Publications by authors named "Nathalie Pedretti"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Oncostatin M is overexpressed in skin squamous-cell carcinoma and promotes tumor progression.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 23;9(92):36457-36473. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

LITEC, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France.

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common keratinocyte malignancy and accounts for 20% of skin cancer deaths. Cancer is closely related to inflammation, but the contribution of the tumor microenvironment to cSCC development is poorly understood. We previously showed that oncostatin M (OSM), a cytokine belonging to the IL-6 family, promotes normal keratinocyte proliferation and migration, skin inflammation, and epidermal hyperplasia, both and . Here, we show that OSM is overexpressed in human cSCC and is associated with type 1 immune polarization. , OSM induced STAT-3 and ERK signaling, modified the expression of genes involved in cytokine signaling, proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, and immune responses, and promoted proliferation and migration of malignant keratinocyte PDVC57 cells. PDVC57 cells grafted in the skin of mice led to rapid cSCC development, associated with OSM expression by tumor-infiltrating neutrophils. Finally, the absence of OSM (OSM-KO mice) led to a 30% reduction of tumor size and reduced M2 polarization in the tumor microenvironment. Globally, these results support a pro-tumoral role of OSM in cSCC development and suggest that a new therapeutic approach targeting this cytokine could be considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284862PMC
November 2018

Androgens induce sebaceous differentiation in sebocyte cells expressing a stable functional androgen receptor.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2015 Aug 9;152:34-44. Epub 2015 Apr 9.

BIOalternatives, 1 bis rue des Plantes, 86160 Gençay, France. Electronic address:

Androgens act through non-genomic and androgen receptor (AR)-dependent genomic mechanisms. AR is expressed in the sebaceous gland and the importance of androgens in the sebaceous function is well established. However, the in vitro models used to date have failed to evidence a clear genomic effect (e.g., modification of gene expression profile) of androgens on human sebocyte cells. In order to study the impact of active androgens in sebocytes, we constructed a stable human sebocyte cell line derived from SEBO662 [17] constitutively expressing a fully functional AR. In these SEBO662 AR+ cells, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induced AR nuclear translocation and the strong modulation of a set of transcripts (RASD1, GREB1...) known to be androgen-sensitive in other androgenic cells and tissues. Moreover, we observed that DHT precociously down-regulated markers for immature follicular cells (KRT15, TNC) and for hair lineage (KRT75, FST) and up-regulated the expression of genes potentially related to sebocyte differentiation (MUC1/EMA, AQP3, FADS2). These effects were fully confirmed at the protein level. In addition, DHT-stimulated SEBO662 AR+, cultured in a low-calcium defined keratinocyte medium without serum or any complement, neosynthesize lipids, including sebum lipids, and store increased amounts of triglycerides in lipid droplets. DHT also induces morphological changes, increases cell size, and treatments over 7 days lead to a time-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic DNA-fragmented cells. Taken together, these results show for the first time that active androgens alone can engage immature sebocytes in a clear lipogenic differentiation process (Graphical abstract). These effects depend on the expression of a functional AR in these cells. This model should be of interest for revisiting the mechanisms of the sebaceous function in vitro and for the design of relevant pharmacological models for drug or compound testing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2015.04.005DOI Listing
August 2015

Study of proliferation and 3D epidermal reconstruction from foreskin, auricular and trunk keratinocytes in children.

Burns 2015 Mar 16;41(2):352-8. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

Laboratoire Inflammation, Tissus Epithéliaux et Cytokines (LITEC), Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France; Laboratoire d'Immunologie et Inflammation, CHU de Poitiers, Poitiers, France.

Objective: Severe burns in children are conventionally treated with split-thickness skin autografts or epidermal sheets. An alternative approach is to graft isolated keratinocytes. We evaluated foreskin and other anatomic sites as donor sources for autologous keratinocyte graft in children. We studied in vitro capacities of isolated keratinocytes to divide and reconstitute epidermal tissue.

Methods: Keratinocytes were isolated from foreskin, auricular skin, chest and abdominal skin by enzymatic digestion. Living cell recovery, in vitro proliferation, epidermal reconstruction capacities and differentiation status were analyzed.

