Medicare reimbursement rates from 2000 to 2019 for the most common hip and knee arthroplasty procedures.

Methods: The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons coding reference was queried to determine the Current Procedural Terminology codes most frequently used in hip and knee adult reconstruction. Next, the Physician Fee Schedule Look-Up Tool from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services was queried for each Current Procedural Terminology code, and physician fee data were extracted. All monetary data were adjusted for inflation using the consumer price index and expressed in 2019 US dollars. The average annual and the total percent change in reimbursement were calculated based on these adjusted trends for all procedures.

Results: After adjusting for inflation, the average physician reimbursement decreased by 31.9% for all hip arthroplasty procedures and by 33.3% for all knee arthroplasty procedures from 2000 to 2019. During this period, primary total hip arthroplasty physician fees decreased by 37.1% and primary total knee arthroplasty fees decreased by 40.6%. From 2000 to 2019, the inflation-adjusted reimbursement rate for all procedures decreased by an average of 1.7% per year.

Conclusion: Throughout the study period, physician reimbursement decreased for all knee and hip arthroplasty procedures. Increased awareness and consideration of these trends will be important for policy-makers, hospitals, and surgeons to assure equitable access to quality hip and knee arthroplasty care in the United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.12.008DOI Listing
May 2020

High Tibial Osteotomy Survivorship: A Population-Based Study.

Orthop J Sports Med 2019 Dec 30;7(12):2325967119890693. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: High tibial osteotomy (HTO) was developed to treat early medial compartment osteoarthritis in varus knees.

Purpose: To evaluate the midterm and long-term outcomes of HTO in a large population-based cohort of patients.

Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development were used to identify patients undergoing HTO from 2000 to 2014. Patients with infectious arthritis, rheumatological disease, congenital deformities, malignancy, concurrent arthroplasty, or skeletal trauma were excluded. Demographic information was assessed for every patient. Failure was defined as conversion to total or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Differences between patients requiring arthroplasty and those who did not were identified using univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed, and Kaplan-Meier survivorship estimates for 5- and 10-year survival were computed.

Results: A total of 1576 procedures were identified between 2000 and 2014; of these, 358 procedures were converted to arthroplasty within 10 years. Patients who went on to arthroplasty after HTO were older (48.23 ± 6.76 vs 42.66 ± 9.80 years, respectively; < .001), had a higher incidence of hypertension (25.42% vs 17.82%, respectively; = .001), and had a higher likelihood of having ≥1 comorbidity (38.0% vs 31.4%, respectively; = .044). Patients were 8% more likely to require arthroplasty for each additional year in age (relative risk [RR], 1.08). Female patients were also at an increased risk of conversion to arthroplasty compared with male patients (RR, 1.38). Survivorship at 5 and 10 years was 80% and 56%, respectively, and the median time to failure was 5.1 years.

Conclusion: HTO may provide long-term survival in select patients. Careful consideration should be given to patient age, sex, and osteoarthritis of the knee when selecting patients for this procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967119890693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6937536PMC
December 2019

Characteristics of Marijuana Use Among Orthopedic Patients.

Orthopedics 2020 Mar 16;43(2):108-112. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Marijuana use among orthopedic patients has not been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of marijuana use among orthopedic surgery patients. Additionally, the authors sought to better characterize how and why their patients use marijuana. Patients presenting at 3 institutions in 2 states for orthopedic surgery were asked to complete a voluntary survey. In addition to basic demographic information, the survey contained questions regarding the frequency of, methods of, and reasons for marijuana use. Patients who had used marijuana in the past year were categorized as marijuana users. A total of 275 patients completed surveys, of whom 94 (34%) endorsed marijuana use in the past year. A majority of marijuana users (55%) endorsed using marijuana either daily or weekly. Smoking was the most common means of marijuana use (90%), followed by edible products (35%) and vaporizing (24%). Pain management (54%) and recreation (52%) were the most commonly cited reasons for using marijuana. Eighty-six percent of marijuana users indicated that they would stop using marijuana if told by their physician that marijuana use would adversely affect their surgery. Marijuana use is common among orthopedic patients. Many patients believe marijuana is beneficial for managing pain and other medical conditions, although most would be willing to stop using marijuana if told it would negatively impact their surgery. Further study into the effects of marijuana use on musculoskeletal health is warranted because marijuana use may be a risk factor easily modified to improve surgical outcomes. [Orthopedics. 2020; 43(2): 108-112.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20191212-07DOI Listing
March 2020
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