Publications by authors named "Nashwa El-Shaarawy"

14 Publications

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A critical analysis of 57 cases of Hughes-Stovin syndrome (HSS). A report by the HSS International Study Group (HSSISG).

Int J Cardiol 2021 May 30;331:221-229. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Faculty of Behavioral, Management and Social Sciences, Department Psychology, Health and Technology, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522NB Enschede, the Netherlands.

Background: Hughes-Stovin syndrome (HSS) is a systemic disease characterized by widespread vascular thrombosis and pulmonary vasculitis with serious morbidity and mortality. The HSS International Study Group is a multidisciplinary taskforce aiming to study HSS, in order to generate consensus recommendations regarding diagnosis and treatment.

Methods: We included 57 published cases of HSS (43 males) and collected data regarding: clinical presentation, associated complications, hemoptysis severity, laboratory and computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) findings, treatment modalities and cause of death.

Results: At initial presentation, DVT was observed in 29(33.3 %), thrombophlebitis in 3(5.3%), hemoptysis in 24(42.1%), and diplopia and seizures in 1 patient each. During the course of disease, DVT occurred in 48(84.2%) patients, and superficial thrombophlebitis was observed in 29(50.9%). Hemoptysis occurred in 53(93.0%) patients and was fatal in 12(21.1%). Pulmonary artery (PA) aneurysms (PAAs) were bilateral in 53(93%) patients. PAA were located within the main PA in 11(19.3%), lobar in 50(87.7%), interlobar in 13(22.8%) and segmental in 42(73.7%). Fatal outcomes were more common in patients with inferior vena cava thrombosis (p = 0.039) and ruptured PAAs (p < 0.001). Death was less common in patients treated with corticosteroids (p < 0.001), cyclophosphamide (p < 0.008), azathioprine (p < 0.008), combined immune modulators (p < 0.001). No patients had uveitis; 6(10.5%) had genital ulcers and 11(19.3%) had oral ulcers.

Conclusions: HSS may lead to serious morbidity and mortality if left untreated. PAAs, adherent in-situ thrombosis and aneurysmal wall enhancement are characteristic CTPA signs of HSS pulmonary vasculitis. Combined immune modulators contribute to favorable outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.01.056DOI Listing
May 2021

The Clinical Utility of Faecal Calprotectin in Patients with Differentiated and Undifferentiated Spondyloarthritis: Relevance and Clinical Implications.

Reumatol Clin 2020 Nov 21. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Faculty of Behavioural, Management and Social sciences, Department Psychology, Health and Technology, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.

Objectives: There is cumulative evidence in the literature supporting a potential role of faecal calprotectin (FCP) as a biomarker for gut inflammation in spondyloarthritis (SpA). However its relevance in undifferentiated SpA (USpA) is still uncertain. The aim of the current study is to assess the diagnostic significance of FCP levels in patients with differentiated and undifferentiated SpA.

Material And Methods: A total of 52 differentiated SpA, 33 USpA and 50 controls could be included. For all patients, clinical evaluation, routine laboratory investigations, FCP levels, and occult blood in stool were performed. When indicated imaging and/or endoscopies were performed.

Results: The differentiated SpA patients were 12 (23.1%) with ankylosing spondylitis, 21 (40.4%) with psoriatic arthritis, 13 (25%) with ulcerative colitis, 5 (9.6%) with Crohn's disease (CD) and one (1.9%) with reactive arthritis. The mean FCP level in 85 patients correlated with CRP and ESR. Within the SpA group ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease patients had increased FCP levels compared to other SpA subgroups and USpA patients (p<0.001). The mean FCP levelwas significantly higher in the SpA patients compared to USpA and controls (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Elevated FCP levels may identify patients who are most likely to have SpA already in the unclassified phase of the disease. Further studies in different series of patients are needed to evaluate the potential diagnostic and prognostic roles of FCP in both differentiated and undifferentiated phases of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reuma.2020.10.002DOI Listing
November 2020

Autoantibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENAs) pattern in rheumatoid arthritis patients: Relevance and clinical implications.