Results: In vitro studies revealed the higher yield of living keratinocyte recovery from foreskin and higher potential in terms of proliferative capacity, regeneration and differentiation. Cultured keratinocytes from foreskin express lower amounts of differentiation markers than those isolated from trunk and ear. Histological analysis of reconstituted human epidermis derived from foreskin and inguinal keratinocytes showed a structured multilayered epithelium, whereas those obtained from ear pinna-derived keratinocytes were unstructured.

Conclusion: Our studies highlight the potential of foreskin tissue for autograft applications in boys. A suitable alternative donor site for autologous cell transplantation in female paediatric burn patients remains an open question in our department. We tested the hypothesis that in vitro studies and RHE reconstructive capacities of cells from different body sites can be helpful to select an optimal site for keratinocyte isolation before considering graft protocols for girls.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2014.07.003DOI Listing
March 2015

Inhibition of keratinocyte differentiation by the synergistic effect of IL-17A, IL-22, IL-1α, TNFα and oncostatin M.

PLoS One 2014 10;9(7):e101937. Epub 2014 Jul 10.

Laboratoire Inflammation Tissus Epithéliaux et Cytokines, Equipe Accueil 4331, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France.

Keratinocyte differentiation program leading to an organized epidermis plays a key role in maintaining the first line of defense of the skin. Epidermal integrity is regulated by a tight communication between keratinocytes and leucocytes, particularly under cytokine control. Imbalance of the cytokine network leads to inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis. Our attempt to model skin inflammation showed that the combination of IL-17A, IL-22, IL-1α, OSM and TNFα (Mix M5) synergistically increases chemokine and antimicrobial-peptide expression, recapitulating some features of psoriasis. Other characteristics of psoriasis are acanthosis and down-regulation of keratinocyte differentiation markers. Our aim was to characterize the specific roles of these cytokines on keratinocyte differentiation, and to compare with psoriatic lesion features. All cytokines decrease keratinocyte differentiation markers, but IL-22 and OSM were the most powerful, and the M5 strongly synergized the effects. In addition, IL-22 and OSM induced epidermal hyperplasia in vitro and M5 induced epidermal thickening and decreased differentiation marker expression in a mouse model, as observed in human psoriatic skin lesions. This study highlights the precise role of cytokines in the skin inflammatory response. IL-22 and OSM more specifically drive epidermal hyperplasia and differentiation loss while IL-1α, IL-17A and TNFα were more involved in the activation of innate immunity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0101937PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4092099PMC
November 2015

Expression patterns of candidate susceptibility genes HNF1β and CtBP2 in prostate cancer: association with tumor progression.

Urol Oncol 2014 May 12;32(4):426-32. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Department of Pathology, CHU-Universite de Poitiers, Poitiers, France; Centre d'etude et de Recherche sur les Pathologies Prostatique (CeRePP), Hospital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: Genome-wide association studies have identified variants at multiple loci associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Some of these loci include candidate susceptibility genes, such as MSMB, HNF1β, and C-terminal-binding protein (CtBP2). Except for MSMB, the clinicopathological significance of these genes has not been investigated. We therefore aimed to analyze their expression in PCa tissues, in relation with tumor progression and aggressiveness.

Methods And Materials: Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing samples from normal prostate (NL, n = 91), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, n = 61), clinically localized PCa (CLC, n = 434), PCa metastases (M, n = 28), and castration-resistant PCa (CRC, n = 49). Moreover, mRNA expression for each marker was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, on 53 frozen samples of NL, CLC, and CRC.

Results: These genes were differentially expressed at the different stages of PCa natural history. MSMB expression decreased with disease development and progression. In contrast, nuclear HNF1β and CtBP2 staining significantly increased in the CRC and M groups when compared with CLC, together with the transcripts levels. In patients with CLC, HNF1β and CtBP2 nuclear expressions were strongly associated with cancer cell proliferation. After adjusting for the Gleason score and the pathological stage, none of the candidate genes was significantly predictive of recurrence after radical prostatectomy. In patients with CRC, CtBP2 nuclear staining was associated with shorter overall survival.

Conclusions: The decrease of MSMB expression during tumor progression strongly supports its role as a tumor-suppressor gene. Although its functions remain to be clarified in PCa cells, HNF1β and CtBP2 are associated with cancer cell proliferation, tumor progression, and castration-resistant disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2013.09.006DOI Listing
May 2014

Foreskin-isolated keratinocytes provide successful extemporaneous autologous paediatric skin grafts.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2016 Mar 14;10(3):252-60. Epub 2013 Mar 14.

