Publications by authors named "Naruto Taira"

90 Publications

Health-Related Quality of Life With Trastuzumab Monotherapy Versus Trastuzumab Plus Standard Chemotherapy as Adjuvant Therapy in Older Patients With HER2-Positive Breast Cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 9:JCO2002751. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Biostatistics Division, Clinical Research Support Center, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: We report findings on quality of life (QoL) in the RESPECT trial, which compared adjuvant trastuzumab monotherapy with trastuzumab plus chemotherapy in older patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer (BC).

Patients And Methods: Patients age 70-80 years with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive surgically treated breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive trastuzumab (T) or trastuzumab plus chemotherapy (T + C). QoL was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G), Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire, and Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence at baseline and after 2, 12, and 36 months. Comparisons were based on individual changes from baseline and were performed by Fisher's test or mixed-model repeated-measures.

Results: Among 275 patients in the parent study, 231 (84%) (average age: 74 years) were included in the analysis. At 2, 12, and 36 months, 198, 177, and 178 patients completed surveys, and the mean FACT-G scores at each survey point were 78.9, 80.4, 82.7, and 79.1 in group T and 79.5, 74.5, 78.4, and 78.5 in group T + C. Compared with group T + C, the proportion of patients showing QoL deterioration (≥ 5 points decrease from baseline in FACT-G) was significantly lower at 2 months (31% 48%; = .016) and 12 months (19% 38%; = .009). In group T, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score ( = .003) and the proportion of severe sensory peripheral neuropathy ( = .001) were significantly lower at 2 months, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale and Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence scores were significantly higher ( = .024, .042) at 12 months. At 36 months, there were no significant differences in any QoL items.

Conclusion: Detrimental effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on global QoL, morale, and activity capacity lasted for at least 12 months but were not observed at 36 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02751DOI Listing
April 2021

A Correlation Analysis Between Metabolism-related Genes and Treatment Response to S-1 as First-line Chemotherapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer: The SELECT BC-EURECA Study.

Clin Breast Cancer 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Japan.

Introduction: The previous randomized phase 3 trial (SELECT BC) showed that S-1 as a first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is non-inferior to taxane with respect to overall survival. This study aimed to identify the usefulness of metabolism-related genes as predictive biomarkers for the response to S-1 compared with taxane using tumor tissue samples from the previous trial.   PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this SELECT BC-EURECA study, 147 patients with human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-negative MBC who received either S-1 or taxane were evaluated. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens were collected, and 14 genes involved in the pyrimidine metabolic pathway, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2, Ki67, and beta-tubulin were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in microdissected tumor specimens. The expression of each gene was categorized as low, intermediate, and high by tertile values.   RESULTS: Interaction tests to identify biomarkers for the response to S-1 compared with taxane, revealed the following as the top 3 biomarkers: RRM1 (P value = 0.24), GGH (P value = 0.25), and MTHFR (P value = 0.28). In the S-1 group, lower GGH and higher MTHFR expression were significantly correlated with better time to treatment failure. In the taxane group, there was no gene that was identified as a significant indicator of treatment failure.

Conclusion: This biomarker analysis from SELECT BC did not identify any predictive biomarkers for the response to S-1 compared with taxane. Future studies with larger sample size and information on not only mRNA, but also protein and DNA for broad functional analyses are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2021.01.018DOI Listing
February 2021

Prospective cohort study of febrile neutropenia in breast cancer patients administered with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapies: CSPOR-BC FN study.

Breast 2021 Apr 16;56:70-77. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Division of Oncology/Hematology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba, Japan.

Background: As Asians are more vulnerable to febrile neutropenia (FN) than Caucasians, evaluations of FN incidence and risk factors in Asians are important for the appropriate use of primary pegfilgrastim (PEG-G).

Patients And Methods: Japanese breast cancer patients receiving standard adjuvant chemotherapies were prospectively enrolled in multicenter institutions from August 2015 to July 2017. FN was evaluated from 2 treatment policies: true FN (T-FN): ≥37.5 °C, grade 4 neutropenia, mandatory hospital visit (visiting); surrogate FN (S-FN): ≥37.5 °C, oral antibiotic, no mandatory visit (non-visiting). PEG-G was used at the physicians' discretion. The primary endpoint was FN incidence during all cycles. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify T-FN risk factors.

Results: Of 1005 enrolled patients, 980 women treated with FEC, E(A)C, and TC were analyzed. The FN incidence proportions in all patients were 22.5%, 27.5%, and 33.9% for FEC, E(A)C, and TC, respectively. Those of T-FN were 27.7%, 22.4%, and 36.6%; those of S-FN were 17.3%, 32.4%, and 31.5% with more frequent primary PEG-G usage. The relative dose intensity (RDI) of the 3 regimens was ≥0.85 in both groups. In the analysis of risk factors, TC (odds ratio = 2.67), age ≥ 65 years (2.24), and pretreatment absolute neutrophil count (ANC)/1000 μl (0.8) remained significant.

Conclusions: FN incidences were above 20% in the 3 regimens, with TC showing the highest. RDI was maintained at a high level in both visiting and non-visiting groups. Patient-related risk factors were age and pretreatment ANC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2021.01.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907535PMC
April 2021

Randomized phase II study to determine the optimal dose of 3-week cycle nab-paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

Breast 2021 Feb 9;55:63-68. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is commonly observed in patients treated with nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-PTX). We conducted a multicenter randomized controlled study to evaluate the optimal dose of nab-PTX.

Methods: We compared three different doses of q3w nab-PTX (Standard: 260 mg/m [SD260] vs Medium: 220 mg/m [MD220] vs Low: 180 mg/m [LD180]) in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Grade 3/4 neuropathy rates in the three doses were estimated using the logistic regression model. The optimal dose was selected in two steps. Initially, if the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS was <0.75 or >1.33, the inferior dose was excluded, and we proceeded with the non-inferior dose. Then, if the estimated incidence rate of grade 3/4 neurotoxicity exceeded 10%, that dose was also excluded.

