Publications by authors named "Nashid Farhan"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Physiologically-based pharmacokinetics modeling to investigate formulation factors influencing the generic substitution of dabigatran etexilate.

CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2021 Mar 10;10(3):199-210. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Center for Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA.

The exposure-response relationship of direct acting oral anti-coagulants (DOACs) for bleeding risk is steep relative to ischemic stroke reduction. As a result, small changes in exposure may lead to bleeding events. The overall goal of this project was to determine the effect of critical formulation parameters on the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and thus safety and efficacy of generic DOACs. In this first installment of our overall finding, we developed and verified a physiologically-based PK (PBPK) model for dabigatran etexilate (DABE) and its metabolites. The model was developed following a middle out approach leveraging available in vitro and in vivo data. External validity of the model was confirmed by overlapping predicted and observed PK profiles for DABE as well as free and total dabigatran for a dataset not used during model development. The verified model was applied to interrogate the impact of modulating the microenvironment pH on DABE systemic exposure. The PBPK exploratory analyses highlighted the high sensitivity of DABE exposure to supersaturation ratio and precipitation kinetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/psp4.12589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7965836PMC
March 2021

Quantitative Benefit-Risk Assessment of P-gp-Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions of Dabigatran Coadministered With Pharmacokinetic Enhancers in Patients With Renal Impairment.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 01 10;109(1):193-200. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Center for Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between dabigatran and ritonavir/cobicistat are of major concern in people living with HIV, particularly in those with impaired renal function, because they can result in increased dabigatran exposure and thus an increased risk of major bleeding events. However, the extent of this interaction and subsequent need for dose adjustment in subjects with varying degrees of renal function is currently not yet fully understood. To close this knowledge gap, we conducted an integrated population physiologically-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis linking changes in dabigatran exposure due to DDIs and varying degrees of renal function to the probability of experiencing an ischemic stroke or major bleeding event within 1 year. The results of our analysis suggest that coadministration of dabigatran etexilate (dabigatran prodrug) and ritonavir/cobicistat should be avoided in subjects with severe renal impairment. A 2-hour dose separation or dabigatran etexilate dose reduction to 110 mg b.i.d. (twice daily) should be considered in subjects with moderate renal impairment when coadministered with ritonavir, while the dabigatran etexilate dose should be further reduced to 75 mg b.i.d. when coadministered with cobicistat. No dabigatran etexilate dose adjustment is needed in subjects with normal renal function receiving ritonavir, but dabigatran etexilate dose reduction to 110 mg b.i.d. should be considered when coadministered with cobicistat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2087DOI Listing
January 2021

Development and Verification of a Body Weight-Directed Disease Trial Model for Glucose Homeostasis.

J Clin Pharmacol 2021 02 7;61(2):234-243. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Center for Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Weight loss has been associated with improvement in insulin sensitivity. It is consequently a cornerstone in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the strictly quantitative relationship between weight loss, insulin sensitivity, and clinically relevant glucose homeostasis biomarkers as well as changes therein as T2DM progresses is not yet fully understood. Therefore, the objective of our research was to establish a body weight-directed disease trial model for glucose homeostasis. To that end, we conducted a model-based meta-analysis using time course data of body weight loss (following lifestyle change or surgical procedure) and corresponding improvement of insulin sensitivity expressed as the Matsuda index. Changes in body weight were best described by a sigmoidal E model, whereas changes in the Matsuda index were best described by a linear model with a slope of 3.49. Once developed and verified, the model-based meta-analysis was linked to a disease-drug trial model for T2DM previously developed by our group to characterize and predict the impact of weight loss on clinically relevant glucose homeostasis biomarkers. The joint model was then used to conduct clinical trial simulations, which showed that weight loss can greatly improve clinically relevant glucose homeostasis biomarkers in T2DM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.1728DOI Listing
February 2021

Evaluating the Clinical Impact of Formulation Variability: A Metoprolol Extended-Release Case Study.

J Clin Pharmacol 2019 09 14;59(9):1266-1274. Epub 2019 May 14.

Center for Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.

The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of changes in the formulation of metoprolol extended-release (ER) tablets on dissolution, pharmacokinetic, and exercise-induced heart rate (EIHR) using a combined physiologically based absorption pharmacokinetic, and population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling and simulation approach. Using a previously developed physiologically based absorption pharmacokinetic model in DDDPlus and GastroPlus, we simulated the changes in drug release and exposure as the result of quantitative changes in the release-controlling excipient, hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose, for 50 and 200 mg. The similarity of dissolution profiles was assessed using the f test, and bioequivalence was tested on the simulated pharmacokinetic profiles. We used the simulated concentration-time profiles following formulation changes as pharmacokinetic input into a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model newly developed in NONMEM to determine if changes in pharmacokinetics lead to clinically significant changes in pharmacodynamics. Pharmacodynamic assessment was based on the percentage reduction in the EIHR from baseline. Therapeutic effect was considered similar when the model-predicted EIHR was within 50% to 85% of the average maximum EIHR of healthy 30-year-old subjects. A 40% or more increase in the release rate constant resulted in dissimilarity in dissolution profiles and bioINequivalence in pharmacokinetics for both 50 and 200 mg. Formulation-related differences in drug release of metoprolol ER tablets can lead to differences in pharmacokinetics. However, the evaluated pharmacokinetic differences do not lead to clinically meaningful differences in EIHR, suggesting that EIHR may not be sensitive enough to detect changes in pharmacokinetics of metoprolol ER products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.1433DOI Listing
September 2019

Development and validation of a rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay for simultaneous quantification of paclitaxel and cyclopamine in mouse whole blood and tissue samples.

