Publications by authors named "Nathan Pankratz"

128 Publications

BinomiRare: A robust test for association of a rare genetic variant with a binary outcome for mixed models and any case-control proportion.

HGG Adv 2021 Jul 12;2(3). Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, USA.

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing studies have become increasingly available and are being used to identify rare genetic variants associated with health and disease outcomes. Investigators routinely use mixed models to account for genetic relatedness or other clustering variables (e.g., family or household) when testing genetic associations. However, no existing tests of the association of a rare variant with a binary outcome in the presence of correlated data control the type 1 error where there are (1) few individuals harboring the rare allele, (2) a small proportion of cases relative to controls, and (3) covariates to adjust for. Here, we address all three issues in developing a framework for testing rare variant association with a binary trait in individuals harboring at least one risk allele. In this framework, we estimate outcome probabilities under the null hypothesis and then use them, within the individuals with at least one risk allele, to test variant associations. We extend the BinomiRare test, which was previously proposed for independent observations, and develop the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson (CMP) test and study their properties in simulations. We show that the BinomiRare test always controls the type 1 error, while the CMP test sometimes does not. We then use the BinomiRare test to test the association of rare genetic variants in target genes with small-vessel disease (SVD) stroke, short sleep, and venous thromboembolism (VTE), in whole-genome sequence data from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xhgg.2021.100040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8321319PMC
July 2021

Prediction of False-Positive Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Molecular Results in a High-Throughput Open-Platform System.

J Mol Diagn 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Molecular Pathology and Genomics, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Electronic address:

Widespread high-throughput testing for identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by reverse transcriptase PCR has been a foundation in the response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Quality assurance metrics for these reverse transcriptase PCR tests are still evolving as testing becomes widely implemented. As testing increases, it is important to understand performance characteristics and the errors associated with these tests. Herein, we investigate a high-throughput, laboratory-developed SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase PCR assay to determine whether modeling can generate quality control metrics that identify false-positive (FP) results due to contamination. This study reviewed repeated clinical samples focusing on positive samples that test negative on re-extraction and PCR, likely representing false positives. To identify and predict false-positive samples, we constructed machine learning derived models based on the extraction method used. These models identified variables associated with false-positive results across all methods, with sensitivities for predicting FP results ranging between 67% and 100%. Application of the models to all results predicted a total FP rate of 0.08% across all samples, or 2.3% of positive results, similar to reports for other reverse transcriptase PCR tests for RNA viruses. These models can predict quality control parameters, enabling laboratories to generate decision trees that reduce interpretation errors, allow for automated reflex testing of samples with a high FP probability, improve workflow efficiency, and increase diagnostic accuracy for patient care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2021.05.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186061PMC
June 2021

Prostate Cancer Mortality Associated with Aggregate Polymorphisms in Androgen-Regulating Genes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in the Communities (ARIC) Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 19;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Genetic variations in androgen metabolism may influence prostate cancer (PC) prognosis. Clinical studies consistently linked PC prognosis with four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the critical androgen-regulating genes: 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase () rs1047303, 5-alpha-reductase 2 () rs523349, and solute carrier organic ion () rs1789693 and rs12422149. We tested the association of four androgen-regulating SNPs, individually and combined, with PC-specific mortality in the ARIC population-based prospective cohort. Men diagnosed with PC (N = 622; 79% White, 21% Black) were followed for death (N = 350) including PC death (N = 74). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95%CI adjusting for center, age, stage, and grade at diagnosis using separate hazards for races. A priori genetic risk score (GRS) was created as the unweighted sum of risk alleles in the four pre-selected SNPs. The gain-of-function rs1047303C allele was associated PC-specific mortality among men with metastatic PC at diagnosis (HR = 4.89 per risk allele, = 0.01). Higher GRS was associated with PC-specific mortality (per risk allele: HR = 1.26, = 0.03). We confirmed that the gain-of-function allele in rs1047303 is associated with greater PC mortality in men with metastatic disease. Additionally, our findings suggest a cumulative effect of androgen-regulating genes on PC-specific mortality; however, further validation is required.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13081958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072683PMC
April 2021

Whole-genome sequencing association analysis of quantitative red blood cell phenotypes: The NHLBI TOPMed program.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 05 21;108(5):874-893. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA.

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS), a powerful tool for detecting novel coding and non-coding disease-causing variants, has largely been applied to clinical diagnosis of inherited disorders. Here we leveraged WGS data in up to 62,653 ethnically diverse participants from the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program and assessed statistical association of variants with seven red blood cell (RBC) quantitative traits. We discovered 14 single variant-RBC trait associations at 12 genomic loci, which have not been reported previously. Several of the RBC trait-variant associations (RPN1, ELL2, MIDN, HBB, HBA1, PIEZO1, and G6PD) were replicated in independent GWAS datasets imputed to the TOPMed reference panel. Most of these discovered variants are rare/low frequency, and several are observed disproportionately among non-European Ancestry (African, Hispanic/Latino, or East Asian) populations. We identified a 3 bp indel p.Lys2169del (g.88717175_88717177TCT[4]) (common only in the Ashkenazi Jewish population) of PIEZO1, a gene responsible for the Mendelian red cell disorder hereditary xerocytosis (MIM: 194380), associated with higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). In stepwise conditional analysis and in gene-based rare variant aggregated association analysis, we identified several of the variants in HBB, HBA1, TMPRSS6, and G6PD that represent the carrier state for known coding, promoter, or splice site loss-of-function variants that cause inherited RBC disorders. Finally, we applied base and nuclease editing to demonstrate that the sentinel variant rs112097551 (nearest gene RPN1) acts through a cis-regulatory element that exerts long-range control of the gene RUVBL1 which is essential for hematopoiesis. Together, these results demonstrate the utility of WGS in ethnically diverse population-based samples and gene editing for expanding knowledge of the genetic architecture of quantitative hematologic traits and suggest a continuum between complex trait and Mendelian red cell disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206199PMC
May 2021

