Publications by authors named "Nathan C Hall"

71 Publications

The impact of physician support on skin self-examination among melanoma patients: A serial mediation model with self-efficacy and intentions to perform skin exams.

Patient Educ Couns 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada; Louise Granofsky Psychosocial Oncology Program, Segal Cancer Centre, Montreal, Canada; Psychosocial Oncology Program, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada.

Objective: Melanoma is the most lethal of skin cancers; however, survival rates are excellent if the tumor is detected early. Clinical practice guidelines for melanoma follow-up care recommend regular skin self-examination (SSE) for individuals at high risk for melanoma. The current analyses tested whether self-efficacy for SSE and intention to perform SSE mediate the relationship between physician support for SSE and SSE behavior among a sample of melanoma patients.

Methods: We ran a serial mediation model on a cross-sectional sample of melanoma patients (n = 154) drawn from an observational study with longitudinal follow-up.

Results: Self-efficacy and intention to perform SSE sequentially mediated the relationship between physician support and SSE behaviors (β = .31, t(152) = 3.61, p < .001 without mediators versus β = .11, t(150) = 1.50, p = .14 with mediators), as supported by a significant total indirect effect (β = .21, [95 % CI = .08-.35]).

Conclusion: Self-efficacy for SSE and intention to perform SSE together explain the link between perceived physician support for SSE and the practice of SSE.

Practice Implications: Physician communication about the importance of SSE plays an important role in encouraging patient adherence to SSE recommendations and, thus, supporting early detection efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2021.02.028DOI Listing
February 2021

Self-efficacy, procrastination, and burnout in post-secondary faculty: An international longitudinal analysis.

PLoS One 2019 30;14(12):e0226716. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

To address the present research gap on relations between motivational beliefs, self-regulation failure, and psychological health in post-secondary faculty, the present study used associative latent growth modeling to longitudinally examine relationships between self-efficacy, procrastination, and burnout (emotional exhaustion) in faculty internationally. Findings from 3,071 faculty participants (70% female, 69 countries) over three time points (5-6 month lags) showed greater self-efficacy at baseline to correspond with lower procrastination and burnout, and procrastination to be positively related to burnout (intercepts). Growth analyses additionally revealed stronger relations between increases in self-efficacy, procrastination, and burnout over time (slopes). Supplemental cross-lagged analyses provided causal evidence of burnout as an antecedent of self-efficacy and procrastination, underscoring intervention and policy efforts to address overwork and exhaustion in post-secondary faculty.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226716PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6936854PMC
April 2020

A Systematic Review of Teachers' Causal Attributions: Prevalence, Correlates, and Consequences.

Front Psychol 2018 17;9:2305. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

The current review provides an overview of published research on teachers' causal attributions since 1970s in the context of theoretical assumptions outlined in Weiner's (2010) attribution theory. Results across 79 studies are first examined with respect to the prevalence of teachers' interpersonal causal attributions for student performance and misbehavior, as well as intrapersonal attributions for occupational stress. Second, findings showing significant relations between teachers' attributions and their emotions and cognitions, as well as student outcomes, are discussed. Third, an overview of results showing the prevalence and implications of teachers' causal attributions to be moderated by critical background variables is also provided. Finally, observed themes across study findings are highlighted with respect to the fundamental attribution error and the utility of Weiner's attribution theory for understanding how teachers' explanations for classroom stressors impact their instruction, well-being, and student development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304350PMC
December 2018

Technology, attributions, and emotions in post-secondary education: An application of Weiner's attribution theory to academic computing problems.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(3):e0193443. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Department of Educational & Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

As technology becomes increasingly integrated with education, research on the relationships between students' computing-related emotions and motivation following technological difficulties is critical to improving learning experiences. Following from Weiner's (2010) attribution theory of achievement motivation, the present research examined relationships between causal attributions and emotions concerning academic computing difficulties in two studies. Study samples consisted of North American university students enrolled in both traditional and online universities (total N = 559) who responded to either hypothetical scenarios or experimental manipulations involving technological challenges experienced in academic settings. Findings from Study 1 showed stable and external attributions to be emotionally maladaptive (more helplessness, boredom, guilt), particularly in response to unexpected computing problems. Additionally, Study 2 found stable attributions for unexpected problems to predict more anxiety for traditional students, with both external and personally controllable attributions for minor problems proving emotionally beneficial for students in online degree programs (more hope, less anxiety). Overall, hypothesized negative effects of stable attributions were observed across both studies, with mixed results for personally controllable attributions and unanticipated emotional benefits of external attributions for academic computing problems warranting further study.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193443PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5846781PMC
June 2018

Colorectal Cancer:: Imaging Conundrums.

Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2018 04 20;27(2):289-302. Epub 2018 Jan 20.