Results: One hundred forty-one patients were randomly assigned to SD260 (n = 47), MD220 (n = 46), and LD180 (n = 48) groups, and their median PFS was 6.66, 7.34, and 6.82 months, respectively. The HRs were 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-1.28) in MD220 vs SD260, 0.77 (95% CI 0.47-1.28) in LD180 vs SD260, and 0.96 (95% CI 0.56-1.66) in LD180 vs MD220. SD260 was inferior to MD220 and was excluded. The estimated incidence rate of grade 3/4 neurotoxicity was 29.5% in SD260, 14.0% in MD220, and 5.9% in LD180. The final selected dose was LD180.

Conclusions: Intravenous administration of low-dose nab-PTX at 180 mg/m q3w may be the optimal therapy with meaningful efficacy and favorable toxicity in patients with MBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2020.12.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7753189PMC
February 2021

Clinicopathological characteristics, practical treatments, prognosis, and clinical issues of older breast cancer patients in Japan.

Breast Cancer 2021 Jan 21;28(1):1-8. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Medical Oncology, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.

Background: Minimal data are available to support the clinical management of older breast cancer patients. Consequently, the standard of care remains unclear. Our aim was to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics, practical treatments, and prognosis of older Japanese breast cancer patients and discuss clinical issues.

Methods: We reviewed 132,240 cases, diagnosed between 2004 and 2011, from the Japanese Breast Cancer Registry. Focusing on older patients, we compared data among three age groups: 75 years and over (n = 27,385), 65-74 years (n = 43,839), and 55-64 years (n = 61,016).

Results: Data revealed the proportions of mucinous and apocrine carcinoma were higher in older patients, and they more frequently had clinical stage II and III cancer. Their ER-positive rates were higher, in contrast to the lower HER2-positive, breast-conserving surgery (BCS), post-BCS irradiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy rates. Almost half of the older patients who underwent chemotherapy received CMF or oral 5FU, during hormone therapy, Tamoxifen was administered more frequently. The overall survival rate decreased with age, but the breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) at 5 years remained similar. The rate of other cause of death in the oldest group was about a half, and more than double that in those aged 55-64 years.

Conclusions: We showed clinical data of older breast cancer patients in Japan. Their disease was more advanced at the time of diagnosis, post-BCS irradiation and primary systemic chemotherapy were omitted more frequently, and overall, BCSS was similar among age categories, although the rate of other causes of death was higher.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-020-01188-8DOI Listing
January 2021

A Multicenter Study of Docetaxel at a Dose of 100 mg/m in Japanese Patients with Advanced or Recurrent Breast Cancer.

Intern Med 2021 Apr 16;60(8):1183-1190. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Departments of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Okayama University Hospital, Japan.

Objective This study examined the pharmacokinetics, safety and anti-tumor activity of docetaxel at a dose of 100 mg/m in Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer. Methods Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer received docetaxel at a dose of 100 mg/m intravenously every three weeks. The pharmacokinetics were assessed during the first cycle. The patients were allowed to receive supportive care drugs based on the indications and dosages in Japan. Results Six eligible patients aged 39-65 years old and 27 treatment cycles were analyzed. All patients experienced one or more adverse events (AEs). The common AEs were neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, alopecia, rash, diarrhea, neuropathy (sensory), fatigue, nausea, fever, hypoalbuminemia, alanine transaminase (ALT) increased, constipation, and taste alteration. Grade 3 or 4 AEs included neutropenia, leukopenia, anemia, lymphopenia, decreased appetite, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GTP) increased, aspartate transaminase (AST) increased, ALT increased, hypertension and cellulitis which were all reversible. There were no cases of febrile neutropenia, serious AEs or deaths. The median number of cycles was six. Dose reductions were not observed and most cycles were administered at their intended doses. No complete response and three partial responses were observed in four assessable patients with evaluable lesions. The maximum concentration and area under the blood concentration-time curve were 3,417.5 ng/mL and 4.35 μg・hr/mL (mean), respectively. Conclusion Docetaxel at a dose of 100 mg/m was tolerable with acceptable safety profiles and effective for Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer with appropriate supportive therapies, and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles which corresponded approximately with the findings of previous clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.5089-20DOI Listing
April 2021

Relationships of physical and breast cancer phenotypes with three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2046210, rs3757318, and rs3803662) associated with breast cancer risk in Japanese women.

Breast Cancer 2021 Mar 13;28(2):478-487. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of General Thoracic Surgery and Breast and Endocrinological Surgery, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kitaku, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan.

Background: Recent genome-wide association studies have shown that many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with breast cancer risk. However, it is often unclear how these SNPs are related to breast cancer. Analysis of associations between SNPs and phenotypes may be important for determining mechanisms of action, including carcinogenesis.

Methods: In previous case-control studies, we found three SNPs (rs2046210, rs3757318, and rs3573318) associated with breast cancer risk in Japanese women. Among these SNPs, two (rs2046210 and rs3757318) are located at 6q25.1, in proximity to the estrogen receptor 1 gene (ESR1). Using data from these studies, we examined associations between factors related to breast cancer risk, such as height, weight, and breast density, and the three SNPs in cases and controls. We also investigated whether the SNPs correlated with breast cancer features, such as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2) status, and clinical stage.

Results: There was a significant difference in mean height between risk and non-risk allele carriers for rs2046210 (156.0 ± 5.8 vs. 154.3 ± 5.5 cm, p = 0.002), and rs3757318 (155.8 ± 5.7 vs. 154.7 ± 5.6 cm, p = 0.035) in cases, but no significant associations between height and these SNPs in controls. There was also a significant difference in breast density between risk and non-risk allele carriers for rs2046210 (p = 0.040) and rs3757318 (p = 0.044) in cases. rs2046210 and rs3757318 risk allele carriers tended to have higher breast density in all subjects and in controls. In cases, rs3757318 risk allele carriers were also significantly more likely to be ER-negative compared to non-risk allele carriers (ER-positive rate: 77% vs. 84%, p = 0.036).