Reumatol Clin 2019 Dec 4. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Faculty of Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences, Department Psychology, Health and Technology, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To study the frequency of different autoantibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENAs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to correlate findings with clinical manifestations, disease activity and radiological damage.

Methods: A total of 230 RA patients were included and 75 healthy controls. In all patients rheumatological assessment was done and routine laboratory investigations and immune profile were performed in both patients and controls, including: RF, ACPA, ANA and anti-ENAs (Ro/SSA, La/SSB, U1-RNP, anti-Jo-1 and anti-Sm). Radiological damage was scored using Sharp/van der Heijde, and disease activity was evaluated by DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP.

Results: RF was positive in 101 (43.9%), ACPA in 220 (95.7%), ANA in 58 (25.2%), anti Ro in 31 (13.5%), anti-La in 10 (4.3%), anti-Jo1 in 5 (2.2%) and anti-RNP in 2 (0.9%). Anti-Ro/SSA positively correlated with sicca symptoms (p=.02), RF titer (p<.001), ANA (p<.001), DAS28-ESR (p=.026), and DAS28-CRP (p=.003). Anti-La antibodies correlated positively with SJC (p=.001), TJC (p=.001), ANA (p<.001), DAS-28 ESR (p=.007). Anti-Jo-1 correlated positively with interstitial lung disease (ILD) (p≤.001), RF titer (p=.037) and ANA (p≤.001). Anti-RNP antibodies correlated positively with disease duration (p≤.001), ACPA titer (p≤.001) and ANA (p=.014). In the controls ANA was positive in two (2.7%), anti-Ro in three (4%), and none of the controls tested positive for other autoantibodies.

Conclusions: In RA patients, positive ANA is frequent and positively associated with anti-Ro, anti-La and anti-Jo1 autoantibodies. Screening for autoantibodies against other anti-ENAs seems mandatory in RA patients especially when ANA is positive. RA cases with positive Anti-Jo-1 may develop anti synthetase syndrome and ILD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reuma.2019.10.001DOI Listing
December 2019

Subclinical synovitis and enthesitis in psoriasis patients and controls by ultrasonography in Saudi Arabia; incidence of psoriatic arthritis during two years.

Clin Rheumatol 2019 Jun 12;38(6):1627-1635. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department Psychology, Health and Technology, Faculty of Behavioral, Management and Social sciences, University of Twente, PO box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede, The Netherlands.

Objective: To evaluate ultrasonographic subclinical inflammatory synovitis and enthesitis in psoriasis patients, without clinical arthritis or enthesitis compared with healthy controls, with a 2-year follow-up to study the associated incidence of psoriatic arthritis (PsA).

Methods: A total of 109 consecutive psoriasis vulgaris patients without clinical signs of PsA and 90 healthy controls were included from two tertiary medical centers. Subjects underwent dermatological examination, PASI score evaluation for severity of psoriasis, musculoskeletal examination using 68/66 joints count for tenderness and swollen joints. Patients were assessed for CRP, musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) in the form of grayscale ultrasound (GSUS), and power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) for eight entheses and 34 joints to detect MSUS subclinical enthesitis and synovitis. All patients were followed-up for 2 years to detect evolving PsA.

Results: Subclinical enthesitis and synovitis were detected in 39.5% of psoriasis patients and 10% of controls (P < 0.001). CRP was significantly higher in psoriasis patients with MSUS manifestations (P < 0.01). PDUS and GSUS subclinical synovitis and/or enthesitis were detected at least in one site in psoriatic patients more than in controls (P < 0.05). During a 2-year follow-up of patients, the annual PsA incidence was 4.3%. Psoriasis patients who developed PsA showed a higher prevalence of baseline enthesitis, higher PDUS and GSUS synovitis scores, and higher baseline CRP level than those who did not develop PsA.

Conclusions: MSUS subclinical synovitis and enthesitis are quite common in psoriasis patients. The incidence of PsA in Saudi's psoriasis patients was slightly higher than worldwide reports. Subclinical enthesitis, PDUS, and GSUS synovitis could predict PsA development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-019-04445-0DOI Listing
June 2019

Gadolinium-enhanced MRI features of acute gouty arthritis on top of chronic gouty involvement in different joints.