Laboratoire Inflammation, Tissus Epithéliaux et Cytokines (LITEC), Université de Poitiers, France.

Severe burns in children are conventionally treated with split-thickness skin autografts or epidermal sheets. However, neither early complete healing nor quality of epithelialization is satisfactory. An alternative approach is to graft isolated keratinocytes. We evaluated paediatric foreskin and auricular skin as donor sources, autologous keratinocyte transplantation, and compared the graft efficiency to the in vitro capacities of isolated keratinocytes to divide and reconstitute epidermal tissue. Keratinocytes were isolated from surgical samples by enzymatic digestion. Living cell recovery, in vitro proliferation and epidermal reconstruction capacities were evaluated. Differentiation status was analysed, using qRT-PCR and immunolabelling. Eleven children were grafted with foreskin-derived (boys) or auricular (girls) keratinocyte suspensions dripped onto deep severe burns. The aesthetic and functional quality of epithelialization was monitored in a standardized way. Foreskin keratinocyte graft in male children provides for the re-epithelialization of partial deep severe burns and accelerates wound healing, thus allowing successful wound closure, and improves the quality of scars. In accordance, in vitro studies have revealed a high yield of living keratinocyte recovery from foreskin and their potential in terms of regeneration and differentiation. We report a successful method for grafting paediatric males presenting large severe burns through direct spreading of autologous foreskin keratinocytes. This alternative method is easy to implement, improves the quality of skin and minimizes associated donor site morbidity. In vitro studies have highlighted the potential of foreskin tissue for graft applications and could help in tissue selection with the prospect of grafting burns for girls.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/term.1690DOI Listing
March 2016

Keratinocytes under Fire of Proinflammatory Cytokines: Bona Fide Innate Immune Cells Involved in the Physiopathology of Chronic Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis.

J Allergy (Cairo) 2012 5;2012:718725. Epub 2012 Nov 5.

Laboratoire Inflammation, Tissus Épithéliaux et Cytokines, UPRES-EA 4331, CHU de Poitiers, Pole Biologie Santé, Université de Poitiers, Bâtiment B36, 1 rue G Bonnet, 86022 Poitiers, France ; BIOalternatives, 1 bis rue des Plantes, 86160 Gençay, France.

Cutaneous homeostasis and defenses are maintained by permanent cross-talk among particular epidermal keratinocytes and immune cells residing or recruited in the skin, through the production of cytokines. If required, a coordinated inflammatory response is triggered, relayed by specific cytokines. Due to numerous reasons, troubles in the resolution of this phenomenon could generate a cytokine-mediated vicious circle, promoting skin chronic inflammation, the most common being atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. In this paper, we discuss the biological effects of cytokine on keratinocytes, more particularly on specific or shared cytokines involved in atopic dermatitis or psoriasis. We report and discuss monolayer or 3D in vitro models of keratinocytes stimulated by specific sets of cytokines to mimic atopic dermatitis or psoriasis. IL-22, TNFa, IL-4, and IL-13 combination is able to mimic an "atopic dermatitis like" state. In psoriasis lesions, over expression of IL-17 is observed whereas IL-4 and IL-13 were not detected; the replacement of IL-4 and IL-13 by IL-17 from this mix is able to mimic in vitro a "psoriasis like" status on keratinocytes. We conclude that specific cytokine environment deregulation plays a central role on skin morphology and innate immunity, moving towards specific pathologies and opening the way to new therapeutic strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/718725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3502002PMC
November 2012

Immortalized sebocytes can spontaneously differentiate into a sebaceous-like phenotype when cultured as a 3D epithelium.

Exp Dermatol 2012 Apr;21(4):314-6

Sebocytes originate from the same lineage as keratinocytes, and both cell types may have similarities in terms of growth and differentiation. We were interested in studying the behaviour of human sebocytes when cultured in conditions validated for epidermal reconstruction. For this purpose, we established a HPV16-E6/7-immortalized human sebocyte cell line (SEBO662) growing in keratinocyte defined media. Postconfluent SEBO662 cells in monolayers express the early sebocyte marker, cytokeratin 7 (K7), do not express Epithelia Membrane Antigen (EMA) and do not exhibit strong lipogenic activity. However, when placed at the air-liquid interface, SEBO662 multilayers spontaneously differentiate into a sebaceous-like structure as shown by the strong polarized expression of the late sebaceous marker EMA, the overexpression of some lipogenic markers and lipid production on the upper side of the epithelium. This work highlights the value of simple 3D models for exhibiting spontaneous differentiation and polarization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0625.2012.01463.xDOI Listing
April 2012

The gap junction protein Cx43 is involved in the bone-targeted metastatic behaviour of human prostate cancer cells.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2012 Feb 12;29(2):111-22. Epub 2011 Nov 12.