FGL1 as a modulator of plasma D-dimer levels: Exome-wide marker analysis of plasma tPA, PAI-1, and D-dimer.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Aug 30;19(8):2019-2028. Epub 2021 May 30.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Use of targeted exome-arrays with common, rare variants and functionally enriched variation has led to discovery of new genes contributing to population variation in risk factors. Plasminogen activator-inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and the plasma product D-dimer are important components of the fibrinolytic system. There have been few large-scale genome-wide or exome-wide studies of PAI-1, tPA, and D-dimer.

Objectives: We sought to discover new genetic loci contributing to variation in these traits using an exome-array approach.

Methods: Cohort-level analyses and fixed effects meta-analyses of PAI-1 (n = 15 603), tPA (n = 6876,) and D-dimer (n = 19 306) from 12 cohorts of European ancestry with diverse study design were conducted, including single-variant analyses and gene-based burden testing.

Results: Five variants located in NME7, FGL1, and the fibrinogen locus, all associated with D-dimer levels, achieved genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10 ). Replication was sought for these 5 variants, as well as 45 well-imputed variants with P < 1 × 10 in the discovery using an independent cohort. Replication was observed for three out of the five significant associations, including a novel and uncommon (0.013 allele frequency) coding variant p.Trp256Leu in FGL1 (fibrinogen-like-1) with increased plasma D-dimer levels. Additionally, a candidate-gene approach revealed a suggestive association for a coding variant (rs143202684-C) in SERPINB2, and suggestive associations with consistent effect in the replication analysis include an intronic variant (rs11057830-A) in SCARB1 associated with increased D-dimer levels.

Conclusion: This work provides new evidence for a role of FGL1 in hemostasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15345DOI Listing
August 2021

A System for Phenotype Harmonization in the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Genotype-phenotype association studies often combine phenotype data from multiple studies to increase power. Harmonization of the data usually requires substantial effort due to heterogeneity in phenotype definitions, study design, data collection procedures, and data set organization. Here we describe a centralized system for phenotype harmonization that includes input from phenotype domain and study experts, quality control, documentation, reproducible results, and data sharing mechanisms. This system was developed for the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine program, which is generating genomic and other omics data for >80 studies with extensive phenotype data. To date, 63 phenotypes have been harmonized across thousands of participants from up to 17 studies per phenotype (participants recruited 1948-2012). We discuss challenges in this undertaking and how they were addressed. The harmonized phenotype data and associated documentation have been submitted to National Institutes of Health data repositories for controlled-access by the scientific community. We also provide materials to facilitate future harmonization efforts by the community, which include (1) the code used to generate the 63 harmonized phenotypes, enabling others to reproduce, modify or extend these harmonizations to additional studies; and (2) results of labeling thousands of phenotype variables with controlled vocabulary terms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwab115DOI Listing
April 2021

Sequencing of 53,831 diverse genomes from the NHLBI TOPMed Program.

Nature 2021 02 10;590(7845):290-299. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.

The Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme seeks to elucidate the genetic architecture and biology of heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders, with the ultimate goal of improving diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these diseases. The initial phases of the programme focused on whole-genome sequencing of individuals with rich phenotypic data and diverse backgrounds. Here we describe the TOPMed goals and design as well as the available resources and early insights obtained from the sequence data. The resources include a variant browser, a genotype imputation server, and genomic and phenotypic data that are available through dbGaP (Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes). In the first 53,831 TOPMed samples, we detected more than 400 million single-nucleotide and insertion or deletion variants after alignment with the reference genome. Additional previously undescribed variants were detected through assembly of unmapped reads and customized analysis in highly variable loci. Among the more than 400 million detected variants, 97% have frequencies of less than 1% and 46% are singletons that are present in only one individual (53% among unrelated individuals). These rare variants provide insights into mutational processes and recent human evolutionary history. The extensive catalogue of genetic variation in TOPMed studies provides unique opportunities for exploring the contributions of rare and noncoding sequence variants to phenotypic variation. Furthermore, combining TOPMed haplotypes with modern imputation methods improves the power and reach of genome-wide association studies to include variants down to a frequency of approximately 0.01%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03205-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875770PMC
February 2021

A Mendelian randomization of γ' and total fibrinogen levels in relation to venous thromboembolism and ischemic stroke.

Blood 2020 12;136(26):3062-3069

Human Genetics Center, Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX.

