Publications by authors named "Nasser Laouali"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Consumption of ultra-processed foods associated with weight gain and obesity in adults: A multi-national cohort study.

Clin Nutr 2021 Sep 21;40(9):5079-5088. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública (EASP), Granada, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Granada, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Background: There is a worldwide shift towards increased consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) with concurrent rising prevalence of obesity. We examined the relationship between the consumption of UPF and weight gain and risk of obesity.

Methods: This prospective cohort included 348 748 men and women aged 25-70 years. Participants were recruited between 1992 and 2000 from 9 European countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Two body weight measures were available, at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5 years. Foods and drinks were assessed at baseline by dietary questionnaires and classified according to their degree of processing using NOVA classification. Multilevel mixed linear regression was used to estimate the association between UPF consumption and body weight change (kg/5 years). To estimate the relative risk of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years we used Poisson regression stratified according to baseline body mass index (BMI).

Results: After multivariable adjustment, higher UPF consumption (per 1 SD increment) was positively associated with weight gain (0·12 kg/5 years, 95% CI 0·09 to 0·15). Comparing highest vs. lowest quintile of UPF consumption was associated with a 15% greater risk (95% CI 1·11, 1·19) of becoming overweight or obese in normal weight participants, and with a 16% greater risk (95% CI 1·09, 1·23) of becoming obese in participants who were overweight at baseline.

Conclusions: These results are supportive of public health campaigns to substitute UPF for less processed alternatives for obesity prevention and weight management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.08.009DOI Listing
September 2021

Dietary Copper/Zinc Ratio and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Women: The E3N Cohort Study.

Nutrients 2021 Jul 22;13(8). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), Institut Gustave Roussy, U1018 Inserm, CEDEX, 94800 Villejuif, France.

The serum copper (Cu) to zinc (Zn) ratio could be an important determinant of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, but prospective epidemiological data are scarce. We aimed to investigate the association between T2D incidence and the dietary Cu/Zn ratio. A total of 70,991 women from the E3N cohort study were followed for 20 years. The intakes of copper and zinc were estimated at baseline using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We identified and validated 3292 incident T2D cases. Spline analysis showed that a Cu/Zn ratio < 0.55 was associated with a lower risk of T2D. Subgroup analyses comparing women in the highest versus the lowest quintile of Cu/Zn ratio showed the same pattern of association for obese women and those with zinc intake ≥8 mg/day. However, for women with zinc intake <8 mg/day, higher Cu/Zn ratio appeared to be associated with higher T2D risk. Our findings suggest that a lower dietary Cu/Zn ratio is associated with a lower T2D risk, especially among obese women and women with zinc intake >8 mg/day. Further studies are warranted to validate our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13082502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400926PMC
July 2021

Polyphenol Intake and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Aug 4;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France.

Despite some epidemiological evidence on the protective effects of polyphenol intake on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk from case-control studies, the evidence is scarce from prospective studies and non-existent for several polyphenol classes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the associations between the intake of total, classes and subclasses of polyphenols and EOC risk in a large prospective study. The study was conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which included 309,129 adult women recruited mostly from the general population. Polyphenol intake was assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 1469 first incident EOC cases (including 806 serous, 129 endometrioid, 102 mucinous, and 67 clear cell tumours) were identified. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, the hazard ratio in the highest quartile of total polyphenol intake compared with the lowest quartile (HR) was 1.14 (95% CI 0.94-1.39; -trend = 0.11). Similarly, the intake of most classes and subclasses of polyphenols were not related to either overall EOC risk or any EOC subtype. A borderline statistically significant positive association was observed between phenolic acid intake (HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.43; -trend = 0.02) and EOC risk, especially for the serous subtype and in women with obesity, although these associations did not exceed the Bonferroni correction threshold. The current results do not support any association between polyphenol intake and EOC in our large European prospective study. Results regarding phenolic acid intake need further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8389235PMC
August 2021

A case-control study in France showing that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 23;11(1):17019. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), Team Exposome and Heredity, U1018 Inserm, University Paris-Saclay, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94800, Villejuif Cedex, France.