Conclusions: SNPs rs2046210 and rs3757318, which are associated with breast cancer risk in Japanese women, were significantly associated with height and high breast density, and this association was particularly strong in those with breast cancer. These findings suggest that SNPs in the ESR1 gene region affect phenotypes such as height and breast density.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-020-01185-xDOI Listing
March 2021

Mapping EORTC QLQ-C30 and FACT-G onto EQ-5D-5L index for patients with cancer.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2020 Nov 3;18(1):354. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Japan.

Background: To develop direct and indirect (response) mapping algorithms from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy General (FACT-G) onto the EQ-5D-5L index.

Methods: We conducted the QOL-MAC study where EQ-5D-5L, EORTC QLQ-C30, and FACT-G were cross-sectionally evaluated in patients receiving drug treatment for solid tumors in Japan. We developed direct and indirect mapping algorithms using 7 regression methods. Direct mapping was based on the Japanese value set. We evaluated the predictive performances based on root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error, and correlation between the observed and predicted EQ-5D-5L indexes.

Results: Based on data from 903 and 908 patients for EORTC QLQ-C30 and FACT-G, respectively, we recommend two-part beta regression for direct mapping and ordinal logistic regression for indirect mapping for both EORTC QLQ-C30 and FACT-G. Cross-validated RMSE were 0.101 in the two methods for EORTC QLQ-C30, whereas they were 0.121 in two-part beta regression and 0.120 in ordinal logistic regression for FACT-G. The mean EQ-5D-5L index and cumulative distribution function simulated from the recommended mapping algorithms generally matched with the observed ones except for very good health (both source measures) and poor health (only FACT-G).

Conclusions: The developed mapping algorithms can be used to generate the EQ-5D-5L index from EORTC QLQ-C30 or FACT-G in cost-effectiveness analyses, whose predictive performance would be similar to or better than those of previous algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-020-01611-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641825PMC
November 2020

Evaluation of Prognosis of Juvenile Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

Acta Med Okayama 2020 Oct;74(5):401-406

Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.

Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in juvenile patients is often an extensive and aggressive disease with a high frequency of recurrence. However, the prognosis is excellent, with a low mortality rate even when advanced disease is present, although prognostic factors and treatment strategy remain uncertain. Between April 2004 and March 2017, 33 juvenile patients (< 30 years old) were diagnosed with DTC and treated at our institution. We retrospectively investigated prognosis and factors including sex, reason for discovery, treatment, pathological factors and treatment progress to clarify the risk factors. All patients underwent curative surgical treatment. Pathologically, lymph node metastasis was identified in 25 patients (75%). Thirteen patients (39%) had bilateral cervical metastasis. In addition, 9 (27%) had more than 10 metastatic lymph nodes. The 2 patients with more than 20 metastatic lymph nodes were treated with radioactive iodine (RAI). Five patients (15%) had local recurrences and received surgery. There have been no further recurrences or deaths. However, no factors were determined to significantly predict the recurrence of juvenile DTC. Local recurrent disease was treated with surgery and/or RAI until remission, and survival was excellent in juvenile DTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18926/AMO/60799DOI Listing
October 2020

Effect of isoflavones on breast cancer cell development and their impact on breast cancer treatments.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan 9;185(2):307-316. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of General Thoracic Surgery and Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan.

Purpose: Epidemiological studies have suggested that intake of soy isoflavones is associated with a reduced risk of development of breast cancer and an improved prognosis in patients with breast cancer. In addition, basic research has demonstrated the antitumor effects of these compounds on breast cancer cell lines. However, the detailed effects of the intake of equol, which is one of the metabolites of the soy isoflavones, are yet to be clarified on the risk of development and recurrence of breast cancer and its interactions with drugs used for treating breast cancer. This study aimed to determine the antitumor effects of equol and investigate the impact of adding equol to therapeutic agents for breast cancer using breast cancer cell lines.

Methods: We examined the antitumor effect of equol on breast cancer cell lines using MTS assay. We also studied the combined effect of equol and the existing hormonal or chemotherapeutic agents using combination index. We evaluated the expressions of the related proteins by Western blot analysis and correlated the findings with the antitumor effect.

Results: Equol showed bi-phasic protumor and antitumor effects; at a low concentration, it promoted the tumor growth in hormone receptor-positive cell lines, whereas antitumor effects were generally observed when an excessive amount of dose unexpected in the blood and the tissue was administered. When used with tamoxifen, equol might have some antagonistic effect, although it depends on equol concentration and the type of cancer cells.

Conclusions: We confirmed that equol has dual action, specifically a tumor growth-promoting effect and an antitumor effect. Although the results suggested that equol might exert an antagonistic effect against tamoxifen depending on the concentration, equol did not exert an antagonistic effect on other therapeutic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05957-zDOI Listing
January 2021

Randomized Controlled Trial of Trastuzumab With or Without Chemotherapy for HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer in Older Patients.

J Clin Oncol 2020 11 16;38(32):3743-3752. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Breast and Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Japan.

Purpose: Adjuvant trastuzumab monotherapy has not been compared with trastuzumab + chemotherapy. We investigated the relative value of trastuzumab monotherapy for older patients with breast cancer.

Methods: This study was an open-label, randomized controlled study with a treatment selection design in which a noninferiority criterion was predefined. Patients aged 70-80 years with surgically treated human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive invasive breast cancer received trastuzumab monotherapy or trastuzumab + chemotherapy. The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS) with assessment of prespecified hazard ratio (HR), relapse-free survival (RFS), adverse events (AEs), health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and restricted mean survival time (RMST).

