Publications by authors named "Natalie A Lockney"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

TARGIT-R (Retrospective): 5-Year Follow-Up Evaluation of Intraoperative Radiation Therapy (IORT) for Breast Cancer Performed in North America.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 May 12;28(5):2512-2521. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Background: Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) has been investigated for patients with low-risk, early-stage breast cancer. The The North American experience was evaluated by TARGIT-R (retrospective) to provide outcomes for patients treated in "real-world" clinical practice with breast IORT. This analysis presents a 5-year follow-up assessment.

Methods: TARGIT-R is a multi-institutional retrospective registry of patients who underwent lumpectomy and IORT between the years 2007 and 2013. The primary outcome of the evaluation was ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR).

Results: The evaluation included 667 patients with a median follow-up period of 5.1 years. Primary IORT (IORT at the time of lumpectomy) was performed for 72%, delayed IORT (after lumpectomy) for 3%, intended boost for 8%, and unintended boost (primary IORT followed by whole-breast radiation) for 17% of the patients. At 5 years, IBTR was 6.6% for all the patients, with 8% for the primary IORT cohort and 1.7% for the unintended-boost cohort. No recurrences were identified in the delayed IORT or intended-boost cohorts. Noncompliance with endocrine therapy (ET) was associated with higher IBTR risk (hazard ratio [HR], 3.67). Patients treated with primary IORT who were complaint with ET had a 5-year IBTR rate of 3.9%.

Conclusion: The local recurrence rates in this series differ slightly from recent results of randomized IORT trials and are notably higher than in previous published studies using whole-breast radiotherapy for similar patients with early-stage breast cancer. Understanding differences in this retrospective series and the prospective trials will be critical to optimizing patient selection and outcomes going forward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-09432-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Circulating Cell-Free DNA Correlates with Body Integral Dose and Radiation Modality in Prostate Cancer.

Int J Part Ther 2020 15;7(2):21-30. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville and Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Purpose: The RadTox assay measures circulating cell-free DNA released in response to radiotherapy (RT)-induced tissue damage. The primary objectives for this clinical trial were to determine whether cell-free DNA numbers measured by the RadTox assay are (1) correlated with body integral dose, (2) lower with proton RT compared with photon RT, and (3) higher with larger prostate cancer RT fields.

Patients And Methods: Patients planned to receive proton or photon RT for nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the setting of an intact prostate or postprostatectomy were eligible for the trial. Plasma was collected pre-RT and at 5 additional daily collection points beginning 24 hours after the initiation of RT. Data from 54 evaluable patients were analyzed to examine any correlations among RadTox scores with body-integral dose, RT modality (photon versus proton), and RT field size (prostate or prostate bed versus whole pelvis).

Results: Body integral dose was significantly associated with the peak post-RT RadTox score ( = .04). Patients who received photon RT had a significant increase in peak post-RT RadTox score ( = .04), average post-RT RadTox score ( = .04), and day-2 RadTox score (all minus the pre-RT values for each patient) as compared with patients who received proton RT. Field size was not significantly associated with RadTox score.

Conclusion: RadTox is correlated with body integral dose and correctly predicts which patients receive proton versus photon RT. Data collection remains ongoing for patient-reported RT toxicity outcomes to determine whether RadTox scores are correlated with toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14338/IJPT-20-00033.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707322PMC
September 2020

A Prospective Randomized Trial of the Influence of Music on Anxiety in Patients Starting Radiation Therapy for Cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Mar 26;109(3):670-674. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida. Electronic address:

Purpose: One of the most downloaded articles in 2017 from the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, and Physics was a study suggesting that music therapy during radiation therapy (RT) simulation substantially reduces anxiety. To further evaluate the potential of music's clinical efficacy in the context of radiation therapy, we conducted a randomized trial evaluating the influence of genre-based music chosen by the study participant on anxiety during the first RT treatment session with a method that is applicable to routine clinical practice.

Methods And Materials: We conducted a prospective randomized trial of music versus no music during the first RT treatment for cancer. We limited the study to women because prior studies document a higher rate of anxiety in female patients with cancer. Anxiety was evaluated before and after the first RT treatment using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Symptom Distress Thermometer (SDT). Patients randomized to music had their preferred genre of music played from a web-based application while in the treatment vault.

Results: In the study, 102 females were enrolled (51 with and 51 without music). Baseline high anxiety score before RT was recorded in 48% of patients using the STAI and 58% using the SDT. The percent decrease in mean STAI score was 16% with music versus 10% without music (P = .2197). The mean SDT percent changes were a 13% decrease with music versus a 2% increase without music (P = .3298).