Diagnostic Radiology, Corporal Michael J. Crescenz VA Medical Center, 3900 Woodland Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Progressive technological advancements in imaging have significantly improved the preoperative sensitivity for the detection of very small foci of regionally- or hematogenously-metastatic colorectal cancer. Unfortunately, this information has not translated to continued linear gains in patient survival, and might even result in the false-positive upstaging of some cases: these are two conundrums in the imaging of colorectal cancer. Both conundrums might be resolved by the widespread use of real-time imaging guidance during operative procedures. This might open the way for the widespread use of fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT for the initial staging of patients with colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soc.2017.11.004DOI Listing
April 2018

Validation of the English and French versions of the Brief Health Care Climate Questionnaire.

Health Psychol Open 2017 Jul-Dec;4(2):2055102917730675. Epub 2017 Oct 2.

McGill University, Canada.

Patient autonomy is a central value in medicine and critical component of adherence to medical advice. This article reports on a validation of the 6-item version of the Health Care Climate Questionnaire (HCCQ), a measure of autonomy support in health care settings, in a sample of 242 melanoma patients. The HCCQ showed excellent internal consistency ( = .91), structural validity (Tucker-Lewis index = .99; comparative fit index = .99; root mean square error of approximation = .06, 90 per cent confidence interval (.00, .11); standardized root mean square residual = .02; (8,  = 235) = 13.99,  = .08) and construct validity (92.31% of hypothesized correlations with other measures confirmed). Acceptable 3-month test-retest reliability was observed ( = .55,  < .001; intraclass correlation coefficient (, 1) = .54,  < .001). The French version was found equivalent to the English version.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2055102917730675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5779926PMC
October 2017

Examining the accuracy of students' self-reported academic grades from a correlational and a discrepancy perspective: Evidence from a longitudinal study.

PLoS One 2017 7;12(11):e0187367. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Department of Education, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.

The present longitudinal study examined the reliability of self-reported academic grades across three phases in four subject domains for a sample of 916 high-school students. Self-reported grades were found to be highly positively correlated with actual grades in all academic subjects and across grades 9 to 11 underscoring the reliability of self-reported grades as an achievement indicator. Reliability of self-reported grades was found to differ across subject areas (e.g., mathematics self-reports more reliable than language studies), with a slight yet consistent tendency to over-report achievement levels also observed across grade levels and academic subjects. Overall, the absolute value of over- and underreporting was low and these patterns were not found to differ between mathematics and verbal subjects. In sum, study findings demonstrate the consistent predictive utility of students' self-reported achievement across grade levels and subject areas with the observed tendency to over-report academic grades and slight differences between domains nonetheless warranting consideration in future education research.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0187367PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5675439PMC
November 2017

The Berlin Social Support Scales: Validation of the Received Support Scale in a Canadian sample of patients affected by melanoma.

J Health Psychol 2019 11 2;24(13):1785-1795. Epub 2017 Apr 2.

McGill University, Canada.

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Received Support Scale of the Berlin Social Support Scales in a Canadian sample of English and French language melanoma patients ( = 137). Participants received a skin self-examination education and completed self-report questionnaires. Exploratory factor analyses, reliability analyses, and independent samples -tests were conducted. Findings support the unidimensionality of the Received Support Scale of the Berlin Social Support Scales. The psychometric similarities of the French and English versions of the scale, its strong internal consistency, as well as its convergent and discriminant validity support the use of the Received Support Scale of the Berlin Social Support Scales in patients with melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359105317700968DOI Listing
November 2019

A comparison of FLT to FDG PET/CT in the early assessment of chemotherapy response in stages IB-IIIA resectable NSCLC.

EJNMMI Res 2017 Dec 19;7(1). Epub 2017 Jan 19.

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S. Kingshighway Blvd, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Background: The aim of this study was to compare the percentage change in F-fluorothymidine (FLT) standard uptake value (SUV) between baseline and after one cycle of chemotherapy in patients categorized by RECIST 1.1 computed tomography (CT) as responders or non-responders after two cycles of therapy. Change in F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake was also compared between these time points. Nine patients with newly diagnosed, operable, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were imaged with FDG positron emission tomography/CT (PET), FLT PET/CT, and CT at baseline, following one cycle of neoadjuvant therapy (75 mg/m docetaxel + 75 mg/m cisplatin), and again after the second cycle of therapy. All patients had a biopsy prior to enrollment and underwent surgical resection within 4 weeks of post-cycle 2 imaging.