Results: The study involved 275 patients (mean age, 73.5 years) who were followed up for a mean of 4.1 years (range, 0.3-8.0 years). The percentages of patients by cancer stage were as follows: I (pT > 0.5 cm), 43.6%; IIA, 41.7%; IIB, 13.5%; and IIIA, 1.1%. Three-year DFS was 89.5% with trastuzumab monotherapy versus 93.8% with trastuzumab + chemotherapy (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.72 to 2.58; = .51). At 3 years, RMST differed by -0.39 months between arms (95% CI, -1.71 to 0.93; = .56). Three-year RFS was 92.4% with trastuzumab monotherapy versus 95.3% with trastuzumab + chemotherapy (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.63 to 2.79; = .53). Common AEs were anorexia (7.4% 44.3%; < .0001) and alopecia (2.2% 71.7%; < .0001), and grade 3/4 nonhematologic AEs occurred in 11.9% versus 29.8% ( = .0003) for trastuzumab monotherapy versus trastuzumab + chemotherapy, respectively. Clinically meaningful HRQoL deterioration rate showed significant differences at 2 months (31% for trastuzumab monotherapy 48% for trastuzumab + chemotherapy; = .016) and at 1 year (19% 38%; = .009).

Conclusion: The primary objective of noninferiority for trastuzumab monotherapy was not met. However, the observed loss of survival without chemotherapy was < 1 month at 3 years. Therefore, and in light of the lower toxicity and more favorable HRQoL profile, trastuzumab monotherapy can be considered an adjuvant therapy option for selected older patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.00184DOI Listing
November 2020

Response Shift-Adjusted Treatment Effect on Health-Related Quality of Life in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Taxane Versus S-1 for Metastatic Breast Cancer: Structural Equation Modeling.

Value Health 2020 06 17;23(6):768-774. Epub 2020 May 17.

Division of Breast and Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan.

Objective: We investigated the quantification of the response shift-adjusted treatment effect on quality-of-life (QOL) data in a randomized controlled trial of taxane versus S-1 for patients with metastatic breast cancer (SELECT-BC).

Methods: This study was a secondary data analysis of a previously published trial. The response shift-adjusted treatment effect on health-related QOL (HRQOL) data measured by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) was estimated using structural equation modeling techniques in addition to quantifying the "true" treatment effect. Measurement invariances in the values of the common factor loadings, intercepts, and residual variances between before treatment and at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month visits were considered the response shift effects.

Results: In the taxane group, we observed positive recalibration effects for role functioning and positive reprioritization and negative recalibration effects for emotional functioning. The observed change of -4.56 for role functioning comprised +2.26 response shifts and -6.82 "true" change. The observed change of +9.41 for emotional functioning comprised +12.43 response shifts and -1.17 "true" change. In the S-1 group, we observed positive reprioritization and negative recalibration effects for emotional functioning and positive reprioritization effects for social functioning. The observed change of +10.54 for emotional functioning comprised +10.07 response shifts and +0.47 "true" change. The observed change of +2.43 for social functioning comprised +3.50 response shifts and -1.07 "true" change.

Conclusion: Detailed analysis of the response shift effects will improve the evaluation reliability of observed HRQOL data during clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2020.02.003DOI Listing
June 2020

Influences of preoperative metformin on immunological factors in early breast cancer.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2020 07 12;86(1):55-63. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of General Thoracic Surgery and Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama, 7008558, Japan.

Purpose: Metformin has been suggested to possibly reduce cancer risk. However, the mechanism underlying the positive effects of metformin on cancer treatment remains unclear. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the effects of preoperative metformin in patients with early breast cancer.

Method: We evaluated the effects on immunological factors (TILs, CD4 + , CD8 + , PD-L1, IFNγ and IL-2) by comparing core needle biopsies (CNB) obtained before metformin treatment with surgical specimens. Seventeen patients were enrolled in this prospective study from January to December 2016. We also analyzed 59 patients undergoing surgery during the same period to reveal the correlation of immune factors between CNB and surgical specimen.

Result: There was a moderate correlation between CNB and surgical specimens on TILs and CD8 + lymphocyte. (TILs Rs = 0.63, CD4 + Rs = 0.224, CD8 + Rs = 0.42) In the metformin group, TILs increases were confirmed in five (29%) patients, while a decrease was confirmed in two (12%). The expressions of CD4 + and CD8 + by TILs were increased in 41% and 18% of surgical specimens, respectively. However, TILs number (p = 0.0554), CD4+ (p = 0.0613) and CD8 + (p = 0.0646) expressions did not significantly increased. Furthermore, IFNγ expression appeared to be increased in response to metformin (p = 0.08).

Conclusion: Preoperative metformin tends to increase TILs, as well as the numbers of CD4 and CD8 positive lymphocytes, and IFNγ levels. Metformin might improve immune function and have a possibility of chemo-sensitivity and thereby increase the effectiveness of immunotherapy, based on the results of this preliminary study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-020-04092-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7338817PMC
July 2020

The efficacy of sequential second-line endocrine therapies (ETs) in postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive and HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer patients with lower sensitivity to initial ETs.

Breast Cancer 2020 Sep 11;27(5):973-981. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan.

Purpose: Second-line endocrine therapy (ET) for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is offered based on the response to first-line ET. However, no clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy and safety of secondary ETs in patients with poor responses to initial ET. This study evaluated the efficacy of second-line ET in ER-positive and HER2-negative postmenopausal MBC patients with low or very low sensitivity to initial ET.

Methods: This multicenter prospective observational cohort study evaluated the response of 49 patients to second-line ETs in postmenopausal MBC patients with low or very low sensitivity to initial ET. The primary endpoint was the clinical benefit rate (CBR) for 24 weeks.

Results: Of the 49 patients assessed, 40 (82%) received fulvestrant in the second line, 5 (10%) received selective estrogen receptor modulators, 3 (6%) received aromatase inhibitors (AIs) alone, and 1 received everolimus with a steroidal AI. The overall CBR was 44.9% [90% confidence interval (CI): 34.6-57.6, p = 0.009]; CBR demonstrated similar significance across the progesterone receptor-positive (n = 39, 51.3%, 90% CI: 39.6-65.2, p = 0.002), very low sensitivity (n = 17, 58.8%, 90% CI: 42.0-78.8, p = 0.003), and non-visceral metastases (n = 25, 48.0%, 90% CI: 34.1-65.9, p = 0.018) groups. The median progression-free survival was 7.1 months (95% CI: 5.6-10.6).

