Publications by authors named "Naren G Kumar"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Human tear fluid modulates the Pseudomonas aeruginosa transcriptome to alter antibiotic susceptibility.

Ocul Surf 2021 Jul 28;22:94-102. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA; Graduate Groups in Vision Science, Microbiology, and Infectious Diseases & Immunity, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Previously, we showed that tear fluid protects corneal epithelial cells against Pseudomonas aeruginosa without suppressing bacterial viability. Here, we studied how tear fluid affects bacterial gene expression.

Methods: RNA-sequencing was used to study the P. aeruginosa transcriptome after tear fluid exposure (5 h, 37 C). Outcomes were further investigated by biochemical and physiological perturbations to tear fluid and tear-like fluid (TLF) and assessment of bacterial viability following tear/TLF pretreatment and antibiotic exposure.

Results: Tear fluid deregulated ~180 P. aeruginosa genes ≥8 fold versus PBS including downregulating lasI, rhlI, qscR (quorum sensing/virulence), oprH, phoP, phoQ (antimicrobial resistance) and arnBCADTEF (polymyxin B resistance). Upregulated genes included algF (biofilm formation) and hemO (iron acquisition). qPCR confirmed tear down-regulation of oprH, phoP and phoQ. Tear fluid pre-treatment increased P. aeruginosa resistance to meropenem ~5-fold (4 μg/ml), but enhanced polymyxin B susceptibility ~180-fold (1 μg/ml), the latter activity reduced by dilution in PBS. Media containing a subset of tear components (TLF) also sensitized bacteria to polymyxin B, but only ~22.5-fold, correlating with TLF/tear fluid Ca and Mg concentrations. Accordingly, phoQ mutants were not sensitized by TLF or tear fluid. Superior activity of tear fluid versus TLF against wild-type P. aeruginosa was heat resistant but proteinase K sensitive.

Conclusion: P. aeruginosa responds to human tear fluid by upregulating genes associated with bacterial survival and adaptation. Meanwhile, tear fluid down-regulates multiple virulence-associated genes. Tears also utilize divalent cations and heat resistant/proteinase K sensitive component(s) to enhance P. aeruginosa sensitivity to polymyxin B.
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July 2021

Metabolic modulation predicts heart failure tests performance.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(6):e0218153. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Outcomes Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, United States of America.

The metabolic changes that accompany changes in Cardiopulmonary testing (CPET) and heart failure biomarkers (HFbio) are not well known. We undertook metabolomic and lipidomic phenotyping of a cohort of heart failure (HF) patients and utilized Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA) to identify associations to CPET and HFBio test performance (peak oxygen consumption (Peak VO2), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), exercise duration, and minute ventilation-carbon dioxide production slope (VE/VCO2 slope), as well as the established HF biomarkers of inflammation C-reactive protein (CRP), beta-galactoside-binding protein (galectin-3), and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)). A cohort of 49 patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 50%, predominantly males African American, presenting a high frequency of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension were used in the study. MRA revealed that metabolic models for VE/VCO2 and Peak VO2 were the most fitted models, and the highest predictors' coefficients were from Acylcarnitine C18:2, palmitic acid, citric acid, asparagine, and 3-hydroxybutiric acid. Metabolic Pathway Analysis (MetPA) used predictors to identify the most relevant metabolic pathways associated to the study, aminoacyl-tRNA and amino acid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, sphingolipid and glycerolipid metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Metabolite Set Enrichment Analysis (MSEA) found associations of our findings with pre-existing biological knowledge from studies of human plasma metabolism as brain dysfunction and enzyme deficiencies associated with lactic acidosis. Our results indicate a profile of oxidative stress, lactic acidosis, and metabolic syndrome coupled with mitochondria dysfunction in patients with HF tests poor performance. The insights resulting from this study coincides with what has previously been discussed in existing literature thereby supporting the validity of our findings while at the same time characterizing the metabolic underpinning of CPET and HFBio.
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February 2020