Results: Between baseline and post-cycle 1, non-responders had mean SULmax (maximum standard uptake value adjusted for lean body mass) increases of 7.0 and 3.4% for FDG and FLT, respectively. Responders had mean decreases of 44.8 and 32.0% in FDG and FLT SULmax, respectively, between baseline and post-cycle 1 imaging. On post-cycle 1 imaging, primary tumor FDG SUL values were significantly lower in responders than in non-responders (P = 0.016). Primary tumor FLT SUL values did not differ significantly between these groups. Using the change from baseline to post-cycle 1, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.94 for FDG and 0.78 for FLT in predicting anatomic tumor response after the second cycle of therapy.

Conclusions: Fractional decrease in FDG SULmax from baseline to post-cycle 1 imaging was significantly different between anatomic responders and non-responders, while percentage changes in FLT SULmax were not significantly different between these groups over the same period of time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13550-017-0258-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5247390PMC
December 2017

Teachers' goal orientations: Effects on classroom goal structures and emotions.

Br J Educ Psychol 2017 Mar 17;87(1):90-107. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

University of Munich, Germany.

Background: Prior research has shown teachers' goal orientations to influence classroom goal structures (Retelsdorf et al., 2010, Learning and Instruction, 20, 30) and to also impact their emotions (Schutz et al., 2007, Emotion in education, Academic Press, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). However, empirical research evaluating possible causal ordering and mediation effects involving these variables in teachers is presently lacking.

Aim: The present 6-month longitudinal study investigated the relations between varied motivational, behavioural, and emotional variables in practising teachers. More specifically, this study examined the reciprocal, longitudinal relations between teachers' achievement goals, classroom goal structures, and teaching-related emotions, as well as cumulative mediational models in which observed causal relations were evaluated.

Samples: Participants were 495 practising teachers from Canada (86% female, M = 42 years).

Methods: Teachers completed a web-based questionnaire at two time points assessing their instructional goals, perceived classroom goal structures, achievement emotions, and demographic items.

Results: Results from cross-lagged analyses and structural equation modelling showed teachers' achievement goals to predict their perceived classroom goal structures that, in turn, predicted their teaching-related emotions.

Conclusions: The present results inform both Butler's (2012, Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 726) theory on teachers' achievement goals and Frenzel's (2014, International handbook of emotions in education, Routledge, New York, NY) model of teachers' emotions in showing teachers' instructional goals to both directly predict their teaching-related emotions, as well as indirectly through the mediating effects of classroom goal structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12137DOI Listing
March 2017

Attributions of Responsibility and Blame for Procrastination Behavior.

Front Psychol 2016 5;7:1179. Epub 2016 Aug 5.

Department of Psychology, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON Canada.

The present study examined the relationship between procrastination, delay, blameworthiness, and moral responsibility. Undergraduate students (N = 240) were provided two scenarios in which the reason for inaction (procrastination, delay), the target (self, other), and the outcome (positive, negative) were manipulated, and students were asked to rate the moral responsibility and blameworthiness of the agent. Results indicated that individuals who procrastinated were seen as more morally responsible and blameworthy than those who experienced delay. More specifically, after a negative outcome, procrastination was associated with more moral responsibility, whereas delay was associated with less moral responsibility. After a positive outcome, individuals perceived procrastination as deserving of less moral responsibility, and delays as associated with more moral responsibility. Finally, a three-way interaction showed that participants rated procrastination that resulted in failure as deserving of responsibility when engaged in by others as opposed to oneself.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4974242PMC
August 2016

Encouraging Realistic Expectations in STEM Students: Paradoxical Effects of a Motivational Intervention.

Front Psychol 2016 26;7:1109. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University Montreal, QC, Canada.

College students in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) disciplines are increasingly faced with highly competitive and demanding degree programs and are at risk of academic overconfidence. Following from theory and research highlighting the psychological and developmental risks of unrealistic expectations, the present exploratory study evaluated the longitudinal effects of a motivational intervention encouraging college students in STEM degree programs (N = 52) to consider the importance of downgrading one's expectations in response to academic setbacks. Contrary to study hypotheses, the results showed intervention participants to report significantly higher expectations and optimism on post-test measures administered 4 months later, no significant gains in emotional well-being or achievement goal orientations, and lower GPAs over five subsequent semesters. These paradoxical effects underscore the need for additional larger-scale research on the nature of students' responses to potentially ego-threatening motivational programs in STEM disciplines so as to minimize achievement deficits at the expense of preserving motivational resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4960205PMC
August 2016

Smiling on the Inside: The Social Benefits of Suppressing Positive Emotions in Outperformance Situations.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2016 May 30;42(5):559-71. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Although expressing positive emotions is typically socially rewarded, in the present work, we predicted that people suppress positive emotions and thereby experience social benefits when outperformed others are present. We tested our predictions in three experimental studies with high school students. In Studies 1 and 2, we manipulated the type of social situation (outperformance vs. non-outperformance) and assessed suppression of positive emotions. In both studies, individuals reported suppressing positive emotions more in outperformance situations than in non-outperformance situations. In Study 3, we manipulated the social situation (outperformance vs. non-outperformance) as well as the videotaped person's expression of positive emotions (suppression vs. expression). The findings showed that when outperforming others, individuals were indeed evaluated more positively when they suppressed rather than expressed their positive emotions, and demonstrate the importance of the specific social situation with respect to the effects of suppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167216637843DOI Listing
May 2016

Achievement goals and emotions: The mediational roles of perceived progress, control, and value.