CNRS, UMR6187, Institute of Cellular Physiology and Biology, University of Poitiers, Poitiers Cedex, France.

For decades, cancer was associated with gap-junction defects. However, more recently it appeared that the gap junction proteins (connexins) could be re-expressed and participate to cancer cell dissemination during the late stages of tumor progression. Since primary tumors of prostate cancer (PCa) are known to be connexin deficient, it was interesting to verify whether their bone-targeted metastatic behaviour could be influenced by the re-expression of the connexin type (connexin43) which is originally present in prostate tissue and highly expressed in bone where it participates to the differentiation of osteoblastic cells. Thus, we investigated the effect of the increased Cx43 expression, by retroviral infection, on the metastatic behaviour of two well-characterized cell lines (PC-3 and LNCaP) representing different stages of PCa progression. It appeared that Cx43 differently behaved in those cell lines and induced different phenotypes. In LNCaP, Cx43 was functional, localized at the plasma membrane and its high expression was correlated with a more aggressive phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, those Cx43-expressing LNCaP cells exhibited a high incidence of osteolytic metastases generated by bone xenografts in mice. Interestingly, LNCaP cells were also able to decrease the proliferation of cocultured osteoblastic cells. In contrast, the increased expression of Cx43 in PC-3 cells led to an unfunctional, cytoplasmic localization of the protein and was correlated with a reduction of proliferation, adhesion and invasion of the cells. In conclusion, the localization and the functionality of Cx43 may govern the ability of PCa cells to metastasize in bones.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10585-011-9434-4DOI Listing
February 2012

CCL20 and β-defensin-2 induce arrest of human Th17 cells on inflamed endothelium in vitro under flow conditions.

J Immunol 2011 Feb 22;186(3):1411-20. Epub 2010 Dec 22.

INSERM Unité 844, Hôpital St. Eloi, Université Montpellier I, 34967 Montpellier, France.

CCR6 is a chemokine receptor that is expressed at the cell surface of Th17 cells, an IL-17- and IL-22-secreting population of CD4(+) T cells with antipathogenic, as well as inflammatory, properties. In the current study, we have determined the involvement of CCR6 in human Th17 lymphocyte migration toward inflamed tissue by analyzing the capacity of its ligands to induce arrest of these cells onto inflamed endothelium in vitro under flow conditions. We show that polarized, in situ-differentiated, skin-derived Th17 clones activated via the TCR-CD3 complex produce CCL20 in addition to IL-17 and IL-22. The latter cytokines induce, in a synergic fashion, the production of human β-defensin (hBD)-2, but neither hBD-1 nor hBD-3, by epidermal keratinocytes. Both CCL20 and hBD-2 are capable of inducing the arrest of Th17 cells, but not Th1 or Th2 cells, on HUVEC in an CD54-dependent manner that is CCR6 specific and independent from the expression of CXCR4, reported to be an alternative receptor for hBD-2. In addition, Ag-specific activation induces a transient loss of CCR6 expression, both at the transcriptional and protein level, which occurs with slow kinetics and is not due to endogenous CCL20-mediated internalization of CCR6. Together, these results indicate that Ag-specific activation will initially contribute to CCR6-mediated Th17 cell trafficking toward and sequestration in inflamed tissue, but that it eventually results in a transitory state of nonresponsiveness to further stimulation of these cells with CCR6 ligands, thus permitting their subsequent migration out of the inflamed site.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1000597DOI Listing
February 2011

Skin Inflammation Induced by the Synergistic Action of IL-17A, IL-22, Oncostatin M, IL-1{alpha}, and TNF-{alpha} Recapitulates Some Features of Psoriasis.

J Immunol 2010 05 24;184(9):5263-5270. Epub 2010 Mar 24.