Conclusions: This study documents that high anxiety is common in women receiving RT for cancer and that music, as used in this study, does not reduce anxiety to a meaningful degree.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.09.048DOI Listing
March 2021

Radiation Therapy for Advanced-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Adv Radiat Oncol 2020 Sep-Oct;5(5):809-816. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

The backbone of treatment for patients with advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma is systemic therapy. The use of radiation therapy as a component of combined-modality treatment in this setting is controversial. In this review, we describe the data in support of and against the use of radiation therapy for stage III and IV Hodgkin lymphoma. Specifically, we review the data for the use of radiation therapy in the consolidation and partial-response settings, including for patients with initial bulky disease. We also discuss the use of radiation therapy in the era of more modern systemic therapies, including checkpoint inhibitors and brentuximab vedotin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adro.2020.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557128PMC
June 2020

Concomitant Radiation Recall Dermatitis and Organizing Pneumonia following Breast Radiotherapy: A Case Report.

Case Rep Oncol 2020 May-Aug;13(2):875-882. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Purpose: Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is a rare complication that occurs after completion of radiation therapy (RT) and initiation of a precipitating agent, most commonly chemotherapeutic medications. Various theories attempt to explain the mechanism, including activation of the body's inflammatory pathways through nonimmune activation. Likewise, radiation-induced organizing pneumonia (RIOP) is an infrequent but potentially life-threatening complication of RT that, while not fully understood, is suspected to be partly an autoimmune reaction.

Patient: We present the case of a 71-year-old female with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, interstitial cystitis, and osteoarthritis who presented with clinical stage T1N0M0 ER+/PR-/HER2- invasive ductal carcinoma of the lower outer quadrant of the left breast, for which she underwent left segmental mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by completion axillary lymph node dissection. Her final pathologic stage was T1N1M0.

Result: The patient developed RRD and later RIOP following receipt of radiation and chemotherapy, which resolved with steroid administration.

Conclusions: The rarity of both RRD and RIOP occurring in a patient, as in our case, suggests a shared pathophysiology behind these two complications. As both reactions involve some degree of inflammation and respond to corticosteroids, it seems likely that the etiologies of RRD and RIOP lie within the inflammatory pathway. However, further investigation should evaluate the frequency, duration, and triggering of concomitant RRD and RIOP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7443621PMC
July 2020

Radiotherapy in Early-stage Gastric MALT: Improved Survival Without Increased Cardiac Death.

Am J Clin Oncol 2020 11;43(11):770-775

Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) is an effective treatment for localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas unresponsive to antibiotic therapy; however, irradiating the stomach can result in significant radiation to the heart, a risk factor for cardiac disease. We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database to evaluate outcomes related to cardiac disease among patients treated with RT for stage I gastric MALT.

Materials And Methods: We identified adult patients treated between 1993 and 2014. The relationship between treatment modality (RT, chemotherapy, combination, and no treatment) and overall survival (OS), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-specific survival (MSS), non-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-specific survival (non-MSS), and cardiac-specific survival (CSS) was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazards analyses.

Results: A total of 2996 patients (median follow-up, 5.6 y) were analyzed: 27.5% had received RT alone, 12.1% chemotherapy alone, 3.9% chemoradiotherapy, and 56.5% no/unknown treatment (including antibiotic therapy). Compared with RT alone, patients who received chemotherapy alone exhibited worse OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32-2.10; P<0.001) and MSS (HR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.36-3.23; P=0.001). Although CSS appeared worse in patients who received chemotherapy (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 0.92-2.66; P=0.10), it was not statistically significant. When comparing orbital and gastric MALT patients, there was no significant difference in CSS (HR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.49-1.31; P=0.38).

Conclusions: RT improved survival among patients with stage I gastric MALT without increasing the risk of cardiac death. Those with gastric MALT exhibited similar CSS to those with orbital MALT. Although we cannot analyze nonfatal cardiac toxicity, these results suggest that, absent antibiotic therapy, RT should remain first-line treatment for early-stage gastric MALT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COC.0000000000000747DOI Listing
November 2020

Dose-Effect Analysis of Early Changes in Orbital Bone Morphology After Radiation Therapy for Rhabdomyosarcoma.

Pract Radiat Oncol 2020 Jan - Feb;10(1):53-58. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida.

Purpose: In survivors of orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS), late effects include facial deformation and asymmetry. We sought to quantify orbital asymmetry in ERMS survivors and characterize the dose effect of radiation to the orbital bones.