Fibrinogen is a key component of the coagulation cascade, and variation in its circulating levels may contribute to thrombotic diseases, such as venous thromboembolism (VTE) and ischemic stroke. Gamma prime (γ') fibrinogen is an isoform of fibrinogen that has anticoagulant properties. We applied 2-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) to estimate the causal effect of total circulating fibrinogen and its isoform, γ' fibrinogen, on risk of VTE and ischemic stroke subtypes using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies. Genetic instruments for γ' fibrinogen and total fibrinogen were selected, and the inverse-variance weighted MR approach was used to estimate causal effects in the main analysis, complemented by sensitivity analyses that are more robust to the inclusion of pleiotropic variants, including MR-Egger, weighted median MR, and weighted mode MR. The main inverse-variance weighted MR estimates based on a combination of 16 genetic instruments for γ' fibrinogen and 75 genetic instruments for total fibrinogen indicated a protective effect of higher γ' fibrinogen and higher total fibrinogen on VTE risk. There was also a protective effect of higher γ' fibrinogen levels on cardioembolic and large artery stroke risk. Effect estimates were consistent across sensitivity analyses. Our results provide evidence to support effects of genetically determined γ' fibrinogen on VTE and ischemic stroke risk. Further research is needed to explore mechanisms underlying these effects and their clinical applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019004781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770565PMC
December 2020

Nearly Half of Germline Variants Predicted To Be Pathogenic in Patients With Osteosarcoma Are De Novo: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

JCO Precis Oncol 2020 2;4. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Purpose: To ascertain the prevalence of recurrent de novo variants among 240 pediatric patients with osteosarcoma (OS; age < 20 years) unselected for family history of cancer.

Methods: The identification of de novo variants was implemented in 2 phases. In the first, we identified genes with a rare (minor allele frequency < 0.01) de novo variant in > 1 of the 95 case-parent trios examined by whole-exome sequencing (WES) who passed quality control measures. In phase 2, 145 additional patients with OS were evaluated by targeted sequencing to identify rare de novo variants in genes nominated from phase 1. Recurrent rare variants identified from phase 1 and 2 were verified as either de novo or inherited by Sanger sequencing of affected patients and their parents. Categorical and continuous data were analyzed using Fisher exact test and t tests, respectively.

Results: Among 95 case-parent trios who underwent WES, we observed 61 de novo variants in 60 genes among 47 patients, with identified as the only gene with a pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) de novo variant in more than one case-parent trio. Among all 240 patients with OS, 13 (5.4%) harbored a P/LP germline variant, of which 6 (46.2%) were confirmed to be de novo.

Conclusion: Apart from , we did not observe any other recurrent de novo P/LP variants in the case-parent trios, suggesting that new mutations in other genes are not a frequent cause of pediatric OS. That nearly half of P/LP variants in our sample were de novo suggests universal screening for germline P/LP variants among pediatric patients with OS should be considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.20.00087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608506PMC
October 2020

Requirement of FAT and DCHS protocadherins during hypothalamic-pituitary development.

JCI Insight 2020 10 27;5(23). Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Pituitary developmental defects lead to partial or complete hormone deficiency and significant health problems. The majority of cases are sporadic and of unknown cause. We screened 28 patients with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) for mutations in the FAT/DCHS family of protocadherins that have high functional redundancy. We identified seven variants, four of which putatively damaging, in FAT2 and DCHS2 in six patients with pituitary developmental defects recruited through a cohort of patients with mostly ectopic posterior pituitary gland and/or pituitary stalk interruption. All patients had growth hormone deficiency and two presented with multiple hormone deficiencies and small glands. FAT2 and DCHS2 were strongly expressed in the mesenchyme surrounding the normal developing human pituitary. We analyzed Dchs2-/- mouse mutants and identified anterior pituitary hypoplasia and partially penetrant infundibular defects. Overlapping infundibular abnormalities and distinct anterior pituitary morphogenesis defects were observed in Fat4-/- and Dchs1-/- mouse mutants but all animal models displayed normal commitment to the anterior pituitary cell type. Together our data implicate FAT/DCHS protocadherins in normal hypothalamic-pituitary development and identify FAT2 and DCHS2 as candidates underlying pituitary gland developmental defects such as ectopic pituitary gland and/or pituitary stalk interruption.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.134310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714405PMC
October 2020

Mitochondrial DNA copy number can influence mortality and cardiovascular disease via methylation of nuclear DNA CpGs.

Genome Med 2020 09 28;12(1):84. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

McKusick-Nathans Department of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) has been associated with a variety of aging-related diseases, including all-cause mortality. However, the mechanism by which mtDNA-CN influences disease is not currently understood. One such mechanism may be through regulation of nuclear gene expression via the modification of nuclear DNA (nDNA) methylation.

Methods: To investigate this hypothesis, we assessed the relationship between mtDNA-CN and nDNA methylation in 2507 African American (AA) and European American (EA) participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. To validate our findings, we assayed an additional 2528 participants from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) (N = 533) and Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (N = 1995). We further assessed the effect of experimental modification of mtDNA-CN through knockout of TFAM, a regulator of mtDNA replication, via CRISPR-Cas9.

Results: Thirty-four independent CpGs were associated with mtDNA-CN at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10). Meta-analysis across all cohorts identified six mtDNA-CN-associated CpGs at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10). Additionally, over half of these CpGs were associated with phenotypes known to be associated with mtDNA-CN, including coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Experimental modification of mtDNA-CN demonstrated that modulation of mtDNA-CN results in changes in nDNA methylation and gene expression of specific CpGs and nearby transcripts. Strikingly, the "neuroactive ligand receptor interaction" KEGG pathway was found to be highly overrepresented in the ARIC cohort (P = 5.24 × 10), as well as the TFAM knockout methylation (P = 4.41 × 10) and expression (P = 4.30 × 10) studies.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that changes in mtDNA-CN influence nDNA methylation at specific loci and result in differential expression of specific genes that may impact human health and disease via altered cell signaling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-020-00778-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523322PMC
September 2020

Mitochondrial DNA copy number and incident atrial fibrillation.