Br J Educ Psychol 2016 Jun 25;86(2):313-30. Epub 2016 Feb 25.

McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: The link between achievement goals and achievement emotions is well established; however, research exploring potential mediators of this relationship is lacking. The control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006, Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315) posits that perceptions of control and value mediate the relationship between achievement goals and achievement emotions, whereas the bidirectional theory of affect (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002, Educational Psychologist, 37, 69) proposes that perceived progress mediates this relationship.

Aims: The present study empirically evaluated three hypothesized mediators of the effects of achievement goals on learning-related emotions as proposed in the control-value theory and the bidirectional theory of affect.

Sample: Undergraduate students (N = 273) from humanities, social science, and STEM disciplines participated.

Methods: Participants completed web-based questionnaires evaluating academic achievement goals, perceptions of control, perceived task value, and achievement emotions.

Results: Results provided empirical support primarily for perceived progress as a mediator of mastery-approach goal effects on positive emotions (enjoyment, hope), showing indirect effects of mastery- and performance-approach goals on outcome-related emotions (hope, anxiety) via perceived control. Indirect effects of mastery- and performance-approach goals were further observed on anxiety via perceived value, with higher value levels predicting greater anxiety.

Conclusions: Study findings partially support Linnenbrink and Pintrich's (2002, Educational Psychologist, 37, 69) bidirectional theory of affect while underscoring the potential for indirect effects of goals on emotions through perceived control as proposed by Pekrun (2006, Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12108DOI Listing
June 2016

Precise Localization of Occult Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Using Dynamic SPECT/CT.

Clin Nucl Med 2016 Jan;41(1):46-9

From the *Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH; and †Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Active but intermittent gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding can be readily detected with dynamic planar scintigraphic imaging. This is a case of a 48-year-old woman who presented from an outside institution with active GI bleeding on 99mTc-labeled RBC (99mTc-RBC) scintigraphy, but the upper and lower GI evaluations failed to subsequently localize the site of persistent bleeding. Repeat 99mTc-RBC planar scintigraphy identified a focus of active extravasation in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. Dynamic SPECT/CT imaging was immediately performed and further identified the ileocecal valve region as the precise site of active extravasation, which was confirmed at surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000001014DOI Listing
January 2016

Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety.

Front Psychol 2015 17;6:1404. Epub 2015 Sep 17.

Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University Montreal, QC, Canada.

Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4585180PMC
October 2015

The Glass Half Empty: How Emotional Exhaustion Affects the State-Trait Discrepancy in Self-Reports of Teaching Emotions.

PLoS One 2015 14;10(9):e0137441. Epub 2015 Sep 14.

Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers' reports of their trait (habitual) versus state (momentary, "real") emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion) were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions) were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers). In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers' emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0137441PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4569532PMC
May 2016

Intraoperative Use of a Portable Large Field of View Gamma Camera and Handheld Gamma Detection Probe for Radioguided Localization and Prediction of Complete Surgical Resection of Gastrinoma: Proof of Concept.

J Am Coll Surg 2015 Aug 1;221(2):300-8. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

Department of Surgery, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH.

Background: Surgical management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) relies on localization and resection of all tumor foci. We describe the benefit of combined intraoperative use of a portable large field of view gamma camera (LFOVGC) and a handheld gamma detection probe (HGDP) for indium-111 ((111)In)-pentetreotide radioguided localization and confirmation of gastrinoma resection in ZES.

Study Design: Five patients (6 cases) with (111)In-pentetreotide-avid ZES were evaluated. Patients were injected with (111)In-pentetreotide for diagnostic imaging the day before surgery. Intraoperatively, an HGDP and LFOVGC were used to localize (111)In-pentetreotide-avid lesions, guide resection, assess specimens for (111)In-pentetreotide activity, and to verify lack of abnormal post-resection surgical field activity.

Results: Large field of view gamma camera imaging and HGDP-assisted detection were helpful for localization and guided resection of tumor and removal of (111)In-pentetreotide-avid tumor foci in all cases. In 3 of 5 patients (3 of 6 cases), these techniques led to detection and resection of additional tumor foci beyond those detected by standard surgical techniques. The (111)In-pentetreotide-positive or-negative specimens correlated with neuroendocrine tumors or benign pathology, respectively. In one patient with mild residual focal activity on post-resection portable LFOVGC imaging, thought to be artifact, had recurrence of disease in the same area 5 months after surgery.