Conclusion: Second-line ET might be a viable treatment option for postmenopausal patients with MBC with low and very low sensitivity to initial ET. Future studies based on larger and independent cohorts are needed to validate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-020-01095-yDOI Listing
September 2020

Desmoid-type fibromatosis of the breast mimicking cancer.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2020 09;50(9):1084-1085

Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyz209DOI Listing
September 2020

Recurring radiation-induced angiosarcoma of the breast that was treated with paclitaxel chemotherapy: a case report.

Surg Case Rep 2020 Jan 16;6(1):25. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Breast and Endocrine surgery in Okayama University Japan Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikatacho Kitaku, Okayama-shi, Okayama-ken, 700-8558, Japan.

Background: Angiosarcoma of the breast is very rare and can be divided into primary and secondary angiosarcoma. Radiation-induced angiosarcoma (RIAS) is classified as secondary angiosarcoma. Diagnosis of RIAS is difficult due to its rarity, and the interpretation of pathological imaging is complicated. In the National Comprehensive Care Network (NCCN) guidelines, the first choice of treatment is surgery with negative margins. Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for close soft tissue margins should be considered. Preoperative or adjuvant chemotherapy of nonmetastatic disease is not recommended for angiosarcoma. We report a case of RIAS, which was impossible to diagnose with core needle biopsy (CNB) but was diagnosed by excisional biopsy. The patient was then administered adjuvant chemotherapy using conjugated paclitaxel (PTX).

Case Presentation: A 62-year-old woman noticed a tumor in her right breast. She had a history of right breast cancer and had undergone breast-conserving surgery, RT, and tamoxifen therapy 8 years previously. CNB, which was performed twice, was inconclusive. The tumor was surgically excised and pathological analysis yielded a diagnosis of angiosarcoma. She then underwent a right mastectomy. One month after she underwent right mastectomy, a nodule reappeared on the skin of her right breast, and excisional biopsy revealed recurrence of angiosarcoma. A few weeks later another nodule reappeared near the post-operative scar and excisional biopsy revealed recurrence of angiosarcoma. We assumed that surgical therapy was insufficient because the patient experienced relapse of angiosarcoma after complete mastectomy. After the second recurrence, we treated her with systemic chemotherapy using PTX. There was no evidence of recurrence 8 months after chemotherapy.

Conclusion: Although angiosarcoma is difficult to diagnose, many patients have a poor prognosis. Therefore, prompt treatment intervention is desired. Moreover, there is little evidence regarding adjuvant therapy of angiosarcoma since it is a rare disease. We consider that adjuvant therapy helped to effectively prevent recurrence in the patient after complete excision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40792-020-0790-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6965539PMC
January 2020

Influence of breast density on breast cancer risk: a case control study in Japanese women.

Breast Cancer 2020 Mar 24;27(2):277-283. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Department of General Thoracic Surgery and Breast and Endocrinological Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kitaku, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan.

Background: Mammography is the standard examination for breast cancer screening of woman aged ≥ 40 years. High breast density on mammography indicates that mammary gland parenchyma occupy a high percentage of the breast. The objective of this study was to investigate factors associated with breast density and the risk of high breast density for breast cancer.

Methods: A multicenter case-control study was performed in 530 patients and 1043 controls. Breast density was classified as C1-C4 using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Clinical factors were obtained from questionnaires or medical records, and the influence of each factor (breast density, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI), parity, presence or absence of breastfeeding history, age at menarche, age at first birth, and familial history of breast cancer) on breast cancer risk in all patients was calculated as an age-adjusted odds ratio (OR). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were then performed in all patients and in pre- and postmenopausal and BMI-stratified groups using factors with a significant age-adjusted OR as adjustment factors.

Results: Age-adjusted ORs for breast cancer were significant for breast density, BMI, parity, and breast feeding, but not for age at menarche, age at first birth, or family history of breast cancer. In multivariate analysis, there was a significant correlation between breast density and breast cancer in postmenopausal women (OR for C1 vs. C2 1.90 [95% CI 1.34-2.70]; C1 vs. C4 2.85 [95% CI 1.10-7.16]). This correlation was also significant in patients in the third BMI quartile (22.3-24.5 kg/m) (OR for C1 vs. C4 8.76 [95% CI 2.38-42.47]); and fourth BMI quartile (>24.5 kg/m) (OR for C1 vs. C2 1.92 [95% CI 1.17-3.15]; C1 vs. C4 11.89 [95% CI 1.56-245.17]).

Conclusion: Breast density on mammography is a risk factor for breast cancer after adjustment for other risk factors. This risk is particularly high in postmenopausal women and those with a high BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-019-01018-6DOI Listing
March 2020

Evaluation of Therapeutic Target Gene Expression Based on Residual Cancer Burden Classification After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for HER2-Negative Breast Cancer.

Clin Breast Cancer 2020 04 9;20(2):117-124.e4. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Department of General Thoracic Surgery and Breast and Endocrinological Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.

Introduction: Patients with residual disease usually have a poor prognosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to explore therapeutic targets and potential additional adjuvant treatments for patients with residual disease after standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Patients And Methods: We retrieved publicly available complementary DNA microarray data from 399 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative primary breast cancer samples from patients who underwent standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We analyzed the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of key breast cancer markers and therapeutic target genes according to residual cancer burden (RCB) classification: RCB-0/I, RCB-II, and RCB-III.