BMC Med 2020 09 16;18(1):246. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 N. Broadway, Miller Research Building, Room 459, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Background: Mechanistic studies suggest that mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) dysfunction may be associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). The association between mtDNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) and incident AF in the general population, however, remains unknown.

Methods: We conducted prospective analyses of 19,709 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC), the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). mtDNA-CN from the peripheral blood was calculated from probe intensities on the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) Array 6.0 in ARIC and MESA and from multiplexed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in CHS. Incident AF cases were identified through electrocardiograms, review of hospital discharge codes, Medicare claims, and death certificates.

Results: The median follow-up time was 21.4 years in ARIC, 12.9 years in MESA, and 11.0 years in CHS, during which 4021 participants developed incident atrial fibrillation (1761 in ARIC, 790 in MESA, and 1470 in CHS). In fully adjusted models, participants with the lowest quintile of mitochondria DNA copy number had an overall 13% increased risk (95% CI 1 to 27%) of incident atrial fibrillation compared to those with the highest quintile. Dose-response spline analysis also showed an inverse association between mitochondria DNA copy number and hazard for atrial fibrillation for all three cohorts. These associations were consistent across subgroups.

Conclusions: Mitochondria DNA copy number was inversely associated with the risk of AF independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These findings implicate mitochondria DNA copy number as a novel risk factor for atrial fibrillation. Further research is warranted to understand the underlying mechanisms and to evaluate the role of mitochondria DNA copy number in the management of atrial fibrillation risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01715-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493408PMC
September 2020

The Polygenic and Monogenic Basis of Blood Traits and Diseases.

Cell 2020 09;182(5):1214-1231.e11

Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Science, National Institute on Aging/NIH, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

Blood cells play essential roles in human health, underpinning physiological processes such as immunity, oxygen transport, and clotting, which when perturbed cause a significant global health burden. Here we integrate data from UK Biobank and a large-scale international collaborative effort, including data for 563,085 European ancestry participants, and discover 5,106 new genetic variants independently associated with 29 blood cell phenotypes covering a range of variation impacting hematopoiesis. We holistically characterize the genetic architecture of hematopoiesis, assess the relevance of the omnigenic model to blood cell phenotypes, delineate relevant hematopoietic cell states influenced by regulatory genetic variants and gene networks, identify novel splice-altering variants mediating the associations, and assess the polygenic prediction potential for blood traits and clinical disorders at the interface of complex and Mendelian genetics. These results show the power of large-scale blood cell trait GWAS to interrogate clinically meaningful variants across a wide allelic spectrum of human variation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.08.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7482360PMC
September 2020

Trans-ethnic and Ancestry-Specific Blood-Cell Genetics in 746,667 Individuals from 5 Global Populations.

Cell 2020 09;182(5):1198-1213.e14

Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center (MAVERIC), VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA; Department of Medicine, Division on Aging, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Most loci identified by GWASs have been found in populations of European ancestry (EUR). In trans-ethnic meta-analyses for 15 hematological traits in 746,667 participants, including 184,535 non-EUR individuals, we identified 5,552 trait-variant associations at p < 5 × 10, including 71 novel associations not found in EUR populations. We also identified 28 additional novel variants in ancestry-specific, non-EUR meta-analyses, including an IL7 missense variant in South Asians associated with lymphocyte count in vivo and IL-7 secretion levels in vitro. Fine-mapping prioritized variants annotated as functional and generated 95% credible sets that were 30% smaller when using the trans-ethnic as opposed to the EUR-only results. We explored the clinical significance and predictive value of trans-ethnic variants in multiple populations and compared genetic architecture and the effect of natural selection on these blood phenotypes between populations. Altogether, our results for hematological traits highlight the value of a more global representation of populations in genetic studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.06.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480402PMC
September 2020

Rare Germline Variants in Pediatric Patients With Cushing's Disease: What Is Their Role?

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 3;11:433. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, United States.

The DICER1 syndrome is a multiple neoplasia disorder caused by germline mutations in the gene. In DICER1 patients, aggressive congenital pituitary tumors lead to neonatal Cushing's disease (CD). The role of in other corticotropinomas, however, remains unknown. To perform a comprehensive screening for variants in a large cohort of CD patients, and to analyze their possible contribution to the phenotype. We included 192 CD cases: ten young-onset (age <30 years at diagnosis) patients were studied using a next generation sequencing panel, and 182 patients (170 pediatric and 12 adults) were screened via whole-exome sequencing. In seven cases, tumor samples were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Rare germline variants were found in seven pediatric patients with no other known disease-associated germline defects or somatic second hits. By immunohistochemistry, DICER1 showed nuclear localization in 5/6 patients. Variant transmission from one of the parents was confirmed in 5/7 cases. One patient had a multinodular goiter; another had a family history of melanoma; no other patients had a history of neoplasms. Our findings suggest that gene variants may contribute to the pathogenesis of non-syndromic corticotropinomas. Clarifying whether loss-of-function is disease-causative or a mere disease-modifier in this setting, requires further studies. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00001595.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351020PMC
May 2021

Validation of a hybrid approach to standardize immunophenotyping analysis in large population studies: The Health and Retirement Study.