Methods And Materials: We evaluated the most recent follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 17 children (≤21 years old) with stage 1 group III orbital ERMS treated with proton therapy between 2007 and 2018. For all patients, the orbital socket volumes were calculated and compared with the contralateral, unirradiated orbital socket. Patient age, orbital tumor quadrant, and the radiation dose delivered to the major orbital bones (maxillary, frontal, and zygomatic bones) were recorded and correlated with the orbital socket volume difference.

Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 5.4 years old (range, 1.1-9.7 years). All patients received a prescription dose of 45 GyRBE. The mean time interval between radiation and MRI was 2.9 years (range, 0.8-3.2 years). The mean age at most recent MRI was 8.4 years (range, 2.3-12.9 years). In 16 of 17 patients, the volume of the ipsilateral orbit was significantly smaller than the contralateral orbit on follow-up MRI (P ≤ .0001). In one patient with nonviable tumor in situ, the irradiated orbit was larger. The volume difference increased with follow-up time and did not correlate with age at treatment or age at MRI. A dose >40 GyRBE to all bones of the orbital rim was associated with a significant decrease in orbital volume (P < .05), but an isolated dose of >40 GyRBE to either the frontal, maxillary, or zygomatic bone was not.

Conclusions: Despite the dosimetric precision of proton therapy, orbital asymmetry will develop after >40 GyRBE to multiple bones of the orbital rim. These data may be used to guide treatment planning and counsel patients on expected cosmesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prro.2019.10.002DOI Listing
June 2020

Estimating survival in patients with gastrointestinal cancers and brain metastases: An update of the graded prognostic assessment for gastrointestinal cancers (GI-GPA).

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2019 Sep 27;18:39-45. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Miami Cancer Institute, USA.

Background: Patients with gastrointestinal cancers and brain metastases (BM) represent a unique and heterogeneous population. Our group previously published the Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA) for patients with GI cancers (GI-GPA) (1985-2007, n = 209). The purpose of this study is to update the GI-GPA based on a larger contemporary database.

Methods: An IRB-approved consortium database analysis was performed using a multi-institutional (18), multi-national (3) cohort of 792 patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, with newly-diagnosed BM diagnosed between 1/1/2006 and 12/31/2017. Survival was measured from date of first treatment for BM. Multiple Cox regression was used to select and weight prognostic factors in proportion to their hazard ratios. These factors were incorporated into the updated GI-GPA.

Results: Median survival (MS) varied widely by primary site and other prognostic factors. Four significant factors (KPS, age, extracranial metastases and number of BM) were used to formulate the updated GI-GPA. Overall MS for this cohort remains poor; 8 months. MS by GPA was 3, 7, 11 and 17 months for GPA 0-1, 1.5-2, 2.5-3.0 and 3.5-4.0, respectively. >30% present in the worst prognostic group (GI-GPA of ≤1.0).

Conclusions: Brain metastases are not uncommon in GI cancer patients and MS varies widely among them. This updated GI-GPA index improves our ability to estimate survival for these patients and will be useful for therapy selection, end-of-life decision-making and stratification for future clinical trials. A user-friendly, free, on-line app to calculate the GPA score and estimate survival for an individual patient is available at brainmetgpa.com.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctro.2019.06.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612649PMC
September 2019

Adjacent level fracture incidence in single fraction high dose spinal radiosurgery.

Ann Transl Med 2019 May;7(10):211

Department of Surgery, Neurological Divisiony, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Vertebral body compression fracture (VCF) is a complication following spinal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). However, the incidence of VCF in vertebrae adjacent to the level of SRS is unknown. This study aimed to determine the incidence of adjacent level VCF (adjVCF) following spinal SRS.

Methods: A retrospective review of 239 lesions treated with single-fraction SRS from 2011-2014 was performed. Clinical and pathologic factors were collected including evaluation of VCFs in adjacent levels to SRS site. In patients with adjVCFs, dose-volume histograms for adjacent-level endplates were calculated. Cox regression analysis was performed to determine any association among clinical factors and adjVCF occurrence.

Results: Median follow-up was 14.7 months. Twenty-six adjVCFs occurred (10.8%). Of the adjVCFs, 19 had metastases following SRS, and seven did not (2.9% of total treatments). Median time to fracture post-SRS was 13.5 months. In adjVCFs, median of the mean dose to adjacent level fractured endplate was 23.3 Gy, and median of the mean dose of sixteen non-fractured endplates immediately adjacent to the SRS site was 19.1 Gy. Age, gender, and histology were not associated with adjVCF.