Results: Among hormone receptor-positive samples, there were more luminal A tumors by PAM50 (Prediction Analysis of Microarray 50 [Prosigna], aka Prosigna Breast Cancer Prognostic Gene Signature Assay) in RCB-III than in RCB-0/I and RCB-II (P < .01). The mRNA expressions of ESR1 and PGR were significantly higher, and that of MKI67 was lower in RCB-II and RCB-III than in RCB-0/I. The mRNA expression of cyclin D1 was up-regulated in RCB-III and that of CDKN2A was down-regulated in RCB-III (P = .027 and < .01). Among triple-negative (TN) samples, RCB-III had higher clinical stage and more lymph node-positive samples than RCB-0/1 and RCB-II (P < .01). In both subtypes, VEGF-C expression was significantly higher in RCB-III than in RCB-0/I and RCB-II.

Conclusion: In hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, biological features such as luminal A were associated with RCB; this trend was not observed in TN breast cancer. Further, some targeted therapies should be tested as new strategies after standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy in future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2019.07.001DOI Listing
April 2020

Validation of the 21-gene test as a predictor of clinical response to neoadjuvant hormonal therapy for ER+, HER2-negative breast cancer: the TransNEOS study.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2019 Jan 21;173(1):123-133. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-8551, Japan.

Purpose: The Recurrence Score test is validated to predict benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. TransNEOS, a translational study of New Primary Endocrine-therapy Origination Study (NEOS), evaluated whether Recurrence Score results can predict clinical response to neoadjuvant letrozole.

Methods: NEOS is a phase 3 clinical trial of hormonal therapy ± adjuvant chemotherapy for postmenopausal patients with ER+, HER2-negative, clinically node-negative breast cancer, after six months of neoadjuvant letrozole and breast surgery. TransNEOS patients had tumors ≥ 2 cm and archived core-biopsy samples taken before neoadjuvant letrozole and subsequently sent for Recurrence Score testing. The primary endpoint was to evaluate clinical (complete or partial) response to neoadjuvant letrozole for RS < 18 versus RS ≥ 31. Secondary endpoints included evaluation of clinical response and rate of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) by continuous Recurrence Score result, ESR1 and PGR single-gene scores, and ER gene-group score.

Results: Of 295 TransNEOS patients (median age 63 years; median tumor size 25 mm; 66% grade 1), 53.2% had RS < 18, 28.5% had RS18-30, and 18.3% had RS ≥ 31. Clinical response rates were 54% (RS < 18), 42% (RS18-30), and 22% (RS ≥ 31). A higher proportion of patients with RS < 18 had clinical responses (p < 0.001 vs. RS ≥ 31). In multivariable analyses, continuous Recurrence Score result (p < 0.001), ESR1 score (p = 0.049), PGR score (p < 0.001), and ER gene-group score (p < 0.001) were associated with clinical response. Recurrence Score group was significantly associated with rate of BCS after neoadjuvant treatment (RS < 18 vs. RS ≥ 31, p = 0.010).

Conclusion: The Recurrence Score test is validated to predict clinical response to neoadjuvant letrozole in postmenopausal patients with ER+, HER2-negative, clinically node-negative breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-018-4964-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394785PMC
January 2019

A single-nucleotide polymorphism in a gene modulating glucocorticoid sensitivity is associated with the decline in total lung capacity after lung transplantation.

Surg Today 2019 Mar 18;49(3):268-274. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Department of General Thoracic Surgery and Breast and Endocrinological Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.

Purpose: Glucocorticoids are used to prevent chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) after lung transplantation (LT). Our study was aimed at assessing the association between the glucocorticoid-induced transcript 1 gene (GLCCI1) variant, which modulates glucocorticoid sensitivity, and the postoperative lung function and development of CLAD after LT.

Methods: A total of 71 recipients of LT were genotyped for the GLCCI1 variant (rs37972) and divided into three groups: the homozygous mutant allele (TT) group, the heterozygous mutant allele (CT) group, and the wild-type allele (CC) group. The results of pulmonary function tests were compared with the postoperative baseline values.

Results: The total lung capacity (TLC) in the TT group was significantly lower than that in the CC group at 3 years after LT (P = 0.029). In the recipients of cadaveric LT, the TLC and forced expiratory volume in 1 s in the TT group were significantly lower than those in the CC groups, resulting in a significant worse CLAD-free survival at 3 years after LT (P = 0.016).

Conclusion: The GLCCI1 variant was associated with a significant decrease of the TLC at 3 years after LT and the development of CLAD at 3 years, especially in patients undergoing cadaveric LT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00595-018-1717-9DOI Listing
March 2019

A Remarkable Uptake of FDG in Huge Mediastinal Hashimoto's Goiter.

Intern Med 2019 01 24;58(2):313-314. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Department of General Medicine, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.0898-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6378161PMC
January 2019

Hormonal Therapy Resistant Estrogen-receptor Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer Cohort (HORSE-BC) Study : Current Status of Treatment Selection in Japan.

Acta Med Okayama 2018 Aug;72(4):369-374

Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama 700-8558,

The Hormonal therapy resistant estrogen-receptor positive metastatic breast cancer cohort (HORSE-BC) study is a multicenter observational study evaluating the efficacy and safety of secondary endocrine therapy (ET) for postmenopausal cases of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with poor response to primary ET. In this initial report we analyze the HORSE-BC baseline data to clarify the current status of treatment selection for MBC in Japan. Baseline data for the 50 patients enrolled in HORSE-BC were analyzed, including patient characteristics, types of secondary ET, and reasons for selecting secondary ET. Postoperative recurrence was detected in 84% of patients (42/50) and de novo stage IV breast cancer in 16% (8/50). Forty-one patients (41/50; 82%) received fulvestrant, 5 patients (10%) received selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), 3 patients (6%) received ET plus a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, and 1 patient received an aromatase inhibitor (AI) as the secondary ET. Forty-five patients selected their secondary ET based on its therapeutic effect, while 14 patients selected it based on side effects. Most patients with progression after primary ET selected fulvestrant as the secondary ET based on its therapeutic and side effects. We await the final results from the HORSE-BC study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18926/AMO/56172DOI Listing
August 2018

A randomized, open-label, Phase III trial of pertuzumab retreatment in HER2-positive locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer patients previously treated with pertuzumab, trastuzumab and chemotherapy: the Japan Breast Cancer Research Group-M05 PRECIOUS study.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2018 Sep;48(9):855-859

The Cancer Institute Hospital of JFCR, Breast Oncology Center, Tokyo, Japan.