Dietary regimens promoting inflammatory conditions have been implicated in breast cancer development, but studies on the association between pro-inflammatory diet and breast cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We investigated the association between the inflammatory potential of diet and breast cancer risk in a case-control study in France including 872 breast cancer cases and 966 population controls. All women completed a food frequency questionnaire that was used to compute a Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) based on the inflammatory weight of 33 dietary components. The DII ranged from a median of - 3.22 in the lowest quartile (anti-inflammatory) to + 2.96 in the highest quartile (pro-inflammatory). The odds ratio contrasting quartile 4 to quartile 1 was 1.31 (95% CI 1.00, 1.73; p-trend = 0.02). Slightly higher odds ratios were observed in post-menopausal women, particularly those with body mass index > 25 kg/m (odds ratio 1.62; 95% CI 0.92, 2.83; p-trend = 0.02), and among ever smokers (odds ratio 1.71; 95% CI 1.11, 2.65; p-trend 0.01). The analyses by breast cancer subtype showed that the DII was associated with breast tumors that expressed either the estrogen (ER) or progesterone (PR) hormone receptors or the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 (HER2), but no association was seen for the triple negative breast tumor subtype. Our results add further evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with breast cancer risk with possible effect variation according to tumor subtype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95955-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382695PMC
August 2021

BMI in the Associations of Plant-Based Diets with Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension Risks in Women: The E3N Prospective Cohort Study.

J Nutr 2021 Sep;151(9):2731-2740

Paris-Saclay University, UVSQ, University Paris-Sud, Inserm, Gustave Roussy, "Exposome and Heredity" Team, CESP, Villejuif, France.

Background: Few studies have evaluated the quality of plant-based diets in relation to chronic diseases, and the potential role of BMI is not clearly explored.

Objectives: To study the associations between plant-based diet indices and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hypertension risks, as well as the extent to which the associations were modified and/or mediated by BMI.

Methods: The study included 74,522 women from the Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale prospective cohort [mean (SD): age, 52.94 (6.7) years; BMI, 22.970 (3.328) kg/m2]. Dietary data were collected at baseline (1993) via an FFQ. Overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthful PDI (hPDI), and unhealthful PDI (uPDI) were developed. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to derive HRs and 95% CIs. Effect modification and mediation by BMI were explored.

Results: There were 3292 (4.64%) incident cases of T2D and 12,504 (27.14%) incident cases of hypertension over ∼20 years of follow-up. In the multivariable model further adjusted for BMI, higher adherence to PDI and hPDI was associated with lower T2D and hypertension risks, with an HR per 1-SD increase (95% CI) of 0.88 (0.85, 0.91) and 0.96 (0.94, 0.98) for PDI and 0.88 (0.85, 0.92) and 0.94 (0.92, 0.95) for hPDI, respectively. uPDI was not associated with T2D [0.98 (0.94, 1.01)], whereas a positive association was observed with hypertension: 1.04 (1.02, 1.06). There was interaction between PDI and uPDI, as well as BMI, on T2D (P-interaction < 0.001) but not on hypertension (P-interaction > 0.05). In addition, BMI mediated 26-59% and 0.2-59% of diet-T2D and diet-hypertension associations, respectively.

Conclusions: Differential associations between plant-based diets and T2D and hypertension risks were observed among women in this large prospective study. Only healthier plant foods were associated with lower risks, partly through decreasing BMI. The protocol was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03285230.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab158DOI Listing
September 2021

Factors associated with serum ferritin levels and iron excess: results from the EPIC-EurGast study.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology - ICO, Nutrition and Cancer Group, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute -(IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: Excess iron is involved in the development of non-communicable diseases such as cancer, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular conditions. We aimed to describe the prevalence of excess iron and its determinants in healthy European adults.

Methods: Sociodemographic, lifestyle, iron status, dietary information, and HFE genotyping were obtained from controls from the nested case-control study EPIC-EurGast study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured to address possible systemic inflammation. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to assess iron status and its determinants.