Conclusions: AdjVCF after spinal SRS occurs at a rate of 2.9%, when excluding metastatic sites of disease. Adjacent level endplates should be investigated as an organ at risk during SRS planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.04.68DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6595213PMC
May 2019

Radiation-induced tumor immunity in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

Thorac Cancer 2019 07 22;10(7):1605-1611. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.

Background: Radiation-induced tumor immunity (RITI) influences primary tumor growth and development of metastases in preclinical cancer models with conventional radiotherapy. Antigen-specific immune responses have also been shown for prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy. We examined whether RITI can be induced in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following proton radiotherapy.

Methods: Pre- and post-radiotherapy plasma samples from 26 patients with nonmetastatic NSCLC who received radiotherapy between 2010 and 2012 were evaluated by western blotting for IgG and IgM bands to assess RITI response to tumor antigens from lung cancer cell lines. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate any correlation among IgG or IgM and clinical outcomes.

Results: Twenty-one patients received proton therapy at 2 GyRBE/fraction (n = 17) or 6-12 Gy/fraction (n = 4); five received photon therapy at 2-2.5 GyRBE/fraction. Compared with the pretreatment baseline, new IgG or IgM binding was detected in 27% and 50% of patients, respectively. New IgG bands were detected in the 25-37 kD, 50-75 kD, and 75-100 kD ranges. New IgM bands were detected in the 20-25 kD, 25-37 kD, 37-50 kD, 50-75 kD, and 75-100 kD ranges. There was no difference in IgG and/or IgM RITI response in patients treated with photons versus protons, or in patients who received SBRT compared to standard fractionation (P > 0.05). There was no difference in overall survival, metastasis-free survival, or local control based on IgG and/or IgM RITI response (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: RITI can be induced in patients with NSCLC through upregulated IgG and/or IgM. RITI response was not associated with proton versus photon therapy or with clinical outcomes in this small cohort and should be examined in a larger cohort in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6610279PMC
July 2019

In Regard to Stecklein et al.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2019 04 13;103(5):1280-1281. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville and Jacksonville, Florida.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.11.061DOI Listing
April 2019

Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Mutations Are Associated With Increased Local Failure in Brain Metastases Treated With Radiation.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 07 29;101(4):833-844. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Purpose: To determine whether phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) mutations confer suboptimal local control after radiation therapy (RT) for brain metastases.

Methods And Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 259 patients with brain metastases treated with RT during the period 2004 to 2017 for whom tumor genetic data (MSK-IMPACT) were available for primary or metastatic lesions. Associations between clinical factors, PI3K mutations status, and local failure (LF) were evaluated with univariate and multivariate competing risks regression.

Results: A total of 112 patients received whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) to a median dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions, and 147 patients received stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to 338 lesions; 276 lesions were treated with single fraction SRS (median dose 21 Gy) and 76 lesions over 3 to 5 fractions SRS (median dose 30 Gy). PI3K mutations were present in 36 WBRT patients (32%) and 44 SRS patients (30%). For WBRT, patients with PI3K mutations (hazard ratio 2.67, P < .001) were found to be at higher risk for LF on multivariable analysis, and the 1-year cumulative incidence of LF was 50% (95% confidence interval [CI] 32%-65%) for patients with PI3K mutations versus 26% (95% CI 17%-37%) for patients without PI3K mutations. For SRS lesions, while PI3K mutations positivity was not statistically significantly associated with LF, higher rate of LF was observed: 1-year LF cumulative incidence of 11% (95% CI 6%-17%) for patients with PI3K mutations versus 5% (95% CI 3%-9%) for patients without PI3K mutations.

Conclusion: Patients with PI3K mutations are at higher risk for LF for brain metastases after RT. Novel therapeutic strategies to improve treatment outcomes in these patients should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.03.032DOI Listing
July 2018

Report from the SWOG Radiation Oncology Committee: Research Objectives Workshop 2017.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 08 16;24(15):3500-3509. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