Conclusions: Real-time LFOVGC imaging and HGDP use for surgical management of gastrinoma improve success of localizing and resecting all neuroendocrine tumor-positive tumor foci, providing instantaneous navigational feedback. This approach holds potential for improving long-term patient outcomes in patients with ZES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.03.047DOI Listing
August 2015

Theranostic Imaging of Yttrium-90.

Biomed Res Int 2015 28;2015:481279. Epub 2015 May 28.

Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

This paper overviews Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) as a theranostic and nuclear medicine imaging of (90)Y radioactivity with bremsstrahlung imaging and positron emission tomography. In addition, detection and optical imaging of (90)Y radioactivity using Cerenkov luminescence will also be reviewed. Methods and approaches for qualitative and quantitative (90)Y imaging will be briefly discussed. Although challenges remain for (90)Y imaging, continued clinical demand for predictive imaging response assessment and target/nontarget dosimetry will drive research and technical innovation to provide greater clinical utility of (90)Y as a theranostic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/481279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4464848PMC
March 2016

Feasibility of a multimodal (18)F-FDG-directed lymph node surgical excisional biopsy approach for appropriate diagnostic tissue sampling in patients with suspected lymphoma.

BMC Cancer 2015 May 8;15:378. Epub 2015 May 8.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Background: F-FDG PET/CT imaging is widely utilized in the clinical evaluation of patients with suspected or documented lymphoma. The aim was to describe our cumulative experience with a multimodal (18)F-FDG-directed lymph node surgical excisional biopsy approach in patients with suspected lymphoma.

Methods: Thirteen patients (mean age 51 (± 16;22-76) years), with suspected new or suspected recurrent lymphoma suggested by (18)F-FDG-avid lesions seen on prior diagnostic whole-body PET/CT imaging, were injected IV with (18)F-FDG prior to undergoing same-day diagnostic lymph node surgical excisional biopsy in the operating room. Various (18)F-FDG detection strategies were used on the day of surgery, including, (1) same-day pre-resection patient PET/CT; (2) intraoperative gamma probe assessment; (3) clinical scanner specimen PET/CT imaging of whole surgically excised tissue specimens; (4) specimen gamma well counts; and/or (5) same-day post-resection patient PET/CT.

Results: Same-day (18)F-FDG injection dose was 14.8 (± 2.4;12.5-20.6) millicuries or 548 (± 89;463-762) megabecquerels. Sites of (18)F-FDG-avid lesions were 4 inguinal, 3 cervical, 3 abdominal/retroperitoneal, 2 axillary, and 1 gluteal region subcutaneous tissue. Same-day pre-resection patient PET/CT was performed on 6 patients. Intraoperative gamma probe assessment was performed on 13 patients. Clinical scanner PET/CT imaging of whole surgically excised tissue specimens was performed in 10 cases. Specimen gamma well counts were performed in 6 cases. Same-day post-resection patient PET/CT imaging was performed on 8 patients. Time from (18)F-FDG injection to same-day pre-resection patient PET/CT, intraoperative gamma probe assessment, and same-day post-resection patient PET/CT were 76 (± 8;64-84), 240 (± 63;168-304), and 487 (± 104;331-599) minutes, respectively. Time from (18)F-FDG injection to clinical scanner PET/CT of whole surgically excised tissue specimens was 363 (± 60;272-446) minutes. Time from (18)F-FDG injection to specimen gamma well counts was 591 (± 96;420-689) minutes. Intraoperative gamma probe assessment successfully identified (18)F-FDG-avid lesions in 12/13 patients. Histopathologic evaluation confirmed lymphoma in 12/13 patients and benign disease in 1/13 patients.

Conclusions: A multimodal approach to (18)F-FDG-directed lymph node surgical excisional biopsy for suspected lymphoma is technically feasible for guiding appropriate diagnostic tissue sampling of lymph nodes seen as (18)F-FDG-avid lesions on diagnostic (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-015-1381-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4426183PMC
May 2015

Real-time scintigraphic assessment of intravenous radium-223 administration for quality control.

Biomed Res Int 2015 18;2015:324708. Epub 2015 Feb 18.

Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 410 West Tenth Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Radium-223 ((223)Ra) dichloride is an approved intravenous radiotherapy for patients with osseous metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In addition to the therapeutic alpha radiation, there is additional (223)Ra radiation generated which produces photons that can be imaged with conventional gamma cameras. No studies have evaluated real-time and quality imaging during intravenous (223)Ra administration to verify systemic circulation and exclude (223)Ra extravasation at the injection site. A retrospective review was performed for fifteen (223)Ra administrations for CRPC patients which were imaged using a large field of view portable gamma camera (LFOVPGC) for the purposes of quality control and patient safety. Dynamic imaging of the chest was performed before, during, and after the (223)Ra administration to verify systemic circulation, per institutional clinical protocol. Before and after (223)Ra administration, a static image was obtained of the intravenous access site. Dynamic imaging of the chest confirmed systemic administration early during the 1-minute injection period for all patients. There were no cases of focal (223)Ra extravasation at the site of intravenous access. These results verify that systemic (223)Ra administrations can be quantified with real-time imaging using an LFOVPGC. This simple approach can confirm and quantify systemic circulation of (223)Ra early during injection and exclude focal extravasation for the purposes of quality control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/324708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4348603PMC
November 2015

Variation in responses of fishes across multiple reserves within a network of marine protected areas in temperate waters.

PLoS One 2015 11;10(3):e0118502. Epub 2015 Mar 11.

Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America.

Meta-analyses of field studies have shown that biomass, density, species richness, and size of organisms protected by no-take marine reserves generally increase over time. The magnitude and timing of changes in these response variables, however, vary greatly and depend upon the taxonomic groups protected, size and type of reserve, oceanographic regime, and time since the reserve was implemented. We conducted collaborative, fishery-independent surveys of fishes for seven years in and near newly created marine protected areas (MPAs) in central California, USA. Results showed that initially most MPAs contained more and larger fishes than associated reference sites, likely due to differences in habitat quality. The differences between MPAs and reference sites did not greatly change over the seven years of our study, indicating that reserve benefits will be slow to accumulate in California's temperate eastern boundary current. Fishes in an older reserve that has been closed to fishing since 1973, however, were significantly more abundant and larger than those in associated reference sites. This indicates that reserve benefits are likely to accrue in the California Current ecosystem, but that 20 years or more may be needed to detect significant changes in response variables that are due to MPA implementation. Because of the high spatial and temporal variability of fish recruitment patterns, long-term monitoring is needed to identify positive responses of fishes to protection in the diverse set of habitats in a dynamic eastern boundary current. Qualitative estimates of response variables, such as would be obtained from an expert opinion process, are unlikely to provide an accurate description of MPA performance. Similarly, using one species or one MPA as an indicator is unlikely to provide sufficient resolution to accurately describe the performance of multiple MPAs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0118502PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4356516PMC
December 2015

[(99m)Tc]Tilmanocept Accurately Detects Sentinel Lymph Nodes and Predicts Node Pathology Status in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Results of a Phase III Multi-institutional Trial.

Ann Surg Oncol 2015 Oct 11;22(11):3708-15. Epub 2015 Feb 11.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: [(99m)Tc]Tilmanocept, a novel CD206 receptor-targeted radiopharmaceutical, was evaluated in an open-label, phase III trial to determine the false negative rate (FNR) of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) relative to the pathologic nodal status in patients with intraoral or cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) undergoing tumor resection, SLNB, and planned elective neck dissection (END). Negative predictive value (NPV), overall accuracy of SLNB, and the impact of radiopharmaceutical injection timing relative to surgery were assessed.

Methods And Findings: This multicenter, non-randomized, single-arm trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00911326) enrolled 101 patients with T1-T4, N0, and M0 HNSCC. Patients received 50 µg [(99m)Tc]tilmanocept radiolabeled with either 0.5 mCi (same day) or 2.0 mCi (next day), followed by lymphoscintigraphy, SLNB, and END. All excised tissues were evaluated for tissue type and tumor presence. [(99m)Tc]Tilmanocept identified one or more SLNs in 81 of 83 patients (97.6 %). Of 39 patients identified with any tumor-positive nodes (SLN or non-SLN), one patient had a single tumor-positive non-SLN in whom all SLNs were tumor-negative, yielding an FNR of 2.56 %; NPV was 97.8 % and overall accuracy was 98.8 %. No significant differences were observed between same-day and next-day procedures.

Conclusions: Use of receptor-targeted [(99m)Tc]tilmanocept for lymphatic mapping allows for a high rate of SLN identification in patients with intraoral and cutaneous HNSCC. SLNB employing [(99m)Tc]tilmanocept accurately predicts the pathologic nodal status of intraoral HNSCC patients with low FNR, high NPV, and high overall accuracy. The use of [(99m)Tc]tilmanocept for SLNB in select patients may be appropriate and may obviate the need to perform more extensive procedures such as END.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-015-4382-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4565859PMC
October 2015

Intraoperative scintigraphy using a large field-of-view portable gamma camera for primary hyperparathyroidism: initial experience.

Biomed Res Int 2015 6;2015:930575. Epub 2015 Jan 6.

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 410 West Tenth Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Background: We investigated a novel technique, intraoperative (99 m)Tc-Sestamibi (MIBI) imaging (neck and excised specimen (ES)), using a large field-of-view portable gamma camera (LFOVGC), for expediting confirmation of MIBI-avid parathyroid adenoma removal.