Results: Out of the 828 participants (median age: 58.7 years), 43% were females. Median serum ferritin and prevalence of excess iron were 143.7 µg/L and 35.2% in males, respectively, and 77 µg/L and 20% in females, both increasing with latitude across Europe. Prevalence of HFE C282Y mutation was significantly higher in Northern and Central Europe (~ 11%) than in the South (5%). Overweight/obesity, age, and daily alcohol and heme iron intake were independent determinants for iron status, with sex differences even after excluding participants with hsCRP > 5 mg/L. Obese males showed a greater consumption of alcohol, total and red meat, and heme iron, compared with those normal weight.

Conclusion: Obesity, higher alcohol and heme iron consumption were the main risk factors for excess iron in males while only age was associated with iron overload in females. Weight control and promoting healthy lifestyle may help prevent iron overload, especially in obese people. Further research is needed to clarify determinants of excess iron in the healthy adult population, helping to reduce the associated comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02625-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Type 2 diabetes and its characteristics are associated with poor oral health: findings from 60,590 senior women from the E3N study.

BMC Oral Health 2021 06 23;21(1):315. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), Inserm (Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale) U1018, Generations and Health, Gustave Roussy Institute, 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805, Villejuif Cedex, France.

Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been identified as a risk factor for poor oral health, however, a limited number of oral health and T2D characteristics have been studied so far. We sought to assess T2D status, age at diagnosis, duration since diagnosis and treatment in relation to a variety of oral diseases.

Methods: Cross-sectional data were analyzed from the E3N (Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de l'Education Nationale) cohort study which enrolled 60,590 women. Participants self-reported oral health status, and T2D cases were identified using diabetes-specific questionnaires and drug reimbursement insurance databases. Multivariable-adjusted ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using logistic regression models.

Results: The mean age (SD) of the women was 70 years (7.2), and 4.7% (n = 2857) had T2D. Compared to women without T2D, women with T2D were more likely to report a poor perceived oral health (OR 1.37 [95% CI 1.18, 1.60]), wearing dental prostheses (1.26 [1.14, 1.39]) and having problems of biting and chewing food (1.19 [1.07, 1.33]). In addition, for women with T2D the age at diagnosis (inversely) and the duration (positively) were associated with the likelihood to report poor oral health.

Conclusions: For women with T2D, duration and age at diagnosis are associated with wearing prostheses, problems of biting and chewing, periodontitis and gingivitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-021-01679-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8220760PMC
June 2021

Inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of breast cancer in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Eur J Epidemiol 2021 Jun 20. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Director Office, International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon, France.

The role of chronic inflammation on breast cancer (BC) risk remains unclear beyond as an underlying mechanism of obesity and physical activity. We aimed to evaluate the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of BC overall, according to menopausal status and tumour subtypes. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 318,686 women were followed for 14 years, among whom 13,246 incident BC cases were identified. The inflammatory potential of the diet was characterized by an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD). Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess the potential effect of the ISD on BC risk by means of hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). ISD was positively associated with BC risk. Each increase of one standard deviation (1-Sd) of the score increased by 4% the risk of BC (HR = 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.07). Women in the highest quintile of the ISD (indicating a most pro-inflammatory diet) had a 12% increase in risk compared with those in the lowest quintile (HR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.04-1.21) with a significant trend. The association was strongest among premenopausal women, with an 8% increased risk for 1-Sd increase in the score (HR = 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.14). The pattern of the association was quite homogeneous by BC subtypes based on hormone receptor status. There were no significant interactions between ISD and body mass index, physical activity, or alcohol consumption. Women consuming more pro-inflammatory diets as measured by ISD are at increased risk for BC, especially premenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-021-00772-2DOI Listing
June 2021

The associations of the Palaeolithic diet alone and in combination with lifestyle factors with type 2 diabetes and hypertension risks in women in the E3N prospective cohort.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Oct 28;60(7):3935-3945. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Paris-Saclay University, UVSQ, Univ. Paris-Sud, Inserm U1018, "Exposome, Heredity, Cancer, and Health" Team, CESP, Gustave Roussy, 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805, Villejuif Cedex, France.