Sci Rep 2020 05 29;10(1):8759. Epub 2020 May 29.

Division of Molecular Pathology and Genomics, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Traditional manual gating strategies are often time-intensive, place a high burden on the analyzer, and are susceptible to bias between analyzers. Several automated gating methods have shown to exceed performance of manual gating for a limited number of cell subsets. However, many of the automated algorithms still require significant manual interventions or have yet to demonstrate their utility in large datasets. Therefore, we developed an approach that utilizes a previously published automated algorithm (OpenCyto framework) with a manually created hierarchically cell gating template implemented, along with a custom developed visualization software (FlowAnnotator) to rapidly and efficiently analyze immunophenotyping data in large population studies. This approach allows pre-defining populations that can be analyzed solely by automated analysis and incorporating manual refinement for smaller downstream populations. We validated this method with traditional manual gating strategies for 24 subsets of T cells, B cells, NK cells, monocytes and dendritic cells in 931 participants from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Our results show a high degree of correlation (r ≥ 0.80) for 18 (78%) of the 24 cell subsets. For the remaining subsets, the correlation was low (<0.80) primarily because of the low numbers of events recorded in these subsets. The mean difference in the absolute counts between the hybrid method and manual gating strategy of these cell subsets showed results that were very similar to the traditional manual gating method. We describe a practical method for standardization of immunophenotyping methods in large scale population studies that provides a rapid, accurate and reproducible alternative to labor intensive manual gating strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65016-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260195PMC
May 2020

Germline CDKN1B Loss-of-Function Variants Cause Pediatric Cushing's Disease With or Without an MEN4 Phenotype.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 06;105(6)

Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland.

Context: Germline loss-of-function CDKN1B gene variants cause the autosomal dominant syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 4 (MEN4). Even though pituitary neuroendocrine tumors are a well-known component of the syndrome, only 2 cases of Cushing's disease (CD) have so far been described in this setting.

Aim: To screen a large cohort of CD patients for CDKN1B gene defects and to determine their functional effects.

Patients: We screened 211 CD patients (94.3% pediatric) by germline whole-exome sequencing (WES) only (n = 157), germline and tumor WES (n = 27), Sanger sequencing (n = 6), and/or germline copy number variant (CNV) analysis (n = 194). Sixty cases were previously unpublished. Variant segregation was investigated in the patients' families, and putative pathogenic variants were functionally characterized.

Results: Five variants of interest were found in 1 patient each: 1 truncating (p.Q107Rfs*12) and 4 nontruncating variants, including 3 missense changes affecting the CDKN1B protein scatter domain (p.I119T, p.E126Q, and p.D136G) and one 5' untranslated region (UTR) deletion (c.-29_-26delAGAG). No CNVs were found. All cases presented early (10.5 ± 1.3 years) and apparently sporadically. Aside from colon adenocarcinoma in 1 carrier, no additional neoplasms were detected in the probands or their families. In vitro assays demonstrated protein instability and disruption of the scatter domain of CDKN1B for all variants tested.

Conclusions: Five patients with CD and germline CDKN1B variants of uncertain significance (n = 2) or pathogenic/likely pathogenic (n = 3) were identified, accounting for 2.6% of the patients screened. Our finding that germline CDKN1B loss-of-function may present as apparently sporadic, isolated pediatric CD has important implications for clinical screening and genetic counselling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190031PMC
June 2020

Frequency of Pathogenic Germline Variants in Cancer-Susceptibility Genes in Patients With Osteosarcoma.

JAMA Oncol 2020 05;6(5):724-734

Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Stanmore, Middlesex, United Kingdom.

Importance: Osteosarcoma, the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents, occurs in a high number of cancer predisposition syndromes that are defined by highly penetrant germline mutations. The germline genetic susceptibility to osteosarcoma outside of familial cancer syndromes remains unclear.

Objective: To investigate the germline genetic architecture of 1244 patients with osteosarcoma.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Whole-exome sequencing (n = 1104) or targeted sequencing (n = 140) of the DNA of 1244 patients with osteosarcoma from 10 participating international centers or studies was conducted from April 21, 2014, to September 1, 2017. The results were compared with the DNA of 1062 individuals without cancer assembled internally from 4 participating studies who underwent comparable whole-exome sequencing and 27 173 individuals of non-Finnish European ancestry who were identified through the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database. In the analysis, 238 high-interest cancer-susceptibility genes were assessed followed by testing of the mutational burden across 736 additional candidate genes. Principal component analyses were used to identify 732 European patients with osteosarcoma and 994 European individuals without cancer, with outliers removed for patient-control group comparisons. Patients were subsequently compared with individuals in the ExAC group. All data were analyzed from June 1, 2017, to July 1, 2019.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The frequency of rare pathogenic or likely pathogenic genetic variants.