The PRECIOUS study (UMIN000018202) is being conducted as a multicenter, randomized, open-label Phase III study to determine if retreatment with pertuzumab is more effective than conventional treatment in HER2-positive locally advanced (LA)/metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients previously treated with pertuzumab, trastuzumab and chemotherapy. Patients are randomized 1:1 into chemotherapy plus trastuzumab with or without pertuzumab groups. The latest regimen before enrollment did not include pertuzumab, and the number of previous chemotherapy regimens for LA/MBC did not exceed three. The primary endpoint is investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Secondary endpoints include independent reviewer-assessed progression-free survival, progression-free survival in patients treated with trastuzumab emtansine as the latest regimen, response rate, response duration, overall survival, safety and health-related quality of life. Target accrual is 370 patients, allowing the observation of 325 events, yielding an 80% power for detection of a hazard ratio of 0.739 with a one-sided 5% level of significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyy097DOI Listing
September 2018

The efficacy and feasibility of dose-dense sequential chemotherapy for Japanese patients with breast cancer.

Breast Cancer 2018 Nov 11;25(6):717-722. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata, Kitaku, Okayama, Japan.

Background: Perioperative dose-dense chemotherapy (DDCT) with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) prophylaxis is a standard treatment for patients with high-risk breast cancer. The approval of this approach in Japan led to the widespread adoption of DDCT, despite limited efficacy and safety data among Japanese patients. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant DDCT for Japanese patients with breast cancer.

Methods: This prospective, multicenter, phase II study evaluated 52 women with operable human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer and axillary lymph node metastasis. Neoadjuvant DDCT (adriamycin plus cyclophosphamide or epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel) was administrated every 2 weeks with G-CSF support. The study endpoints were the rates of pathological complete response (pCR), febrile neutropenia, treatment completion, toxicities, and the relative dose intensity (RDI).

Results: The pCR rate was 21.9% (9/41) and the triple-negative (TN) subtype was significantly associated with a high pCR rate (triple-negative: 53.3% vs. luminal A: 7.7% and luminal B: 0%; p = 0.003). The treatment completion rate was 80.8% (42/52) and the average RDI was 98.9%. Most adverse events were manageable and tolerable. Six patients (11.5%) developed febrile neutropenia. Grade 3-4 adverse events were slightly more common among older patients (57%) with a low protocol completion rate (≥ 65 years: 42.9% vs. <65 years: 86.7%, p = 0.0062).

Conclusion: The pCR rate for DDCT was similar to that of standard chemotherapy, although it was remarkably effective for the TN subtype. DDCT may be feasible for Japanese patients with breast cancer although caution is needed for older patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-018-0877-1DOI Listing
November 2018

Current Multidisciplinary Approach to Fertility Preservation for Breast Cancer Patients.

Acta Med Okayama 2018 Apr;72(2):137-142

Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.

Adverse effects on fertility are a significant problem for premenopausal breast cancer patients. Since April 2009, we have been referring young patients for fertility counseling provided by a multidisciplinary team. Here we evaluated the efficacy and safety of our current fertility preservation approach. We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 277 patients < 45 years old at diagnosis, which was made between 2009 and 2016. Seventy-two (26%) patients received fertility counseling. Seventeen (6%) of the 277 patients decided to preserve their fertility before starting adjuvant systemic therapy. Six (35%) patients underwent oocyte cryopreservation, and 11 (65%) married patients opted for embryo cryopreservation. There were no pregnancies among the patients undergoing oocyte cryopreservation, whereas 3 (27%) of the patients who opted for embryo cryopreservation became pregnant. Two (12%) patients stopped endocrine therapy after 2 years in an effort to become pregnant, but their breast cancers recurred. Though the problem of fertility loss for breast cancer patients is important and we should assess the infertility risk for all patients, we should also consider the prognosis. In June 2016, we launched a prospective multicenter cohort study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fertility preservation in greater detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18926/AMO/55854DOI Listing
April 2018

Patient-Reported Outcome Results from the Open-Label Randomized Phase III SELECT BC Trial Evaluating First-Line S-1 Therapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer.

Oncology 2018 17;94(2):107-115. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

Biostatistics Division, Clinical Research Support Center, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of S-1, an orally administered 5-FU agent, versus taxane on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in the SELECT BC trial.

Methods: Patients with HER2-negative and endocrine treatment-resistant breast cancer with metastasis or recurrence after surgery were randomly assigned to receive first-line taxane or S-1. PROs (secondary endpoint) were assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (PNQ) at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. We conducted a responder analysis for the QLQ-C30 and PNQ and created cumulative distribution function (CDF) plots as a sensitivity analysis.

Results: The questionnaire response rates were over 80% from 386 patients, who completed at least one baseline questionnaire. S-1 was significantly superior to taxane with respect to 6 scales (physical functioning [p = 0.03], role functioning [p = 0.04], social functioning [p < 0.01], financial difficulties [p = 0.01], global health status [p = 0.02], and constipation [p < 0.01]) and sensory neuropathy (p = 0.01). The CDF plots partially supported the conclusions and their robustness.

Conclusion: First-line S-1 therapy has clinical benefits with respect to many aspects of health-related quality of life for metastatic breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000484142DOI Listing
March 2018

Impact of Adverse Events on Health Utility and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Receiving First-Line Chemotherapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer: Results from the SELECT BC Study.

Pharmacoeconomics 2018 02;36(2):215-223

Department of Breast and Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Japan.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of adverse events (AEs) on health utility and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with metastatic breast cancer undergoing first-line chemotherapy.

