Publications by authors named "Nathan E Wideman"

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Detection and Potential Virulence of Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC) : A Review.

Microorganisms 2021 Jan 19;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel and Restaurant Management, University of Houston, 122 Heiman Street, San Antonio, TX 78205, USA.

The detection, enumeration, and virulence potential of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) pathogens continues to be a topic of discussion. While there is a lack of definitive evidence that VBNC (Lm) pose a public health risk, recent studies suggest that Lm in its VBNC state remains virulent. VBNC bacteria cannot be enumerated by traditional plating methods, so the results from routine Lm testing may not demonstrate a sample's true hazard to public health. We suggest that supplementing routine Lm testing methods with methods designed to enumerate VBNC cells may more accurately represent the true level of risk. This review summarizes five methods for enumerating VNBC Lm: Live/Dead BacLight staining, ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide-stained real-time polymerase chain reaction (EMA- and PMA-PCR), direct viable count (DVC), 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride-4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (CTC-DAPI) double staining, and carboxy-fluorescein diacetate (CDFA) staining. Of these five supplementary methods, the Live/Dead BacLight staining and CFDA-DVC staining currently appear to be the most accurate for VBNC Lm enumeration. In addition, the impact of the VBNC state on the virulence of Lm is reviewed. Widespread use of these supplemental methods would provide supporting data to identify the conditions under which Lm can revert from its VBNC state into an actively multiplying state and help identify the environmental triggers that can cause Lm to become virulent. Highlights: Rationale for testing for all viable Listeria (Lm) is presented. Routine environmental sampling and plating methods may miss viable Lm cells. An overview and comparison of available VBNC testing methods is given. There is a need for resuscitation techniques to recover Lm from VBNC. A review of testing results for post VBNC virulence is compared.
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January 2021