Results: Among 1244 patients with osteosarcoma (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 16 [8.9] years [range, 2-80 years]; 684 patients [55.0%] were male), an analysis restricted to individuals with European ancestry indicated a significantly higher pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant burden in 238 high-interest cancer-susceptibility genes among patients with osteosarcoma compared with the control group (732 vs 994, respectively; P = 1.3 × 10-18). A pathogenic or likely pathogenic cancer-susceptibility gene variant was identified in 281 of 1004 patients with osteosarcoma (28.0%), of which nearly three-quarters had a variant that mapped to an autosomal-dominant gene or a known osteosarcoma-associated cancer predisposition syndrome gene. The frequency of a pathogenic or likely pathogenic cancer-susceptibility gene variant was 128 of 1062 individuals (12.1%) in the control group and 2527 of 27 173 individuals (9.3%) in the ExAC group. A higher than expected frequency of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants was observed in genes not previously linked to osteosarcoma (eg, CDKN2A, MEN1, VHL, POT1, APC, MSH2, and ATRX) and in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome-associated gene, TP53.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, approximately one-fourth of patients with osteosarcoma unselected for family history had a highly penetrant germline mutation requiring additional follow-up analysis and possible genetic counseling with cascade testing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.0197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082769PMC
May 2020

Evaluation of mitochondrial DNA copy number estimation techniques.

PLoS One 2020 31;15(1):e0228166. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Genetic Medicine, McKusick-Nathans Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN), a measure of the number of mitochondrial genomes per cell, is a minimally invasive proxy measure for mitochondrial function and has been associated with several aging-related diseases. Although quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the current gold standard method for measuring mtDNA-CN, mtDNA-CN can also be measured from genotyping microarray probe intensities and DNA sequencing read counts. To conduct a comprehensive examination on the performance of these methods, we use known mtDNA-CN correlates (age, sex, white blood cell count, Duffy locus genotype, incident cardiovascular disease) to evaluate mtDNA-CN calculated from qPCR, two microarray platforms, as well as whole genome (WGS) and whole exome sequence (WES) data across 1,085 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and 3,489 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). We observe mtDNA-CN derived from WGS data is significantly more associated with known correlates compared to all other methods (p < 0.001). Additionally, mtDNA-CN measured from WGS is on average more significantly associated with traits by 5.6 orders of magnitude and has effect size estimates 5.8 times more extreme than the current gold standard of qPCR. We further investigated the role of DNA extraction method on mtDNA-CN estimate reproducibility and found mtDNA-CN estimated from cell lysate is significantly less variable than traditional phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (p = 5.44x10-4) and silica-based column selection (p = 2.82x10-7). In conclusion, we recommend the field moves towards more accurate methods for mtDNA-CN, as well as re-analyze trait associations as more WGS data becomes available from larger initiatives such as TOPMed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228166PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6994099PMC
April 2020

Allelic Heterogeneity at the CRP Locus Identified by Whole-Genome Sequencing in Multi-ancestry Cohorts.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 01 26;106(1):112-120. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can improve assessment of low-frequency and rare variants, particularly in non-European populations that have been underrepresented in existing genomic studies. The genetic determinants of C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of chronic inflammation, have been extensively studied, with existing genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted in >200,000 individuals of European ancestry. In order to discover novel loci associated with CRP levels, we examined a multi-ancestry population (n = 23,279) with WGS (∼38× coverage) from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. We found evidence for eight distinct associations at the CRP locus, including two variants that have not been identified previously (rs11265259 and rs181704186), both of which are non-coding and more common in individuals of African ancestry (∼10% and ∼1% minor allele frequency, respectively, and rare or monomorphic in 1000 Genomes populations of East Asian, South Asian, and European ancestry). We show that the minor (G) allele of rs181704186 is associated with lower CRP levels and decreased transcriptional activity and protein binding in vitro, providing a plausible molecular mechanism for this African ancestry-specific signal. The individuals homozygous for rs181704186-G have a mean CRP level of 0.23 mg/L, in contrast to individuals heterozygous for rs181704186 with mean CRP of 2.97 mg/L and major allele homozygotes with mean CRP of 4.11 mg/L. This study demonstrates the utility of WGS in multi-ethnic populations to drive discovery of complex trait associations of large effect and to identify functional alleles in noncoding regulatory regions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.12.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042494PMC
January 2020

Use of >100,000 NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Consortium whole genome sequences improves imputation quality and detection of rare variant associations in admixed African and Hispanic/Latino populations.

PLoS Genet 2019 12 23;15(12):e1008500. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Genomics Platform, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Most genome-wide association and fine-mapping studies to date have been conducted in individuals of European descent, and genetic studies of populations of Hispanic/Latino and African ancestry are limited. In addition, these populations have more complex linkage disequilibrium structure. In order to better define the genetic architecture of these understudied populations, we leveraged >100,000 phased sequences available from deep-coverage whole genome sequencing through the multi-ethnic NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program to impute genotypes into admixed African and Hispanic/Latino samples with genome-wide genotyping array data. We demonstrated that using TOPMed sequencing data as the imputation reference panel improves genotype imputation quality in these populations, which subsequently enhanced gene-mapping power for complex traits. For rare variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 0.5%, we observed a 2.3- to 6.1-fold increase in the number of well-imputed variants, with 11-34% improvement in average imputation quality, compared to the state-of-the-art 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 and Haplotype Reference Consortium reference panels. Impressively, even for extremely rare variants with minor allele count <10 (including singletons) in the imputation target samples, average information content rescued was >86%. Subsequent association analyses of TOPMed reference panel-imputed genotype data with hematological traits (hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), and white blood cell count (WBC)) in ~21,600 African-ancestry and ~21,700 Hispanic/Latino individuals identified associations with two rare variants in the HBB gene (rs33930165 with higher WBC [p = 8.8x10-15] in African populations, rs11549407 with lower HGB [p = 1.5x10-12] and HCT [p = 8.8x10-10] in Hispanics/Latinos). By comparison, neither variant would have been genome-wide significant if either 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 or Haplotype Reference Consortium reference panels had been used for imputation. Our findings highlight the utility of the TOPMed imputation reference panel for identification of novel rare variant associations not previously detected in similarly sized genome-wide studies of under-represented African and Hispanic/Latino populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953885PMC
December 2019

Burden of rare exome sequence variants in PROC gene is associated with venous thromboembolism: a population-based study.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 02 6;18(2):445-453. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Rare coding mutations underlying deficiencies of antithrombin and proteins C and S contribute to familial venous thromboembolism (VTE). It is uncertain whether rare variants play a role in the etiology of VTE in the general population.