Laboratoire Inflammation, Tissus Epithéliaux et Cytokines, Unités Propres de Recherche, Equipe d'Accueil, Pôle Biologie Santé, Université de Poitiers and.

Keratinocytes play a crucial role in the regulation of skin inflammation, responding to environmental and immune cells stimuli. They produce soluble factors that can act in an autocrine or paracrine manner on immune cells or directly on aggressors. A screening of the activities of 36 cytokines on keratinocyte gene expression identified IL-17A, IL-22, oncostatin M, TNF-alpha, and IL-1alpha as potent cytokines in inducing cutaneous inflammation. These five proinflammatory cytokines synergistically increased production of CXCL8 and beta-defensin 2 (BD2). In addition, ex vivo studies on human skin explants demonstrated upregulation of BD2, S100A7, and CXCL8 expression in response to the same combination of cytokines. In vivo intradermal injection of these five cytokines in mouse increased CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, S100A9, and BD3 expression, associated with neutrophil infiltration. We confirmed and extended this synergistic effect using quantitative real-time PCR analysis and observed increased expression of nine chemokines and 12 antimicrobial peptides. Production of CXCL, CXCL5, and CXCL8 by keratinocytes stimulated in the presence of this cytokine combination was associated with increased neutrophil chemotactic activity. Similarly, high production of BD2, BD3, and S100A7 was associated with an increased antimicrobial activity. Finally, the transcriptional profile observed in this in vitro model of inflammatory keratinocytes correlated with the one of lesional psoriatic skin. Our results demonstrate the important potentiating activities of IL-17A, IL-22, oncostatin M, TNF-alpha, and IL-1alpha on keratinocytes. This is particularly interesting in the context of psoriasis where these cytokines are overexpressed and could synergize to play an important role in upregulation of chemokines and antimicrobial peptides production.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0902464DOI Listing
May 2010

Cytokine-induced CEACAM1 expression on keratinocytes is characteristic for psoriatic skin and contributes to a prolonged lifespan of neutrophils.

J Invest Dermatol 2009 Mar 9;129(3):671-81. Epub 2008 Oct 9.

Inserm, U844, Montpellier, France.

Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a cell-surface glycoprotein, belonging to the carcinoembryonic antigen family, expressed by human neutrophils, epithelial cells, activated T and NK cells. CEACAM1 is expressed as a cell-surface molecule with different isoforms or can be secreted as a soluble protein. Here, we show that keratinocytes in the outer epidermal layer of psoriatic skin express CEACAM1, unlike those in healthy skin or in cutaneous lesions of patients with atopic or nummular dermatitis. Stimulation of primary human keratinocytes or in vitro reconstituted epidermis with culture supernatants of activated psoriatic lesion-infiltrating T cells, IFN-gamma or oncostatin M, but not IL-17, induced the expression of transcripts for the CEACAM1-long and -short isoforms and cell-surface CEACAM1, whereas soluble CEACAM1 was not produced. The uppermost layers of the epidermis in psoriatic lesions also contain neutrophils, a cell type with inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Coculture of CEACAM1-expressing keratinocytes or CHO transfectants with neutrophils delayed spontaneous apoptosis of the latter cells. These results show that cytokine-induced cell-surface expression of CEACAM1 by keratinocytes in the context of a psoriatic environment might contribute to the persistence of neutrophils and thus to ongoing inflammation and the decreased propensity for skin infection, typical for patients with psoriasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jid.2008.303DOI Listing
March 2009

Reduced expression of the adhesion protein tensin1 in cultured human dermal fibroblasts affects collagen gel contraction.

Exp Dermatol 2008 Sep 4;17(9):788-9. Epub 2008 Jun 4.

Chanel Parfum Beauté, 20 rue Victor Noir, Neuilly/Seine, France.

As revealed by immunohistochemistry and RT-QPCR, the focal adhesion protein tensin1 is expressed in cultured human dermal fibroblasts and reduced by 60% after transfection with tensin1 siRNA. Tensin1 silenced fibroblast exhibited a strongly reduced capacity to contract collagen gels. Aged fibroblasts, generated with the Hayflick replicative senescence model, exhibit as siRNA silences fibroblasts, a reduced tensin1 expression and an impaired gel contraction capacity. Based on these results, we speculate that in human dermal fibroblasts, tensin1 plays an important role in cell-matrix interaction and that a reduced expression might contribute to the dermal alterations observed during skin ageing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0625.2008.00707.xDOI Listing
September 2008

Oncostatin M secreted by skin infiltrating T lymphocytes is a potent keratinocyte activator involved in skin inflammation.