Methods: We analyzed the data from the SELECT BC study, a multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase III study conducted in Japan, which compared first-line S-1 with taxane therapies. Heath utility and HRQOL were assessed using the EQ-5D-3L and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment initiation. Health utility was calculated based on societal preferences, and AEs were reported at each cycle of the study treatment. Linear marginal mean models were used to quantify the impact of the last AEs (with 10 or more incidences) observed before HRQOL assessment on health utility and HRQOL.

Results: Analysis included 380 patients and 12 (of 15) AEs. Grade 1 nausea and oral mucositis, grade 1 and 2 edema, and grade 2 fatigue, motor and sensory neuropathy, and myalgia were significantly associated with disutility, measured using the EQ-5D-3L. Grade 1 oral mucositis, grade 1 and 2 fatigue, and grade 2 sensory neuropathy were significantly associated with impaired global health status in the EORTC QLQ-C30. AEs associated with decrements in the five functioning scales included fatigue, oral mucositis, nausea, edema, motor and sensory neuropathy, and myalgia.

Conclusions: We reported disutilities caused by AEs in patients with metastatic breast cancer under chemotherapy. These findings can be applied to future model-based cost-effectiveness analyses.

Trial Registration Number: C000000416.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40273-017-0580-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5805818PMC
February 2018

Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs)-related genomic signature predicts chemotherapy response in breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2018 01 13;167(1):39-47. Epub 2017 Sep 13.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Science, Okayama, Japan.

Purpose: The present study evaluated whether morphological-measured stromal and intra-tumour tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) levels were associated with gene expression profiles, and whether TILs-associated genomic signature (GS) could be used to predict clinical outcomes and response to therapies in several breast cancer subtypes.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated haematoxylin eosin (HE)-TILs levels and gene expression profiling data from 40 patients with primary breast cancer and extracted the 22 overexpressed genes in cases with high TILs scores as the TILs-GS. The TILs-GS were compared with breast cancer subtype and were evaluated predictive values for prognosis and response to therapies.

Results: Higher TILs-GS expressions were observed for triple-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive (+) breast cancers, compared to the luminal types (P < 0.001). With the exception of HER2+, the TILs-GS had no prognostic value in subtypes of breast cancers. The Wilcoxon test revealed significantly different TILs-GS levels between the cases with pathological complete response (pCR) and residual disease after anthracycline and taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with the exception of the luminal-low proliferation subtype. In the multivariate analysis, pCR was independently associated with smaller tumour size, higher histological grade, ER negativity, HER2 positivity and higher TILs-GS scores (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.30-3.14, P = 0.025).

Conclusions: TILs-GS was associated with stromal and intra-tumour TILs levels, as evaluated using HE, which predicted prognosis and chemotherapy response in several breast cancer subtypes. Further studies are needed to perform stratification according to TILs-GS levels and the conventional breast cancer subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-017-4502-3DOI Listing
January 2018

Rainbow of KIBOU (ROK) study: a Breast Cancer Survivor Cohort in Japan.

Breast Cancer 2018 Jan 25;25(1):60-67. Epub 2017 May 25.

Division of Health Sociology, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

Background: Although there are a large number of epidemiological studies investigating the etiological role of lifestyle factors in breast cancer, there are few studies on the association between lifestyle factors and breast cancer prognosis. To investigate the influence of lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity, use of complementary and alternative medicine, and psychosocial factors on prognosis, we designed a large-scale cohort study of female breast cancer patients in Japan.

Methods: The planned sample size is 7200. The cohort is being conducted in collaboration with several clinical trials, a cancer registry, and daily practice. Information on clinical factors, treatment, and follow-up will be obtained from the clinical trials and participating hospitals. A self-administered questionnaire is given to subjects before, immediately after, or 1 to 5 years after surgery. Blood and tissue samples are also collected. The primary endpoint is disease-free survival. The secondary endpoints are overall survival and health-related quality of life. The follow-up period will be at least 5 years after the last participant is enrolled. Recruitment began in November 2007.

Current Status: As of April 2017, there are 5852 patients enrolled in the study along with 1430 biological samples and the study is still ongoing. The number of subjects enrolled in the study is already the largest in the world.

Conclusions: The ROK study will provide much important evidence for breast cancer survivorship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-017-0784-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5741795PMC
January 2018

Immunohistochemical Ki67 after short-term hormone therapy identifies low-risk breast cancers as reliably as genomic markers.

Oncotarget 2017 Apr;8(16):26122-26128

Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan.

Background: The purpose of this study was to test whether immunohistochemical (IHC) Ki67 levels after short-term preoperative hormone therapy (post-Ki67) predict similar numbers of patients with favorable prognoses as genomic markers.

Results: Thirty paired cases (60 samples) were enrolled in this study. Post-Ki67 levels were significantly lower than pre-treatment Ki67 levels (P < 0.001). Post-Ki67 predicted more low-risk cases (83.3%, 25/30) than pre-genomic surrogate signature(GSS) (66.7%: 20/30), but the difference in predictive power was not significant (P = 0.233). Proliferation (MKI67, STK15, Survivin, CCNB1, and MYBL2) and estrogen (ER, PGR, BCL2, and SCUBE2) related signatures were significantly downregulated after therapy (P < 0.001 and 0.041, respectively).

Materials And Methods: Core needle biopsy specimens of primary breast cancer were collected at Okayama University Hospital from hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor 2-negative patients that subsequently received two weeks of neoadjuvant hormone therapy. Paired post-treatment specimens from surgical samples were also collected. IHC Ki67 levels and GSS were compared between pre- and post-hormone treatment samples. Changes of gene expression pattern in short-term hormone therapy were also assessed.

Conclusions: IHC based post-Ki67 levels may have distinct predictive power compared with the naïve IHC Ki67. Future studies with larger cohorts and longer follow-up periods may be needed to validate our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.15385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5432244PMC
April 2017