Purpose: Patterns of change from the traditional Palaeolithic lifestyle to the modern lifestyle may partly explain the epidemic proportions of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We investigated to what extent adherence to the Palaeolithic diet (PD) and the Palaeolithic-like lifestyle was associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hypertension risks.

Methods: A study of 70,991 women from the E3N (Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale) cohort, followed up for nearly 20 years. There were 3292 incident T2D and 12,504 incident hypertension cases that were validated. Dietary data were collected at baseline in 1993 via a food frequency questionnaire. The PD score and the Palaeolithic-like lifestyle score (PD, physical activity, smoking status, and body mass index [BMI]) were derived and considered in quintiles. Multivariable Cox regression models were employed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident T2D and hypertension.

Results: In the fully adjusted models, a 1-SD increase of the PD score was associated with 4% and 3% lower risks of T2D and hypertension, respectively. Those in the highest versus the lowest quintile of the score had HR (95% CI) of 0.88 (0.79, 0.98) and 0.91 (0.86, 0.96) for T2D and hypertension, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). Associations were stronger for the Palaeolithic-like lifestyle score; in the fully adjusted model, a 1-SD increase of the score was associated with 19% and 6% lower risks of T2D and hypertension, respectively. Risks lowered successively with each increase in quintile; those in the highest versus the lowest quintile had HR (95% CI) of 0.58 (0.52, 0.65) and 0.85 (0.80, 0.90) for T2D and hypertension, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Our data suggest that adhering to a PD based on fruit, vegetables, lean meats, fish, and nuts, and incorporating a Palaeolithic-like lifestyle could be promising options to prevent T2D and hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02565-5DOI Listing
October 2021

Plasma Vitamin C and Type 2 Diabetes: Genome-Wide Association Study and Mendelian Randomization Analysis in European Populations.

Diabetes Care 2021 01 17;44(1):98-106. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program and Translational Research Laboratory; Catalan Institute of Oncology - ICO, Group of Research on Nutrition and Cancer, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet of Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes.

Research Design And Methods: We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants.

Results: We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C ( < 5 × 10), with the strongest signal at , and 10 novel genetic loci including , , , , , , , , , and . Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10).

Conclusions: These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783939PMC
January 2021

Associations Between Physical Activity and Incident Hypertension Across Strata of Body Mass Index: A Prospective Investigation in a Large Cohort of French Women.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 12 14;9(23):e015121. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1018 Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health Institut Gustave Roussy Villejuif France.

Background High body mass index (BMI) and low physical activity are associated with increased risk of hypertension. Few studies have assessed their joint impact or the relation of physical activity and hypertension among individuals within a healthy BMI range. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between physical activity and hypertension across strata of BMI. Methods and Results We used data from the E3N (Etude Epidémiologique de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l´Education) cohort, a French prospective study of women aged 40 to 65 years. We included participants who completed a diet history questionnaire and who did not have prevalent hypertension at baseline, resulting in a total of 41 607 women. Questionnaires assessed time spent undertaking various types of physical activity. Hypertension cases were self-reported. Cox models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for physical activity. Associations were assessed over strata of BMI. Among the 41 607 included women, 10 182 cases of hypertension were identified in an average follow-up time of 14.5 years. Total physical activity was associated with a lower hypertension risk in women within the high-normal BMI range (BMI, 22.5-24.9) (HR , 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79-0.99). An inverse relationship was observed between sports (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.83-0.93), walking (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-1.00), and gardening (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.99). Sports were associated with a reduced risk of hypertension in women with a healthy weight, but evidence was weaker in overweight/obese or underweight women. Conclusions Women with a healthy weight were those who could benefit most from practicing sports, and sports provided the largest risk reduction compared with other types of activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.015121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763781PMC
December 2020

The association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites and type 2 diabetes in European populations: A meta-analysis and Mendelian randomisation analysis.

PLoS Med 2020 10 16;17(10):e1003394. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: Prior research suggested a differential association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) metabolites with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with total 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D3 inversely associated with T2D, but the epimeric form (C3-epi-25(OH)D3) positively associated with T2D. Whether or not these observational associations are causal remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the potential causality of these associations using Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis.