Methods: Twenty patients with MIBI-avid parathyroid adenomas were preoperatively administered MIBI and intraoperatively imaged prior to incision (neck) and immediately following resection (neck and/or ES). Preoperative and intraoperative serum parathyroid hormone monitoring (IOPTH) and pathology (path) were also performed.

Results: MIBI neck activity was absent and specimen activity was present in 13/20 with imaging after initial ES removal. In the remaining 7/20 cases, residual neck activity and/or absent ES activity prompted excision of additional tissue, ultimately leading to complete hyperfunctioning tissue excision. Postexcision LFOVGC ES imaging confirmed parathyroid adenoma resection 100% when postresection imaging qualitatively had activity (ES) and/or no activity (neck). The mean ± SEM time saving using intraoperative LFOVGC data to confirm resection versus first IOPTH or path result would have been 22.0 ± 2 minutes (specimen imaging) and 26.0 ± 3 minutes (neck imaging).

Conclusion: Utilization of a novel real-time intraoperative LFOVGC imaging approach can provide confirmation of MIBI-avid parathyroid adenoma removal appreciably faster than IOPTH and/or path and may provide a valuable adjunct to parathyroid surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/930575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4300023PMC
October 2015

Comparison of two threshold detection criteria methodologies for determination of probe positivity for intraoperative in situ identification of presumed abnormal 18F-FDG-avid tissue sites during radioguided oncologic surgery.

BMC Cancer 2014 Sep 13;14:667. Epub 2014 Sep 13.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Arthur G, James Cancer Hospital and Richard J, Solove Research Institute and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Background: Intraoperative in situ identification of (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites during radioguided oncologic surgery remains a significant challenge for surgeons. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the 1.5-to-1 ratiometric threshold criteria method versus the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method for determination of gamma detection probe positivity for intraoperative in situ identification of presumed abnormal (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites in a manner that was independent of the specific type of gamma detection probe used.

Methods: From among 52 patients undergoing appropriate in situ evaluation of presumed abnormal (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites during (18)F-FDG-directed surgery using 6 available gamma detection probe systems, a total of 401 intraoperative gamma detection probe measurement sets of in situ counts per second measurements were cumulatively taken.

Results: For the 401 intraoperative gamma detection probe measurement sets, probe positivity was successfully met by the 1.5-to-1 ratiometric threshold criteria method in 150/401 instances (37.4%) and by the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method in 259/401 instances (64.6%) (P < 0.001). Likewise, the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method detected true positive results at target-to-background ratios much lower than the 1.5-to-1 target-to-background ratio of the 1.5-to-1 ratiometric threshold criteria method.

Conclusions: The three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method was significantly better than the 1.5-to-1 ratiometric threshold criteria method for determination of gamma detection probe positivity for intraoperative in situ detection of presumed abnormal (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites during radioguided oncologic surgery. This finding may be extremely important for reshaping the ongoing and future research and development of gamma detection probe systems that are necessary for optimizing the in situ detection of radioisotopes of higher-energy gamma photon emissions used during radioguided oncologic surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-14-667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4171551PMC
September 2014

CT, MRI, and 18F-FDG PET/CT in a patient with nested stromal epithelial tumor of the liver.

Clin Nucl Med 2015 Feb;40(2):131-3

From the *Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center; †Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH; ‡Department of Pathology, Texas Children's Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

An 11-year-old girl presented with abnormal weight gain and was found to have hepatomegaly. MRI of the abdomen revealed a 20-cm hepatic mass. F-FDG PET/CT showed a large hypermetabolic calcified hepatic mass and couple of mildly hypermetabolic pulmonary nodules with associated intrathoracic lymphadenopathy. Liver biopsy was consistent with nested stromal epithelial tumor of the liver, a rare nonhepatocytic, nonbiliary primary neoplasm of the liver associated with variable calcification and ossification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000000542DOI Listing
February 2015

18F-FDG PET/CT oncologic imaging at extended injection-to-scan acquisition time intervals derived from a single-institution 18F-FDG-directed surgery experience: feasibility and quantification of 18F-FDG accumulation within 18F-FDG-avid lesions and background tissues.

BMC Cancer 2014 Jun 19;14:453. Epub 2014 Jun 19.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Arthur G, James Cancer Hospital and Richard J, Solove Research Institute and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Background: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a well-established imaging modality for a wide variety of solid malignancies. Currently, only limited data exists regarding the utility of PET/CT imaging at very extended injection-to-scan acquisition times. The current retrospective data analysis assessed the feasibility and quantification of diagnostic (18)F-FDG PET/CT oncologic imaging at extended injection-to-scan acquisition time intervals.