The Radiation Therapy Committee of SWOG periodically evaluates its strategic plan in an effort to maintain a current and relevant scientific focus, and to provide a standard platform for future development of protocol concepts. Participants in the 2017 Strategic Planning Workshop included leaders in cancer basic sciences, molecular theragnostics, pharmaceutical and technology industries, clinical trial design, oncology practice, and statistical analysis. The committee discussed high-priority research areas, such as optimization of combined modality therapy, radiation oncology-specific drug design, identification of molecular profiles predictive of radiation-induced local or distant tumor responses, and methods for normal tissue-specific mitigation of radiation toxicity. The following concepts emerged as dominant questions ready for national testing: (i) what is the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of oligometastatic, oligorecurrent, and oligoprogressive disease? (ii) How can combined modality therapy be used to enhance systemic and local response? (iii) Can we validate and optimize liquid biopsy and other biomarkers (such as novel imaging) to supplement current response criteria to guide therapy and clinical trial design endpoints? (iv) How can we overcome deficiencies of randomized survival endpoint trials in an era of increasing molecular stratification factors? And (v) how can we mitigate treatment-related side effects and maximize quality of life in cancer survivors? The committee concluded that many aspects of these questions are ready for clinical evaluation and example protocol concepts are provided that could improve rates of cancer cure and quality of survival. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-3202DOI Listing
August 2018

PIK3CA mutation is associated with increased local failure in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT).

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2017 Dec 4;7:91-93. Epub 2017 Nov 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Objectives: Hyperactivation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway has been associated with radioresistance. It is unclear whether such mutations confer suboptimal local control for patients who receive lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Our objective was to examine whether mutations in the EGFR/AKT/PIK3CA signaling pathway are associated with local failure (LF) after lung SBRT.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 166 patients who underwent SBRT to primary or metastatic lung lesions from 2007-2015 for whom genetic testing data was available for EGFR, AKT, and PIK3CA genes. Association between clinical factors, including molecular mutation status, and LF was evaluated.

Results: Six patients (4%) had PIK3CA mutation, 36 patients (22%) had EGFR mutation, and one patient (0.6%) had AKT1 mutation. Median lesion size was 2.0 cm (range, 0.6-5.6 cm); median dose was 48Gy in 4 fractions (range, 30-70Gy in 3-10 fractions). Median follow-up for survivors was 27.3 months (range, 3.8-66.7 months). LF occurred in 16 patients (10%). On univariate analysis, PIK3CA mutation was associated with LF (HR 10.44 [95% CI 2.16-50.46], p=0.003), while tumor histology, tumor size, primary tumor site, BED and EGFR mutation were not. At one year, probability of LF in lesions with PIK3CA mutation was 20.0% vs. 2.9% in lesions without mutation (p<0.001 by log rank test).

Conclusion: Although the number of patients affected was small, PIK3CA mutation was significantly associated with higher risk of LF in patients undergoing lung SBRT. This association has not previously been reported for lung SBRT and indicates the need for further validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctro.2017.11.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5830173PMC
December 2017

Myositis following spine radiosurgery for metastatic disease: a case series.

J Neurosurg Spine 2018 04 26;28(4):416-421. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

Departments of2Radiation Oncology.

OBJECTIVE Spinal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an attractive method to deliver high doses of radiation to oligometastatic spinal tumors with radioresistant histology. Because SBRT is a palliative therapy, attention to potential radiation toxicities is paramount when counseling patients. The objective of this study was to report radiation-induced myositis after SBRT, a previously undescribed complication. METHODS A total of 667 patients received 891 spine SBRT treatments (either 24 Gy in 1 fraction or 27 Gy in 3 fractions) from 2011 to 2016 and underwent retrospective review. Eleven patients were identified as having radiographic evidence of myositis following SBRT. Clinical and pathologic results were collected, including receipt of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy, radiation dose, equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2), biologically effective dose (BED), and volume of muscle treated. Treatment toxicities were classified according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE; version 4.03). Univariate statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationships between radiation fractionation schedule and myositis and between anti-VEGF therapy and myositis. RESULTS The cumulative incidence of myositis was 1.9% at 1 year. The median of the mean dose administered to muscle with myositis was 17.5 Gy. The median EQD2 was 55.1 Gy, and the median BED was 82.7 Gy. The median time to the development of clinical symptoms was 1.4 months, while the median time to imaging evidence was 4.7 months. Two patients (18.2%) had CTCAE grade 3 complications. Single-fraction spine SBRT (HR 4.5, 95% CI 1.2-16.9; p = 0.027) was associated with increased risk of developing myositis whereas receipt of anti-VEGF therapy was not (HR 2.2, 95% CI 0.6-7.1; p = 0.2). CONCLUSIONS Radiation myositis following spinal radiosurgery is a rare but important complication. Single-fraction treatment schedules may be associated with increased risk of myositis but should be validated in a larger series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2017.8.SPINE17162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5993541PMC
April 2018

Estimating Survival in Melanoma Patients With Brain Metastases: An Update of the Graded Prognostic Assessment for Melanoma Using Molecular Markers (Melanoma-molGPA).