Methods And Findings: We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for total 25(OH)D (N = 120,618), 25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562), and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562) in participants of European descent (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition [EPIC]-InterAct study, EPIC-Norfolk study, EPIC-CVD study, Ely study, and the SUNLIGHT consortium). We identified genetic variants for MR analysis to investigate the causal association of the 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D (including 80,983 T2D cases and 842,909 non-cases). We also estimated the observational association of 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D by performing random effects meta-analysis of results from previous studies and results from the EPIC-InterAct study. We identified 10 genetic loci associated with total 25(OH)D, 7 loci associated with 25(OH)D3 and 3 loci associated with C3-epi-25(OH)D3. Based on the meta-analysis of observational studies, each 1-standard deviation (SD) higher level of 25(OH)D was associated with a 20% lower risk of T2D (relative risk [RR]: 0.80; 95% CI 0.77, 0.84; p < 0.001), but a genetically predicted 1-SD increase in 25(OH)D was not significantly associated with T2D (odds ratio [OR]: 0.96; 95% CI 0.89, 1.03; p = 0.23); this result was consistent across sensitivity analyses. In EPIC-InterAct, 25(OH)D3 (per 1-SD) was associated with a lower risk of T2D (RR: 0.81; 95% CI 0.77, 0.86; p < 0.001), while C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (above versus below lower limit of quantification) was positively associated with T2D (RR: 1.12; 95% CI 1.03, 1.22; p = 0.006), but neither 25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.97; 95% CI 0.93, 1.01; p = 0.14) nor C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.93, 1.04; p = 0.53) was causally associated with T2D risk in the MR analysis. Main limitations include the lack of a non-linear MR analysis and of the generalisability of the current findings from European populations to other populations of different ethnicities.

Conclusions: Our study found discordant associations of biochemically measured and genetically predicted differences in blood 25(OH)D with T2D risk. The findings based on MR analysis in a large sample of European ancestry do not support a causal association of total 25(OH)D or 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D and argue against the use of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567390PMC
October 2020

Replacement of Red and Processed Meat With Other Food Sources of Protein and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in European Populations: The EPIC-InterAct Study.

Diabetes Care 2020 11 31;43(11):2660-2667. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Objective: There is sparse evidence for the association of suitable food substitutions for red and processed meat on the risk of type 2 diabetes. We modeled the association between replacing red and processed meat with other protein sources and the risk of type 2 diabetes and estimated its population impact.

Research Design And Methods: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct case cohort included 11,741 individuals with type 2 diabetes and a subcohort of 15,450 participants in eight countries. We modeled the replacement of self-reported red and processed meat with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, cheese, cereals, yogurt, milk, and nuts. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for incident type 2 diabetes were estimated by Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.

Results: There was a lower hazard for type 2 diabetes for the modeled replacement of red and processed meat (50 g/day) with cheese (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97) (30 g/day), yogurt (0.90, 0.86-0.95) (70 g/day), nuts (0.90, 0.84-0.96) (10 g/day), or cereals (0.92, 0.88-0.96) (30 g/day) but not for replacements with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, or milk. If a causal association is assumed, replacing red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, or nuts could prevent 8.8%, 8.3%, or 7.5%, respectively, of new cases of type 2 diabetes.

Conclusions: Replacement of red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, nuts, or cereals was associated with a lower rate of type 2 diabetes. Substituting red and processed meat by other protein sources may contribute to the prevention of incident type 2 diabetes in European populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576430PMC
November 2020

Association of plasma biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake with incident type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study in eight European countries.

BMJ 2020 07 8;370:m2194. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Objective: To investigate the association of plasma vitamin C and carotenoids, as indicators of fruit and vegetable intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Design: Prospective case-cohort study.

Setting: Populations from eight European countries.

Participants: 9754 participants with incident type 2 diabetes, and a subcohort of 13 662 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort of 340 234 participants: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

Main Outcome Measure: Incident type 2 diabetes.

