Publications by authors named "Narelle Campbell"

17 Publications

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Editorial Special Issue.

Aust J Rural Health 2021 Apr;29(2):124-126

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12749DOI Listing
April 2021

Effectiveness of an escape room for undergraduate interprofessional learning: a mixed methods single group pre-post evaluation.

BMC Med Educ 2021 Apr 20;21(1):220. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Flinders University, PO Box 41326, Darwin, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia.

Background: Interprofessional practice (IPP) has been shown to contribute to quality service provision and improved health outcomes. This knowledge has led to the integration of interprofessional education into course curricula for many health-care disciplines. Offering interprofessional education in rural areas to students undertaking work integrated learning placements is challenging particularly because of the diversity of students and placement dates combined with the student focus on the assessable placement curriculum. This research investigated and evaluated the utility of an escape room as an educational modality that facilitates learning whilst providing a supportive and motivating learning environment. Our project focused on the acquisition of interprofessional practice knowledge and experience by a health professional student cohort.

Methods: This study used the novel intervention of an escape room combined with an interactive teaching session to test student engagement and learning about interprofessional practice and teamwork. The research used a mixed methods single group pre-post design.

Results: Fifty students (78% female) from seventeen universities and seven professions participated in teams of three to six members. Most participants (66%) had not previously completed an escape room. The results showed that the intervention provided effective and engaging learning and was intrinsically appealing to students despite its non-assessable nature. Individual student reflection on their participation showed developing insight into the critical importance of clear communication and intentional team member collaboration in the provision of effective interprofessional practice.

Conclusions: The escape room intervention added value to the placement curriculum and proved flexible for a heterogeneous student cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-021-02666-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056636PMC
April 2021

Importance of research higher degree training availability in rural and remote regions.

Aust J Rural Health 2021 Apr 8;29(2):306-310. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Prideaux Centre for Research in Health Professions Education, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Aims: This commentary contends that research by higher degree research training is a sustainable strategy for capacity building the rural and remote health research workforce, provided they have equitable opportunity for access, participation and attainment.

Context: The path for health professionals into academic roles, particularly in rural and remote areas, can be fraught. A strong research skill set might not form a significant component of a clinician's prior experience. Concurrently, university academic positions usually include the PhD as an essential qualification which is misaligned with the experience and skills of rural and remote applicants who are otherwise well-qualified.

Approach: Higher degree researches are one mechanism for extending the research expertise and capabilities. However, non-traditional and remotely located cohorts such as the rural and remote health research workforce can face barriers to accessing, participating in and successfully completing formal research training. Barriers include the prevalence of the apprenticeship model of research training grounded in assumptions of colocation and face-to-face learning and supervision and a focus on the binary relationship between supervisors and students. In this commentary, the authors call for greater flexibility and equity in the higher degree research training system to cater for health professionals located in rural and remote practice contexts.

Conclusion: Institutional investment in, and commitment to, a truly distributed higher degree research model would ensure a stronger rural and remote workforce who can aspire to a range of career options and thereby positively impacting on the health and research outcomes for rural and remote Australia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12710DOI Listing
April 2021

Peer learning for students and supervisors: Complexity in the clinical setting.

Med Educ 2021 06 3;55(6):668-670. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Darwin, NT, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/medu.14480DOI Listing
June 2021

Health Professional Student Placements and Workforce Location Outcomes: Protocol of an Observational Cohort Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Jan 14;10(1):e21832. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Flinders University, Northern Territory, Darwin, Australia.

Background: The successful recruitment and retention of health professionals to rural and remote areas of Australia is a health policy priority. Nursing or allied health professional students' learning placements in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia, most of which is considered remote, may influence rural or remote work location decisions.

Objective: The aim of this study is to determine where allied health professionals and nurses who have had a student placement in the NT of Australia end up practicing.