J Immunol 2007 Apr;178(7):4615-22

UPRES-EA 3806, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France.

Cutaneous inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis are associated with altered keratinocyte function, as well as with a particular cytokine production profile of skin-infiltrating T lymphocytes. In this study we show that normal human epidermal keratinocytes express a functional type II oncostatin-M (OSM) receptor (OSMR) consisting of the gp130 and OSMRbeta components, but not the type I OSMR. The type II OSMR is expressed in skin lesions from both psoriatic patients and those with atopic dermatitis. Its ligand, OSM, induces via the recruitment of the STAT3 and MAP kinase pathways a gene expression profile in primary keratinocytes and in a reconstituted epidermis that is characteristic of proinflammatory and innate immune responses. Moreover, OSM is a potent stimulator of keratinocyte migration in vitro and increases the thickness of a reconstituted epidermis. OSM transcripts are enhanced in both psoriatic and atopic dermatitic skin as compared with healthy skin and mirror the enhanced production of OSM by T cells isolated from diseased lesions. Results from a microarray analysis comparing the gene-modulating effects of OSM with those of 33 different cytokines indicate that OSM is a potent keratinocyte activator similar to TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-17, and IL-22 and that it acts in synergy with the latter cytokines in the induction of S100A7 and beta-defensin 2 expression, characteristic of psoriatic skin. Taken together, these results demonstrate that OSM and its receptor play an important role in cutaneous inflammatory responses in general and that the specific effects of OSM are associated with distinct inflammatory diseases depending on the cytokine environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.178.7.4615DOI Listing
April 2007

Comparison of gene expression profiles in human keratinocyte mono-layer cultures, reconstituted epidermis and normal human skin; transcriptional effects of retinoid treatments in reconstituted human epidermis.

Exp Dermatol 2002 Feb;11(1):59-74

BIOalternatives, Gençay, France.

In order to validate a model for predictive screening of dermatological drugs, we used a customized cDNA macro-array system containing 475 skin-related genes to analyze the gene expression patterns in human keratinocytes from different origins: (1) normal human epidermal keratinocyte mono-layer cultures, (2) the commercially available SkinEthic reconstituted human epidermis model, and (3) biopsies of normal human epidermis. Few markers of those that were detected significantly in keratinocyte mono-layers or in reconstituted epidermis were undetected or detected at very low level in the normal epidermis biopsies. A comparative expression of more than 100 markers could be evidenced in both normal epidermis and reconstituted epidermis samples; however, only 90% of these were detected in keratinocyte mono-layers: expression of several terminal differentiation markers, such as filaggrin, loricrin, and corneodesmosin were strongly detected in normal epidermis and reconstituted epidermis, but were not significantly expressed in keratinocyte mono-layers. Under the experimental conditions described herein, the reconstituted human epidermis model was found to significantly reproduce the gene expression profile of normal human epidermis. Using the same methodology, we then investigated the effects of all-trans retinoic acid, 9-cis retinoic acid, all-trans retinol and a commercialized tretinoin-containing cream (Retacnyl) on the gene expression profiles of reconstituted human epidermis. According to the nature and the length of the treatments, more than 40 genes were found significantly modified. Among the genes whose expression was decreased, we found cytokeratins 1, 10, 2E, and 6B, several cornified envelope precursors, integrins alpha 3, alpha 6, beta 1, beta 4, some components of desmosomes, of hemi-desmosomes and of the epidermal basement membrane. Transcriptional upregulation was observed for keratins 18 and 19, autocrine and paracrine growth factors such as HB-EGF, IGF 1, PDGF-A, calgranulins A and B, interleukin-1 alpha and the other IL-1-related markers, type II IL-1 receptor and type I IL-1-receptor antagonist. Our results confirm most of the known effects of retinoids on human epidermis, but also give new insights into their complex pharmacological activity on skin. The reconstituted human epidermis used proves to be a highly predictive model for efficacy evaluation of skin-targeted compounds, such as retinoids.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0625.2002.110107.xDOI Listing
February 2002
-->