Results: In a multivariable adjusted model, higher plasma vitamin C was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.89). A similar inverse association was shown for total carotenoids (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.75, 0.68 to 0.82). A composite biomarker score (split into five equal groups), comprising vitamin C and individual carotenoids, was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes with hazard ratios 0.77, 0.66, 0.59, and 0.50 for groups 2-5 compared with group 1 (the lowest group). Self-reported median fruit and vegetable intake was 274 g/day, 396 g/day, and 508 g/day for participants in categories defined by groups 1, 3, and 5 of the composite biomarker score, respectively. One standard deviation difference in the composite biomarker score, equivalent to a 66 (95% confidence interval 61 to 71) g/day difference in total fruit and vegetable intake, was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83). This would be equivalent to an absolute risk reduction of 0.95 per 1000 person years of follow up if achieved across an entire population with the characteristics of the eight European countries included in this analysis.

Conclusions: These findings indicate an inverse association between plasma vitamin C, carotenoids, and their composite biomarker score, and incident type 2 diabetes in different European countries. These biomarkers are objective indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption, and suggest that diets rich in even modestly higher fruit and vegetable consumption could help to prevent development of type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341350PMC
July 2020

Profiles of Polyphenol Intake and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in 60,586 Women Followed for 20 Years: Results from the E3N Cohort Study.

Nutrients 2020 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), Institut Gustave Roussy, U1018 Inserm, 94800 Villejuif Cedex, France.

Most studies on dietary polyphenol intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk have focused on total or specific subclasses of polyphenols. Since polyphenols are often consumed simultaneously, the joint effect of an intake of multiple subclasses should be explored. We aimed to identify profiles of the dietary polyphenol subclasses intake associated with T2D. A total of 60,586 women from the Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de l'Education Nationale (E3N) cohort study were followed for 20 years between 1993 and 2014. T2D cases were identified and validated. The individual energy-adjusted daily intakes of 15 subclasses of polyphenols were estimated at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire and the PhenolExplorer database. We used Bayesian profile regression to perform the clustering of the covariates by identifying exposure profiles of polyphenol intakes and, simultaneously, link these to T2D risk by using multivariable Cox regression models. We validated 2740 incident T2D cases during follow-up, and identified 15 distinct clusters with different intake profiles and T2D risk. When compared to the largest cluster ( = 6298 women), higher risks of T2D were observed in three of those clusters, which were composed of women with low or medium intakes of anthocyanins, dihydroflavonols, catechins, flavonols, hydroxybenzoic acids, lignans, and stilbenes. One cluster ( = 4243), characterized by higher intakes of these polyphenol subclasses, exhibited lower T2D risk when compared to the reference cluster. These results highlight the importance of a varied diet of polyphenol-rich foods such as nuts, fruits, and vegetables to prevent T2D risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12071934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400616PMC
June 2020

Dietary inflammatory index, risk of incident hypertension, and effect modification from BMI.

Nutr J 2020 06 25;19(1):62. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

INSERM (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale) U1018, Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Introduction: Previous studies have identified a positive association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and hypertension. It is not known if BMI is an effect modifier for this association, nor if the association is dose-respondent. This study aimed to assess the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the risk of hypertension, and assess any effect modification from BMI.

Methods: Data from the E3N cohort study, a French prospective population-based study initiated in 1990 was used. From the women in the study, we included those who completed a detailed diet history questionnaire, and who did not have prevalent hypertension or cardiovascular disease at baseline, resulting in 46,652 women. The adapted DII was assessed with data from the dietary questionnaire. Hypertension cases were self-reported and verified through a drug-reimbursement database. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios. Spline regression was used to determine any dose-respondent relationship.

Results: During 884,267 person-years, 13,183 cases of incident hypertension were identified. The median DII in the population was slightly pro-inflammatory (DII = + 0.44). A highly pro-inflammatory diet (DII >  3.0) was associated with a slight increase in hypertension risk (HR = 1.07 [1.02, 1.13]). Evidence was observed for effect modification from BMI, with associations strongest amongst women in the 18.5-21.0 BMI range (HR = 1.17 [1.06, 1.29]). A weak dose-respondent relationship was observed.

Conclusion: Evidence for a weak association between DII and hypertension was observed. Associations were stronger amongst healthy-lean women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-020-00577-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315510PMC
June 2020

Testosterone levels and cause-specific mortality in the older French men without metabolic syndrome.