Objectives: We conducted a deep whole-exome sequencing (WES) study to investigate the associations between rare coding variants and the risk of VTE in two population-based prospective cohorts.

Patients/methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed in the Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology (LITE), which combines the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (316 incident VTE events among 3159 African Americans [AAs] and 458 incident VTEs among 7772 European Americans [EAs]) and the Cardiovascular Healthy Study (CHS; 60 incident VTEs among 1751 EAs). We performed gene-based tests of rare variants (allele frequency < 1%, exome-wide significance P < 1.47 × 10 ) separately in each study and ancestry group, and meta-analyzed the results for the EAs in ARIC and CHS.

Results: In the meta-analysis of EAs, we identified one gene, PROC, in which the burden of rare, coding variants was significantly associated with increased risk of VTE (HR = 5.42 [3.11, 9.42] for carriers versus non-carriers, P = 2.27 × 10 ). In ARIC EAs, carriers of the PROC rare variants had on average 0.75 standard deviation (SD) lower concentrations of plasma protein C and 0.28 SD higher D-dimer (P < .05) than non-carriers. Adjustment for low protein C status did not eliminate the association of PROC burden with VTE. In AAs, rare coding PROC variants were not associated with VTE.

Conclusions: Rare coding variants in PROC contribute to increased VTE risk in EAs in this general population sample.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787541PMC
February 2020

Replication of Newly Identified Genetic Associations Between Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and SMYD2, LINC00540, PCIF1/MMP9/ZNF335, and ERG.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 01 1;59(1):92-97. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences and National Institute of Health Research (NIHR), Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: A recently published genome wide association study of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), based on pooled case control data of European ancestry, identified four new loci for AAA: SMYD2 (top single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs1795061), LINC00540 (rs9316871), PCIF1/MMP9/ZNF335 (rs3827066), and ERG (rs2836411). Of the four, rs1795061 and rs2836411 showed significant heterogeneity across studies and the p value for rs9316871 did not reach the genome wide significance threshold until discovery and replication data were pooled together in that study. The objective of this study was to replicate these newly identified genetic associations for AAA in a US based prospective cohort study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, and a Greece based case control study.

Methods: ARIC identified 408 clinically diagnosed AAAs among 8 962 individuals of European ancestry during a median of 22 years of follow up. The Greek case control study included 341 AAAs of European ancestry recruited in a tertiary referral centre and 292 geographically and ethnically matched controls recruited from the same institution. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyse the ARIC data and logistic regression to analyse the Greek data.

Results: In ARIC, rs9316871 and rs3827066 were significantly associated with AAA risk (HR [p] was 0.77 [.004] and 1.22 [.03], respectively), rs2836411 was associated at borderline significance (1.13 [.08]), whereas rs1795061 was not associated (p = .55). In the Greek case control study, rs1795061 and rs2836411 were significantly associated with AAA (OR [p] was 1.66 [< .001] and 1.29 [.04], respectively), whereas rs9316871 was not (p = .81). Genotyping of rs3827066 did not succeed. In the meta-analysis of the two studies, the association for rs9316871and rs2836411 was statistically significant and consistent between the two studies: p = .02 and .007, respectively.

Conclusions: Associations between rs9316871and rs2836411 and AAA risk were replicated in the meta-analysis of the two independent cohorts, providing further support for the importance of these loci in the aetiology of AAA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2019.02.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6954948PMC
January 2020

Genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies five novel loci for age-related hearing impairment.

Sci Rep 2019 10 23;9(1):15192. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

Previous research has shown that genes play a substantial role in determining a person's susceptibility to age-related hearing impairment. The existing studies on this subject have different results, which may be caused by difficulties in determining the phenotype or the limited number of participants involved. Here, we have gathered the largest sample to date (discovery n = 9,675; replication n = 10,963; validation n = 356,141), and examined phenotypes that represented low/mid and high frequency hearing loss on the pure tone audiogram. We identified 7 loci that were either replicated and/or validated, of which 5 loci are novel in hearing. Especially the ILDR1 gene is a high profile candidate, as it contains our top SNP, is a known hearing loss gene, has been linked to age-related hearing impairment before, and in addition is preferentially expressed within hair cells of the inner ear. By verifying all previously published SNPs, we can present a paper that combines all new and existing findings to date, giving a complete overview of the genetic architecture of age-related hearing impairment. This is of importance as age-related hearing impairment is highly prevalent in our ageing society and represents a large socio-economic burden.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51630-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6811684PMC
October 2019

Genetic analysis of hsCRP in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(10):e0223574. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Department of Nutrition and Nutrition Research Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.