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2017 11;99(4):812-816

Miami Cancer Institute, Miami, Florida.

Purpose: To update the Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA) for a markedly heterogeneous patient population, patients with melanoma and brain metastases, using a larger, more current cohort, including molecular markers.

Methods: The original Melanoma-GPA is based on data from 483 patients whose conditions were diagnosed between 1985 and 2005. This is a multi-institutional retrospective database analysis of 823 melanoma patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2015. Multivariable analyses identified significant prognostic factors, which were weighted and included in the updated index (Melanoma-molGPA). Multiple Cox regression was used to select and weight prognostic factors in proportion to their hazard ratios to design the updated Melanoma-molGPA in which scores of 4.0 and 0.0 are associated with the best and worst prognoses, as with all of the diagnosis-specific GPA indices. Log-rank tests were used to compare adjacent classes.

Results: There were 5 significant prognostic factors for survival (age, Karnofsky performance status [KPS], extracranial metastases [ECM], number of brain metastases, and BRAF status), whereas only KPS and the number of brain metastases were significant in the original Melanoma-GPA. Median survival improved from 6.7 to 9.8 months between the 2 treatment eras, and the median survival times for patients with Melanoma-molGPA of 0 to 1.0, 1.5 to 2.0, 2.5 to 3.0, and 3.5 to 4.0 were 4.9, 8.3, 15.8, and 34.1 months (P<.0001 between each adjacent group).

Conclusions: Survival and our ability to estimate survival in melanoma patients with brain metastases has improved significantly. The updated Melanoma-molGPA, a user-friendly tool to estimate survival, will facilitate clinical decision making regarding whether and which treatment is appropriate and will also be useful for stratification of future clinical trials. To further simplify use, a free online/smart phone app is available at brainmetgpa.com.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.06.2454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925529PMC
November 2017

The Prognostic Value of BRAF, C-KIT, and NRAS Mutations in Melanoma Patients With Brain Metastases.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2017 08 29;98(5):1069-1077. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Miami Cancer Institute, Miami, Florida.

Purpose: Brain metastases are a common problem in patients with melanoma, but little is known about the effect of gene mutations on survival in these patients.

Methods And Materials: We created a retrospective multi-institutional database of 823 patients with melanoma and brain metastases diagnosed between 2006 and 2015. Clinical parameters, gene mutation status (BRAF, C-KIT, NRAS), and treatment were correlated with survival. Treatment patterns and outcomes were compared with a prior era (1985-2005).

Results: BRAF status was known in 584 of 823 patients (71%). BRAF, NRAS, and C-KIT mutations were present in 51%, 22%, and 11% of tested patients, respectively. The median time from primary diagnosis to brain metastasis was 32 months, and overall median survival (MS) from the time of initial treatment of brain metastases was 10 months. MS for BRAF-positive and BRAF-negative patients was 13 months and 9 months, respectively (P=.02). There was no significant difference in MS in patients with or without NRAS or C-KIT mutations. The time from primary diagnosis to brain metastasis did not vary by mutation and was not associated with survival after the diagnosis of brain metastases. MS for the 1985 to 2005 and 2006 to 2015 cohorts was 6.7 months and 10.0 months, respectively (P<.01). Reflecting treatment-trend changes, use of whole-brain radiation therapy decreased from 48% to 26% during this period. Among BRAF-positive patients, 71% received targeted BRAF and/or MEK inhibitors and 57% received some combination of targeted therapy, chemotherapy, and/or immunotherapy.

Conclusions: For melanoma patients with brain metastases, BRAF-positive patients survive longer than BRAF-negative patients and overall survival has improved from 1985-2005 to 2006-2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.03.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925531PMC
August 2017

Potential abscopal response to dual checkpoint blockade in RCC after reirradiation using dose-painting SBRT.

Pract Radiat Oncol 2017 Nov - Dec;7(6):396-399. Epub 2017 Apr 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prro.2017.04.009DOI Listing
August 2018

Clinical outcomes of patients with limited brain metastases treated with hypofractionated (5×6Gy) conformal radiotherapy.

Radiother Oncol 2017 05 5;123(2):203-208. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy (hfCRT) is used for larger brain metastases or metastases near critical structures. We investigated hfCRT outcomes for newly diagnosed brain metastases.