Epidemiol Health 2020 1;42:e2020036. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Paris-Saclay University, Paris-South University, UVSQ, Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif, France.

Objectives: Previous studies have reported controversial findings regarding the association of testosterone with mortality in older men. This heterogeneity might be partially explained by comorbidities and the presence of metabolic syndrome, as well as differential associations according to causes of death.

Methods: We used data from a random subsample of the Three-City study, in which hormone levels were measured in 338 men ≥65 years without metabolic syndrome who were followed-up for 12 years. Vital status was determined for all participants from different sources. We used inverse-probability-weighted Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of cause-specific mortality and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Over the follow-up period, 130 men died (30 from cardiovascular disease, 45 from cancer, 55 from other causes). The association of testosterone with mortality showed significant heterogeneity across causes of death (p=0.027 and p=0.022 for total and bioavailable testosterone, respectively). Higher testosterone levels were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality (HR for 1-standard deviation increase, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.28 to 2.71 and 1.50; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.17 for total and bioavailable testosterone, respectively). By contrast, there were no significant associations of testosterone with mortality from cancer and other causes.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that the association of testosterone with mortality in men without metabolic syndrome might be differential according to the cause of death. These findings may partially explain the heterogeneity across studies on the relationship between testosterone levels and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7644941PMC
April 2021

Dietary inflammatory index and type 2 diabetes risk in a prospective cohort of 70,991 women followed for 20 years: the mediating role of BMI.

Diabetologia 2019 12 9;62(12):2222-2232. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), Inserm (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale) U1018, Generations and Health Across Generations, Gustave Roussy Institute, 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805, Villejuif Cedex, France.

Aims/hypothesis: Diet is one of the main lifestyle-related factors that can modulate the inflammatory process. Surprisingly the dietary inflammatory index (DII) has been little investigated in relation to type 2 diabetes, and the role of BMI in this relationship is not well established. We studied this association and the role of BMI in the inflammatory process in a large population-based observational study.

Methods: A total of 70,991 women from the E3N (Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale) cohort study were followed for 20 years. Incident type 2 diabetes cases were identified using diabetes-specific questionnaires and drug reimbursement insurance databases, and 3292 incident cases were validated. The DII was derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable Cox regression models estimated HRs and 95% CIs between DII and incident type 2 diabetes. Interactions were tested between DII and BMI on incident type 2 diabetes and a mediation analysis of BMI was performed.

Results: Higher DII scores, corresponding to a higher anti-inflammatory potential of the diet, were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Compared with the 1st quintile group, women from the 2nd quintile group (HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.77, 0.94]) up to the 5th quintile group (HR 0.77 [95% CI 0.69, 0.85]) had a lower risk of type 2 diabetes before adjustment for BMI. There was an interaction between DII and BMI on type 2 diabetes risk (p < 0.0001). The overall association was partly mediated by BMI (58%).

Conclusions/interpretation: Our findings suggest that a higher anti-inflammatory potential of the diet is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, and the association may be mediated by BMI. These results may improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of diet-related anti-inflammation in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in women. Further studies are warranted to validate our results and evaluate whether the results are similar in men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-04972-0DOI Listing
December 2019

Oestradiol level, oestrogen receptors, and mortality in elderly men: The three-city cohort study.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 10 23;89(4):514-525. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Paris-Saclay University, Paris-South University, UVSQ, Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif, France.

Context: Although endogenous oestradiol, generally considered as the female hormone, has been little investigated in men, it could play a role in men's health, mortality in particular. The influence of oestrogen receptors (ER) genetic polymorphisms on this relationship has never been studied.

Design And Participants: The Three-City cohort study included (1999-2001) 3650 men ≥65 years who were followed for mortality over 12 years. At baseline, total oestradiol (tE2) was measured and ER genotyped in a random subsample of 472 men without hormonal treatment. Free oestradiol (fE2) was estimated using Vermeulen and Södergard algorithms.