Background: Increased serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), an important component of the innate immune response, are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have been identified which are associated with CRP levels, and Mendelian randomization studies have shown a positive association between SNPs increasing CRP expression and risk of colon cancer (but thus far not CVD). The effects of individual genetic variants often interact with the genetic background of a population and hence we sought to resolve the genetic determinants of serum CRP in a number of American Indian populations.

Methods: The Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS) has serum CRP measurements from 2428 tribal members, recruited as large families from three regions of the United States. Microsatellite markers and MetaboChip defined SNP genotypes were incorporated into variance components, decomposition-based linkage and association analyses.

Results: CRP levels exhibited significant heritability (h2 = 0.33 ± 0.05, p<1.3 X 10-20). A locus on chromosome (chr) 6, near marker D6S281 (approximately at 169.6 Mb, GRCh38/hg38) showed suggestive linkage (LOD = 1.9) to CRP levels. No individual SNPs were found associated with CRP levels after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing (threshold <7.77 x 10-7), however, we found nominal associations, many of which replicate previous findings at the CRP, HNF1A and 7 other loci. In addition, we report association of 46 SNPs located at 7 novel loci on chromosomes 2, 5, 6(2 loci), 9, 10 and 17, with an average of 15.3 Kb between SNPs and all with p-values less than 7.2 X 10-4.

Conclusion: In agreement with evidence from other populations, these data show CRP serum levels are under considerable genetic influence; and include loci, such as near CRP and other genes, that replicate results from other ethnic groups. These findings also suggest possible novel loci on chr 6 and other chromosomes that warrant further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0223574PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6797125PMC
March 2020

Discovering genetic interactions bridging pathways in genome-wide association studies.

Nat Commun 2019 09 19;10(1):4274. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

Genetic interactions have been reported to underlie phenotypes in a variety of systems, but the extent to which they contribute to complex disease in humans remains unclear. In principle, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide a platform for detecting genetic interactions, but existing methods for identifying them from GWAS data tend to focus on testing individual locus pairs, which undermines statistical power. Importantly, a global genetic network mapped for a model eukaryotic organism revealed that genetic interactions often connect genes between compensatory functional modules in a highly coherent manner. Taking advantage of this expected structure, we developed a computational approach called BridGE that identifies pathways connected by genetic interactions from GWAS data. Applying BridGE broadly, we discover significant interactions in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, hypertension, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Our novel approach provides a general framework for mapping complex genetic networks underlying human disease from genome-wide genotype data.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12131-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6753138PMC
September 2019

Genomic and transcriptomic association studies identify 16 novel susceptibility loci for venous thromboembolism.

Blood 2019 11;134(19):1645-1657

Boston VA Healthcare System, Boston, MA.

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. To advance our understanding of the biology contributing to VTE, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of VTE and a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) based on imputed gene expression from whole blood and liver. We meta-analyzed GWAS data from 18 studies for 30 234 VTE cases and 172 122 controls and assessed the association between 12 923 718 genetic variants and VTE. We generated variant prediction scores of gene expression from whole blood and liver tissue and assessed them for association with VTE. Mendelian randomization analyses were conducted for traits genetically associated with novel VTE loci. We identified 34 independent genetic signals for VTE risk from GWAS meta-analysis, of which 14 are newly reported associations. This included 11 newly associated genetic loci (C1orf198, PLEK, OSMR-AS1, NUGGC/SCARA5, GRK5, MPHOSPH9, ARID4A, PLCG2, SMG6, EIF5A, and STX10) of which 6 replicated, and 3 new independent signals in 3 known genes. Further, TWAS identified 5 additional genetic loci with imputed gene expression levels differing between cases and controls in whole blood (SH2B3, SPSB1, RP11-747H7.3, RP4-737E23.2) and in liver (ERAP1). At some GWAS loci, we found suggestive evidence that the VTE association signal for novel and previously known regions colocalized with expression quantitative trait locus signals. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested that blood traits may contribute to the underlying risk of VTE. To conclude, we identified 16 novel susceptibility loci for VTE; for some loci, the association signals are likely mediated through gene expression of nearby genes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019000435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6871304PMC
November 2019

Association between MICA polymorphisms, s-MICA levels, and pancreatic cancer risk in a population-based case-control study.

PLoS One 2019 5;14(6):e0217868. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America.

Background: Pancreatic tumor cells may avoid immune surveillance by releasing the transmembrane major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A (MICA) protein in soluble form (s-MICA). We hypothesized that the presence of the A5.1 polymorphism in the MICA gene, which encodes a truncated MICA protein, is associated with higher s-MICA levels and increased pancreatic cancer risk.

Methods: MICA alleles and s-MICA levels were measured in 121 pancreatic cancer cases and 419 controls. General linear regression with a log transformation assessed geometric means of s-MICA levels across MICA alleles. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pancreatic cancer associated with MICA alleles.

Results: After multivariate adjustment, participants with at least one copy of the A5.1 allele versus no A5.1 allele had 1.35 (95% CI: 1.05-1.74) times greater s-MICA levels (1.65 times higher for cases and 1.28, for controls) and increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.05-3.48).

Conclusions: Our study suggests higher risk of pancreatic cancer among those with the MICA A5.1 polymorphism, which may be explained by an increase in s-MICA secretion and impaired immune response.

Impact: These findings provide further evidence at the genetic and molecular level of the important role of MICA in pancreatic cancer development, and may have important implications with regards to pancreatic cancer screening.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0217868PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6550421PMC
February 2020
-->