Materials And Methods: We identified 195 patients with 1-3 brain metastases who underwent 5×6Gy hfCRT for 231 lesions from 2007 to 2013. Associations among clinical factors, local control (LC), distant brain control (DC) and overall survival (OS) were tested using univariate and multivariate (MVA) Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Median follow-up was 12.8months. One hundred forty-three (62%) lesions were treated with hfCRT post-operatively, and 88 (38%) with definitive hfCRT. LC for all lesions was 83% at 1year. For lesions treated with post-operative hfCRT, tumor size (HR=4.7, p=0.04) and subtotal resection (HR=2.7, p=0.02) were predictive of local failure on MVA. For lesions ≥2.8cm in size, LC was 61% at 12months for lesions status-post subtotal resection, compared to 84% status-post gross total resection (p=0.004). Extracranial disease presence was associated with worse DC (HR=1.8, p=0.008) and OS (HR=3.1, p<0.001).

Conclusions: We showed 5×6Gy hfCRT provides acceptable LC at 1year for limited brain metastases. For large lesions not grossly resected, more aggressive strategies can be considered to improve LC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2017.03.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5477478PMC
May 2017

Alectinib for the management of ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer brain metastases.

J Thorac Dis 2017 Feb;9(2):E152-E154

Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, NY 10065, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2017.02.05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5334091PMC
February 2017

Management of Brain Metastases in Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor-Naïve Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Mutant Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Retrospective Multi-Institutional Analysis.

J Clin Oncol 2017 Apr 23;35(10):1070-1077. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

William J. Magnuson, Nataniel H. Lester-Coll, Scott N. Gettinger, Joseph N. Contessa, James B. Yu, and Veronica L. Chiang, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; Abraham J. Wu, T. Jonathan Yang, Natalie A. Lockney, Naamit K. Gerber, and Kathryn Beal, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Arya Amini, Tejas Patil, Brian D. Kavanagh, and D. Ross Camidge, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO; Steven E. Braunstein and Lauren C. Boreta, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Suresh K. Balasubramanian and Manmeet S. Ahluwalia, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH; and Niteshkumar G. Rana and Albert Attia, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN.

Purpose Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are treatment options for brain metastases in patients with EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This multi-institutional analysis sought to determine the optimal management of patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC who develop brain metastases and have not received EGFR-TKI. Materials and Methods A total of 351 patients from six institutions with EGFR-mutant NSCLC developed brain metastases and met inclusion criteria for the study. Exclusion criteria included prior EGFR-TKI use, EGFR-TKI resistance mutation, failure to receive EGFR-TKI after WBRT/SRS, or insufficient follow-up. Patients were treated with SRS followed by EGFR-TKI, WBRT followed by EGFR-TKI, or EGFR-TKI followed by SRS or WBRT at intracranial progression. Overall survival (OS) and intracranial progression-free survival were measured from the date of brain metastases. Results The median OS for the SRS (n = 100), WBRT (n = 120), and EGFR-TKI (n = 131) cohorts was 46, 30, and 25 months, respectively ( P < .001). On multivariable analysis, SRS versus EGFR-TKI, WBRT versus EGFR-TKI, age, performance status, EGFR exon 19 mutation, and absence of extracranial metastases were associated with improved OS. Although the SRS and EGFR-TKI cohorts shared similar prognostic features, the WBRT cohort was more likely to have a less favorable prognosis ( P = .001). Conclusion This multi-institutional analysis demonstrated that the use of upfront EGFR-TKI, and deferral of radiotherapy, is associated with inferior OS in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC who develop brain metastases. SRS followed by EGFR-TKI resulted in the longest OS and allowed patients to avoid the potential neurocognitive sequelae of WBRT. A prospective, multi-institutional randomized trial of SRS followed by EGFR-TKI versus EGFR-TKI followed by SRS at intracranial progression is urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.69.7144DOI Listing
April 2017

Spinal stereotactic body radiotherapy following intralesional curettage with separation surgery for initial or salvage chordoma treatment.

Neurosurg Focus 2017 Jan;42(1):E4

Departments of2Neurological Surgery.