Clin Rheumatol 2015 Nov 14;34(11):1939-47. Epub 2015 Feb 14.

Rheumatology Department, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.

The aims of the current study are to describe gadolinium-enhanced MRI features of an acute flare of established gouty arthritis in different joints and to examine a possible association between serum uric acid and MRI signs indicative of ongoing inflammation and/or structural joint damage as well as association with disease characteristics and laboratory findings. Twenty-seven male patients with established chronic gout agreed to participate, mean age 47.6 years, and mean disease duration in months 43.2 (±31.8). For all patients, detailed demographic, disease characteristics, and laboratory findings were obtained and correlated with MRI findings. In 27 patients with established gout, a total of 50 MRI studies were performed of the following joints: feet joints (n = 23), ankles (n = 18), knees (n = 5), and hand and wrist joints (n = 4). MRI revealed capsular thickening in 19 patients, bone marrow edema (BME) in 15, soft tissue edema (STE) in 20, joint effusion in 21, bone erosions in 17, cartilaginous erosions in 4, and tenosynovitis in 9 cases. In 17 cases, tophaceous lesions were found. Post contrast MRI showed synovial thickening in seven cases. Positive correlations were observed between serum uric acid levels and the following MRI findings: capsular thickening (r = 0.552, p = 0.003), BME (r = 0.668, p ≤ 0.0001), STE (r = 0.559, p = 0.002), and tenosynovitis (r = 0.513, p = 0.006). Using MRI in chronic gout, important features can be detected like BME, minute cartilaginous erosions, and hypertrophic synovial inflammation in post contrast MR images. Serum uric acid (SUA) was positively correlated with capsular thickening, BME, STE, and tenosynovitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-015-2895-0DOI Listing
November 2015

Arterial vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis: computerized tomography (CT) angiographic features of macrovascular and microvascular upper limbs arteries.

Joint Bone Spine 2014 Oct 20;81(5):433-7. Epub 2014 Jun 20.

Rheumatology Department, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.

Objective: To describe the CT angiographic findings of arterial vasculopathy in the major vessels as well as medium and micro vascular affection of the whole upper limbs arterial tree in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) with and without digital ulceration.

Methods: Twenty-two cases with systemic sclerosis (12 limited and 10 diffuse) were recruited for the study. All patients fulfilled the American Rheumatism Association (ACR) criteria for the classification of SSc. For all patients routine laboratory investigations were performed including complete lipid profile. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) studies for the whole upper limb arterial tree were performed for both upper limbs in all cases.

Results: CTA studies showed involvement of subclavian arteries in 3 cases and axillary artery was involved in five cases. Brachial artery was affected in 5 cases. In the forearm the radial artery was affected in 4 cases with bilateral involvement in two cases (6 vessels), while ulnar artery was affected in five cases. Unilateral non visualization of the superficial palmar arch was observed in two cases with limited disease, while thinning out of the vessel wall with poor distal run off in 18 cases. A higher number of arterial vasculopathy was significantly associated with systolic pulmonary artery pressure (P=0.001).

Conclusions: Macrovascular arterial vasculopathy of upper limbs may occur in SSc irrespective of the disease pattern. Major arteries can be affected in association with other medium sized arteries of the forearms and microvascular arterial branches of the hands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2014.03.014DOI Listing
October 2014

In palindromic rheumatism, hand joint involvement and positive anti-CCP antibodies predict RA development after 1 year of follow-up.

Clin Rheumatol 2014 Jun 13;33(6):791-7. Epub 2014 Mar 13.

Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt,

This study aimed to determine the frequency of rheumatoid factor (RF) and cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies in a cohort of patients with palindromic rheumatism (PR) and to find determinants for progression to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). All new cases of PR (n=90) were included prospectively and followed up for 1 year, and a comparison group of RA cases (n=70) was also included. At study entry in all patients in both groups, RF and anti-CCP antibodies were tested, and the findings were compared and correlated. In the PR group at presentation, RF was positive in 30 patients (33.3%) and, in the RA group, in 45 patients (64.3%). Anti-CCP antibodies were positive in 35 patients (38.9%) with PR and in 58 patients (82.9%) with RA. In the PR group, positive correlations were observed between RF and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p=0.036), while anti-CCP positively correlated with disease duration (p=0.015) and CRP (p<0.001). At 1-year follow-up, 25 cases (27.5%) had progressed to RA, 3 (3.3%) cases had developed systemic lupus, 43 cases had responded to hydroxychloroquine with complete remission, five cases had developed other rheumatic diseases, and 14 cases had progressed to undifferentiated arthritis. After regression analysis, the involvement of hand joints and positive anti-CCP were the only predictors that determined progression into RA within a year (p<0.001 and p=0.02, respectively). Early hand joint involvement and positive anti-CCP at disease onset are good predictors for progression to RA in this domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-014-2569-3DOI Listing
June 2014

Axial involvement with facet joint arthropathy and bony ankylosis in a case of camptodactyly, arthropathy, coxa vara, pericarditis (CACP) syndrome.

Joint Bone Spine 2013 Oct 6;80(5):520-2. Epub 2013 Aug 6.

Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Dr. Erfan and Bagedo General Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Familial arthropathy associated with congenital camptodactyly has been previously recognized as a definite clinical entity in the literature. The clinical spectrum of this disease seems to be variable. The typical features of congenital camptodactyly, arthropathy, coxa vara and pericarditis (CACP syndrome) appear to be a more frequent presentation in children from the Middle East and North Africa. Musculoskeletal presentation of this rare familial form of arthropathy is unique and heterogeneous. In all previous reports, non-inflammatory pattern of arthropathy involving the peripheral joints with typical coxa vara deformity were described, and in a few cases spine abnormalities, including kyphosis, lordosis, or scoliosis. We describe the first case of axial involvement in a typical case of CACP syndrome with facet joint arthropathy and ankylosis at L5/S1 levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2013.01.010DOI Listing
October 2013

Transient osteoporosis of the hip, complete resolution after treatment with alendronate as observed by MRI description of eight cases and review of the literature.

Clin Rheumatol 2012 Nov 30;31(11):1641-7. Epub 2012 Aug 30.

Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH), also referred to as transient bone marrow edema syndrome, is most common in middle-aged men and often after trivial trauma or sport-related injuries. Diagnosis is usually made by eliminating other possible causes of hip pain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in diagnosis and demonstrates a typical pattern of bone marrow edema (BME) in the form of diffuse low signal on T1-weighted images and high signal on T2 fat-suppressed or short T1 inversion recovery images. No consensus exists about the management of TOH, as it may progress to avascular necrosis. We describe eight cases of TOH treated with alendronate resulting in improvement of pain and function and complete resolution of BME on MRI. The literature is reviewed regarding TOH and the relationship with bone marrow edema syndrome, avascular necrosis of the hip, and regional migratory osteoporosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the improvement of this condition after of alendronate with documented radiological improvement on follow-up MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-012-2060-yDOI Listing
November 2012

Knee enthesitis and synovitis on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with psoriasis without arthritic symptoms.

J Rheumatol 2012 Oct 1;39(10):1979-86. Epub 2012 Aug 1.

Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Radiology Department, Orthopedic Department, and Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: This case-control study was designed to evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of knee joints in patients with psoriasis without clinical peripheral or axial joint involvement, and to correlate MRI findings with disease and demographic variables.

Methods: In total 48 patients with psoriasis and no clinical evidence of synovitis or enthesitis in any peripheral or axial joints were enrolled. A random sample of 20 healthy subjects without knee or other joint complaints and matched for age and sex served as controls. All patients and controls underwent enhanced MRI studies of both knee joints, and MRI findings were compared.