Methods: (18)F-FDG-avid lesions (not surgically manipulated or altered during (18)F-FDG-directed surgery, and visualized both on preoperative and postoperative (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging) and corresponding background tissues were assessed for (18)F-FDG accumulation on same-day preoperative and postoperative (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging. Multiple patient variables and (18)F-FDG-avid lesion variables were examined.

Results: For the 32 (18)F-FDG-avid lesions making up the final (18)F-FDG-avid lesion data set (from among 7 patients), the mean injection-to-scan times of the preoperative and postoperative (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans were 73 (± 3, 70-78) and 530 (± 79, 413-739) minutes, respectively (P < 0.001). The preoperative and postoperative mean (18)F-FDG-avid lesion SUV(max) values were 7.7 (± 4.0, 3.6-19.5) and 11.3 (± 6.0, 4.1-29.2), respectively (P < 0.001). The preoperative and postoperative mean background SUV(max) values were 2.3 (± 0.6, 1.0-3.2) and 2.1 (± 0.6, 1.0-3.3), respectively (P = 0.017). The preoperative and postoperative mean lesion-to-background SUV(max) ratios were 3.7 (± 2.3, 1.5-9.8) and 5.8 (± 3.6, 1.6-16.2), respectively, (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: (18)F-FDG PET/CT oncologic imaging can be successfully performed at extended injection-to-scan acquisition time intervals of up to approximately 5 half-lives for (18)F-FDG while maintaining good/adequate diagnostic image quality. The resultant increase in the (18)F-FDG-avid lesion SUV(max) values, decreased background SUV(max) values, and increased lesion-to-background SUV(max) ratios seen from preoperative to postoperative (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging have great potential for allowing for the integrated, real-time use of (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging in conjunction with (18)F-FDG-directed interventional radiology biopsy and ablation procedures and (18)F-FDG-directed surgical procedures, as well as have far-reaching impact on potentially re-shaping future thinking regarding the "most optimal" injection-to-scan acquisition time interval for all routine diagnostic (18)F-FDG PET/CT oncologic imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-14-453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4075626PMC
June 2014

Complete response to induction therapy in patients with Myc-positive and double-hit non-Hodgkin lymphoma is associated with prolonged progression-free survival.

Cancer 2014 Jun 27;120(11):1677-85. Epub 2014 Feb 27.

Division of Hematology, The Ohio State University-James Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Background: Myc-positive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with or without a B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) rearrangement is associated with inferior progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In this study, the authors reviewed the outcomes of patients with myc-positive and double-hit NHL at The Ohio State University.

Methods: All patients who had non-Burkitt, aggressive B-cell NHL from 2008 to 2011 were assessed for the t(14;18) translocation and for v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (CMYC) rearrangements at diagnosis, and all myc-positive patients were included in the current analysis. Associations with clinical characteristics were described, and univariable and multivariable models were used to assess correlations between clinical variables and outcomes.

Results: Of 49 myc-positive patients, 29 patients also had BCL2 rearrangements (double-hit NHL). No patients underwent autologous stem cell transplantation in first remission. For all myc-positive patients, the median PFS was 16.6 months, and the median OS was 37.7 months. For patients who had double-hit NHL, the median PFS was 8 months, and the median OS was 12.5 months; whereas the median PFS and OS were not reached for myc-positive patients. A complete response (CR) after front-line therapy, the presence of t(14;18), International Prognostic Index (IPI) group, and age were associated with PFS; whereas only the achievement of a CR and age >60 years were associated with OS in the multivariable setting. The median PFS was 3.3 months, and the median and OS was 7.0 months for patients who did not attain a CR; and the medians were not reached for patients who achieved a CR (P < .00001).

Conclusions: The achievement of a CR with front-line therapy is associated with a prolonged PFS and OS in patients with myc-positive NHL, even after adjusting for type of initial therapy, histology, age, IPI, or the presence of a concurrent BCL2 translocation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.28642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4291121PMC
June 2014

Do girls really experience more anxiety in mathematics?

Psychol Sci 2013 Oct 28;24(10):2079-87. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

1Department of Empirical Educational Research, University of Konstanz.

Two studies were conducted to examine gender differences in trait (habitual) versus state (momentary) mathematics anxiety in a sample of students (Study 1: N = 584; Study 2: N = 111). For trait math anxiety, the findings of both studies replicated previous research showing that female students report higher levels of anxiety than do male students. However, no gender differences were observed for state anxiety, as assessed using experience-sampling methods while students took a math test (Study 1) and attended math classes (Study 2). The discrepant findings for trait versus state math anxiety were partly accounted for by students' beliefs about their competence in mathematics, with female students reporting lower perceived competence than male students despite having the same average grades in math. Implications for educational practices and the assessment of anxiety are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797613486989DOI Listing
October 2013