OBJECTIVE Chordoma is a rare malignant tumor for which en bloc resection with wide margins is advocated as primary treatment. Unfortunately, due to anatomical constraints, en bloc resection to achieve wide or marginal margins is not feasible for many patients as the resulting morbidity would be prohibitive. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intralesional curettage and separation surgery followed by spinal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with chordomas in the mobile spine. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective chart review of all patients with chordoma in the mobile spine treated from 2004 to 2016. Patients were identified from a prospectively collected database. Initially 22 patients were identified with mobile spine chordomas. With inclusion criteria of cytoreductive separation surgery followed closely by SBRT and a minimum of 6 months of follow-up imaging, 12 patients were included. Clinical and pathological characteristics of each patient were collected and data were analyzed. Patients were divided into two cohorts-those undergoing intralesional resection followed by SBRT as initial chordoma treatment at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) (Cohort 1) and those undergoing salvage treatment following recurrence (Cohort 2). Treatment toxicities were classified according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03. Overall survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS The 12 patients had a median post-SBRT follow-up time of 26 months. Cohort 1 had 5 patients with median post-SBRT follow-up time of 65.9 months and local control rate of 80% at last follow-up. Only one patient had disease progression, at 48.2 months following surgery and SBRT. Cohort 2 had 7 patients who had been treated at other institutions prior to undergoing both surgery and SBRT (salvage therapy) at MSKCC. The local control rate was 57.1% and the median follow-up duration was 10.7 months. One patient required repeat irradiation. Major surgery- and radiation-related complications occurred in 18% and 27% of patients, respectively. Epidural spinal cord compression scores were collected for each patient pre- and postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS The combination of surgery and SBRT provides excellent local control following intralesional curettage and separation surgery for chordomas in the mobile spine. Patients who underwent intralesional curettage and spinal SBRT as initial treatment had better disease control than those undergoing salvage therapy. High-dose radiotherapy may offer several biological benefits for tumor control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2016.9.FOCUS16373DOI Listing
January 2017

Late Toxicities of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Rhabdomyosarcoma.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2016 09 16;63(9):1608-14. Epub 2016 May 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose/objectives: To examine the late effects of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in pediatric patients with rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck.

Materials/methods: All 1-year survivors of pediatric head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma treated with IMRT at a single institution from 1999 to 2014 were assessed for long-term complications. Late toxicities were graded according to CTCAE version 4.03.

Results: Among 30 patients, median age at IMRT was 7.4 (1.5-20.8) years, median follow-up was 7.7 (1.2-14.4) years, and median IMRT dose was 50.4 (36-50.4) Gy. Tumor subsites included parameningeal (80%), orbit (13%), and other (7%). Common late toxicities were facial disfigurement (n = 23, 77%), growth hormone deficiency (n = 11, 37%), cataract (n = 10, 34%), and dental problems (n = 10, 33%). Twenty-two patients (73%) had ≥2 late toxicities and 14 patients (47%) had ≥3 late toxicities. Seventeen patients (57%) experienced grade 2 toxicity and 10 patients (33%) had grade 3 toxicity. Grade 3 toxicities included visual disturbance, cataract, facial disfigurement, chronic sinusitis/otitis, and hearing loss. Severe facial deformity was noted in nine patients (30%), and three patients underwent cosmetic surgery. Patients with severe facial deformity were treated at younger ages (median 6.0 years vs. 8.1 years for patients with no/nonsevere facial deformity) and more likely to have infratemporal fossa tumors. There were no secondary solid malignancies.

Conclusions: Late radiation toxicities are common in survivors of pediatric head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma treated with IMRT. While the majority of late effects are mild-moderate, they can significantly impact quality of life, particularly facial disfigurement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.26061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4955714PMC
September 2016

Pyruvate Kinase Muscle Isoenzyme 2 (PKM2) Expression Is Associated with Overall Survival in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

J Gastrointest Cancer 2015 Dec;46(4):390-8

Department of Radiation Oncology, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, 300 W 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Purpose: Pyruvate kinase muscle isoenzyme 2 (PKM2) is a key enzyme in aerobic glycolysis and is thought to contribute to cancer cell metabolic reprogramming. The aim of this study was to evaluate PKM2 immunohistochemical expression as a potential prognostic biomarker in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).

Methods: A tissue microarray was constructed using surgical specimens for 115 patients who underwent resections for PDAC, stained with PKM2 antibody, and scored for expression level. Statistical analyses were performed to investigate the association between PKM2 and patient survival, tumor stage, tumor grade, surgical margin status, lymph node ratio, perineural invasion status, or the use of adjuvant chemotherapy.

Results: Fifty-three percent of tumors had positive PKM2 expression, and 47 % of tumors had negative PKM2 expression. PKM2 expression was associated with overall survival (HR 0.56, p = 0.007) and CA 19-9 levels (p = 0.035), but was not associated with tumor stage, tumor grade, surgical margin status, lymph node ratio, perineural invasion, or adjuvant chemotherapy use.

Conclusions: PKM2 expression is associated with overall survival in PDAC. Further studies are warranted to validate the value of PKM2 as a prognostic biomarker and to examine the potential utility of PKM2 in predicting treatment response, as well as a potential therapeutic target in PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12029-015-9764-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7081381PMC
December 2015