Main Outcome: Mortality data were obtained from death certificates. We used inverse probability weighted Cox models to examine the association of oestradiol with all-cause and cause-specific mortality and its interaction with ER genetic polymorphisms.

Results: A total of 183 men died over the follow-up (cardiovascular disease (CVD), n = 44; cancer, n = 57; other causes, n = 82). After adjustment, there was a quadratic relationship of all-cause mortality with tE2 and fE2 (P-quadratic = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively), with higher mortality for the top and bottom tertiles compared to the middle one. These associations were stronger for CVD mortality (P-quadratic = 0.01 and 0.02 for tE2 and fE2, respectively) and disappeared for cancer mortality. There was no evidence of an interaction of oestradiol with any ER polymorphisms on all-cause mortality.

Conclusion: In elderly men, we showed a nonlinear association of tE2 and fE2 with all-cause mortality. These quadratic relationships were stronger for CVD mortality and did not exist for cancer mortality. ER genetic polymorphisms did not modify this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.13797DOI Listing
October 2018

Testosterone and All-Cause Mortality in Older Men: The Role of Metabolic Syndrome.

J Endocr Soc 2018 Apr 26;2(4):322-335. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Paris-Saclay University, Paris-South University, Université de Versailles St-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Versailles, France.

Previous studies have shown controversial results about the role of testosterone in all-cause mortality in elderly men. We hypothesized that metabolic syndrome (MetS) could partly explain this discrepancy. We therefore examined the association of all-cause mortality with total and bioavailable testosterone, taking into account the MetS. We used data from the Three-City Cohort (3C) study with 12-year follow-up. The 3C study included 3650 men aged >65 years in three French cities. Hormone was measured in a random subsample of 444 men, and MetS was determined as stated by the International Diabetes Federation criteria. We used inverse-probability-weighted Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Of 444 men included in the analysis, 106 (23.9%) had MetS at baseline, and 166 died over the follow-up. There was a significant interaction between testosterone level and MetS for all-cause mortality ( = 0.002 and = 0.008 for total and bioavailable testosterone, respectively). Among men with MetS, a decrease in one standard deviation of testosterone was associated with higher mortality risk [HR 1.78 (95% CI 1.13 to 2.78) and HR 1.83 (95% CI 1.17 to 2.86) for total and bioavailable testosterone, respectively]. By contrast, there was no association of testosterone with mortality risk among men without MetS. Our results suggest that MetS modifies the association between testosterone and mortality in older men. If confirmed, these findings could contribute to improve risk stratification and better manage the health of older men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/js.2018-00005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5848820PMC
April 2018

Occupational exposure to organic solvents and risk of male breast cancer: a European multicenter case-control study.

Scand J Work Environ Health 2018 05 6;44(3):310-322. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

Center for research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), Inserm U1018, 16 avenue Paul Vaillant-Couturier, 94807 Villejuif Cedex, France.

Objectives The etiology of male breast cancer (MBC) is largely unknown but a causal role of exposure to organic solvents has been suggested. Previous studies on occupational risk factors of breast cancer were often restricted to women who are frequently exposed to lower levels and at a lower frequency than men. We investigated the association between MBC and occupational exposure to petroleum and oxygenated and chlorinated solvents in a multicenter case-control study of rare cancers in Europe. Methods The study included 104 MBC cases and 1901 controls. Detailed lifetime work history was obtained during interviews, together with sociodemographic characteristics, medical history and lifestyle factors. Occupational exposures to solvents were estimated from a job-exposure matrix. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression models. Results Lifetime cumulative exposure to trichloroethylene >23.9 ppm years was associated with an increased MBC risk, compared to non-exposure [OR (95% CI): 2.1 (1.2-4.0); P trend <0.01). This increase in risk persisted when only exposures that occurred ≥10 years before diagnosis were considered. In addition, a possible role for benzene and ethylene glycol in MBC risk was suggested, but no exposure-response trend was observed. Conclusions These findings add to the evidence of an increased risk of breast cancer among men professionally exposed to trichloroethylene and possibly to benzene or ethylene glycol. Further studies should be conducted in populations with high level of exposure to confirm our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3717DOI Listing
May 2018
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