Biomed Chromatogr 2019 Sep 9;33(9):e4518. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

The prominent stromal compartment surrounds pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and protects the tumor cells from chemo- or radiotherapy. We hypothesized that our nano formulation carrying cyclopamine (CPA, stroma modulator) and paclitaxel (PTX, antitumor agent) could increase the permeation of PTX through the stromal compartment and improve the intratumoral delivery of PTX. In the present study a sensitive, reliable UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to quantify PTX and CPA simultaneously in mouse whole blood, pancreas, liver and spleen samples. Docetaxel was used as the internal standard. The method demonstrated a linear range of 0.5-2000 ng/mL for whole blood and tissue homogenates for both PTX and CPA. The accuracy and precision of the assay were all within ±15%. Matrix effects for both analytes were within 15%. Recoveries from whole blood, liver, spleen and pancreas homogenates were 92.7-105.2% for PTX and 72.8-99.7% for CPA. The stability was within ±15% in all test biomatrices. The validated method met the acceptance criteria according to US Food and Drug Administration regulatory guidelines. The method was successfully applied to support a pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study for PTX and CPA in mice biomatrices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.4518DOI Listing
September 2019

Ultrapressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for quantification of 4-methoxydiphenylmethane in pharmacokinetic evaluation.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2016 Sep 10;128:46-52. Epub 2016 May 10.

Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

4-Methoxydiphenylmethane (4-MDM), a selective augmenter of Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase (LTA4H), is a new anti-inflammatory compound for potential treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Currently, there is no liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of 4-MDM. A major barrier for developing the LC-MS/MS method is the inability of electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) to ionize 4-MDM due to its hydrophobicity and lack of any functional group for ionization. With the advent of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) technique, many hydrophobic compounds have been demonstrated to ionize by charge transfer reactions. In this study, a highly sensitive ultrapressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay using atmospheric pressure photoionization (UPLC-APPI-MS/MS) for the quantifications of 4-MDM in rat plasma has been developed and validated. 4-MDM was extracted from the plasma by solid phase extraction (SPE) and separated chromatographically using a reverse phase C8 column. The photoionization (PI) was achieved by introducing anisole as a dopant to promote the reaction of charge transfer. The assay with a linear range of 5 (LLOQ)-400ngmL(-1) met the regulatory requirements for accuracy, precision and stability. The validated assay was employed to quantify the plasma concentrations of 4-MDM after an oral dosing in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2016.05.014DOI Listing
September 2016

Evaluation of diclofenac prodrugs for enhancing transdermal delivery.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Mar 23;40(3):425-32. Epub 2013 Apr 23.

Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Idaho State University , Pocatello, ID , USA.

Unlabelled: Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the approach of using diclofenac acid (DA) prodrugs for enhancing transdermal delivery.

Methods: Methanol diclofenac ester (MD), ethylene glycol diclofenac ester (ED), glycerol diclofenac ester (GD) and 1,3-propylene glycol diclofenac ester (PD) were synthesized and evaluated for their physicochemical properties such as solubilities, octanol/water partition coefficients, stratum corneum/water partition coefficients, hydrolysis rates and bioconversion rates. In vitro fluxes across human epidermal membrane (HEM) in the Franz diffusion cell were determined on DA-, MD-, ED-, GD- and PD-saturated aqueous solutions.

Results: The formation of GD and ED led to the prodrugs with higher aqueous solubilities and lower partition coefficients than those of the parent drug. Prodrugs with improved aqueous solubility showed better fluxes across HEM in aqueous solution than that of the parent drug, with GD showing the highest aqueous solubility and also the highest flux. There is a linear relationship between the aqueous solubility and flux for DA, ED and PD, but GD and MD deviated from the linear line.

Conclusion: Diclofenac prodrugs with improved hydrophilicity than the parent drug could be utilized for enhancing transdermal diclofenac delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/03639045.2013.767828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4772728PMC
March 2014

Enhancing DNA delivery into the skin with a motorized microneedle device.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2014 Feb 26;52:215-22. Epub 2013 Nov 26.

Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209, United States.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a motorized microneedle device in delivery of DNA into skin for gene expression. A plasmid DNA encoding both luciferase (Luc) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was delivered into rat skin by puncturing the skin with the microneedle device. Puncturing rat skin with a pre-applied DNA solution on the skin showed much higher luciferase gene expression than that with the procedure of puncturing the skin first then applied the DNA solution. The microneedle puncturing method was more efficient than intradermal injection method in generating high gene expression in the skin. There was no significant difference in the skin gene expression when rat skin was punctured with the microneedle device of different microneedle lengths (0.25 mm, 0.5mm or 0.75 mm). On the other hand, there was a significant difference in the skin gene expression between the short (10s) and the long puncturing durations (30 or 60s), with longer puncturing duration showed higher gene expression. Puncturing the skin with longer needles (0.75 mm) caused some skin damage, while puncturing the skin with shorter microneedle length (0.25 mm) caused only minimal skin damage. The EGFP gene expression was observed predominately in the epidermis layer of the skin from the puncturing method in delivery of DNA into the skin. In summary, the motorized microneedle device could have great potential in skin gene delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2013.11.015DOI Listing
February 2014