Results: Among 48 patients (96 knees), a total of 90 entheseal lesions were detected, with no enthesitis in 2 cases (6.3%). Signs of continuing inflammation bilaterally were frequently found: soft tissue edema (STE; n = 52), bone marrow edema (BME; n = 20), perientheseal BME (n = 3), cartilaginous erosions (n = 42), and bone erosions (n = 27). In controls, 2 (10%) subjects had BME and another 5 (25%) showed cartilaginous erosions. None showed evidence of enthesitis. Significant correlations were observed between the number of entheseal lesions of both knees vs STE (present vs absent; r = 0.314, p = 0.030) and STE (number of lesions; r = 0.351, p = 0.014). Enthesitis (unilateral vs bilateral) was significantly and positively correlated with STE (r = 0.304, p = 0.036), cartilaginous erosions (r = 0.304, p = 0.036), and villous projections (r = 0.347, p = 0.016).

Conclusion: Subclinical synovitis and enthesitis are frequently found in the knee joint of patients with psoriasis. These may be an early sign of psoriatic arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.120301DOI Listing
October 2012

Giant intraosseous synovial cyst with intraarticular communication with the ankle joint in longstanding rheumatoid arthritis.

J Rheumatol 2012 Jan;39(1):180-1

Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Cairo 12613, Egypt.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.111029DOI Listing
January 2012

Correlations of urinary biomarkers, TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), osteoprotegerin (OPG), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and IL-8 with lupus nephritis.

J Clin Immunol 2011 Oct 21;31(5):848-56. Epub 2011 Jun 21.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Objective: This case-controlled study was designed to correlate urinary biomarkers, TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), osteoprotegerin (OPG), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels, with renal involvement in a cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients to examine their diagnostic performance.

Patients And Methods: In 73 SLE patients, and in 23 healthy volunteers, urinary levels of TWEAK, OPG, MCP-1, and IL-8 levels were measured. Disease activity was assessed by total SLE disease activity index, and renal activity by renal activity index (rSLEDAI), and both were correlated with urinary biomarkers. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of individual biomarkers to predict lupus nephritis were also calculated.

Results: Significantly higher levels of urinary biomarkers were observed in SLE patients with lupus nephritis (LN) compared with those without LN (TWEAK, p < 0.001; MCP-1, p < 0.001; OPG, p < 0.001; IL-8, p < 0.032). Other significantly higher levels were observed in SLE patients with LN compared with control subjects (TWEAK, MCP-1, OPG, and IL-8 p < 0.001). Positive correlations were observed between rSLEDAI and TWEAK (r = 0.612 and p < 0.001), MCP-1 (r = 0.635 and p < 0.001), and OPG (r = 0.505 and p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Urinary levels of TWEAK, OPG, and MCP-1 positively correlate with renal involvement as assessed by rSLEDAI with reasonable sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values to detect lupus nephritis while IL-8 was not significantly associated with global or rSLEDAI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-011-9555-1DOI Listing
October 2011

Enthesitis in seronegative spondyloarthropathies with special attention to the knee joint by MRI: a step forward toward understanding disease pathogenesis.

Clin Rheumatol 2011 Mar 6;30(3):313-22. Epub 2011 Jan 6.

Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Seronegative spondyloarthropathies are a unique group of disorders sharing similar clinical characteristics (e.g., inflammatory back pain, spondylitis, sacroiliitis, uveitis, inflammatory bowel disease, skin rashes, and enthesitis). Clinical and genetic similarities suggest that they also share similar causes or pathophysiologies. Rheumatoid factor (RF) is characteristically negative in this group of disorders, hence collectively termed seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SpA). They include psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. "Enthesitis", the term used to describe inflammation at tendon, ligament, or joint capsule insertions, is considered a common feature in this domain and was included in the European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group criteria for the classification of SpA. Evaluation of entheseal-related changes at different joints by MRI became an important item on the research agenda in both differentiated and undifferentiated arthritis. Most of the research focused on MRI findings in the hand and wrist joints among patients with RA and SpA and support two patterns of inflammation "RA" phenotype where synovial involvement is the primary target of inflammation and "SpA" pattern where enthesitis comes first followed by synovitis. In this review, we summarize the literature on enthesitis in SpA and focus on MRI findings in the knee joint in the SpA group of disorders and subclinical synovitis among patients with skin psoriasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-010-1655-4DOI Listing
March 2011