Methods: This research is an observational cohort study, with data collection occurring at baseline and then repeated annually over 10 years (ie, 2017-2018 to 2029). The baseline data collection includes a demographic profile of allied health and nursing students and their evaluations of their NT placements using a nationally consistent questionnaire (ie, the Student Satisfaction Survey). The Work Location Survey, which will be administered annually, will track work location and the influences on work location decisions.

Results: This study will generate unique data on the remote and rural work locations of nursing and allied health professional students who had a placement in the NT of Australia. It will be able to determine what are the most important characteristics of those who take up remote and rural employment, even if outside of the NT, and to identify barriers to remote employment.

Conclusions: This study will add knowledge to the literature regarding rates of allied health and nursing professionals working in remote or rural settings following remote or rural learning placements. The results will be of interest to government and remote health workforce planners.

Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12620000797976; https://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12620000797976.aspx.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): PRR1-10.2196/21832.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/21832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843200PMC
January 2021

Strengthening the integrity of qualitative research in the Australian Journal of Rural Health.

Aust J Rural Health 2020 Oct;28(5):424-426

La Trobe Rural Health School, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12676DOI Listing
October 2020

Health services in northern Australia depend on student placements post COVID-19.

Aust N Z J Public Health 2020 Dec 26;44(6):521-522. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Northern Australia Research Network, Northern Territory.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.13035DOI Listing
December 2020

Allied health service-learning student placements in remote northern Australia during COVID-19.

Aust J Rural Health 2020 10 27;28(5):514-520. Epub 2020 Sep 27.

Northern Australia Research Network, Darwin, NT, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7537249PMC
October 2020

Effectiveness of an escape room for interprofessional learning.

Med Educ 2020 11 3;54(11):1047-1048. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/medu.14327DOI Listing
November 2020

Reviewing papers for Australian Journal of Rural Health-The benefits and the mechanics.

Aust J Rural Health 2020 08;28(4):324-326

Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12667DOI Listing
August 2020

Peer-supported faculty development and workplace teaching: an integrative review.

Med Educ 2019 10 25;53(10):978-988. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

College of Medicine & Public Health, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia.

Context: The use of peer support as a faculty development technique to improve clinical teaching is uncommon in medical education, despite the benefits of situating learning in the workplace. The authors therefore conducted a broad search seeking theoretical and empirical literature describing peer support strategies for clinical teachers in health care workplaces. This included descriptive and non-experimental studies that are often excluded from reviews. The review aimed to identify and assess existing initiatives and to synthesise key challenges and benefits.

Methods: An integrative literature review was undertaken (2004-2017), based on searches of eight international electronic databases and targeted manual searches. Key concepts, elements and models were mapped using an iterative, constant comparative method. An evaluative framework, drawing on previous research, informed conclusions regarding the quality of evidence.

Results: From a pool of 5735 papers, 34 met the inclusion criteria. The majority referred to studies conducted in the USA (59%) and in the medical profession (71%). Analysis revealed a trend towards using a collaborative model (56%), voluntary participation (59%), and direct workplace observation by a peer clinician (68%). Design features of the peer support strategy were commonly reported (65%), with half providing outcome measures (56%). Few papers reported on process evaluation (15%) or evidence of programme sustainability (15%). Despite logistical and time-associated challenges, benefits accrued to individuals and the workplace, and included improved teaching practices. Embedding the peer support strategy into routine organisational practice proved effective.

Conclusions: The results indicated that a workplace-based peer support model is an acceptable and effective faculty development strategy for health care clinical teachers. Conceptualising workplace-based peer support via a sociocultural model that acknowledges the significance of educational design, peers as collaborators and the importance of workplace context and culture is emphasised. Future research should focus on clarification studies informed by contemporary models of faculty development, in which factors impacting the health care workplace are considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/medu.13896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6771963PMC
October 2019

Tolerance of ambiguity, perfectionism and resilience are associated with personality profiles of medical students oriented to rural practice.

Med Teach 2017 May 10;39(5):512-519. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

d Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine , Washington University in St Louis , St. Louis , MO , USA.

Purpose: Resilience, coping with uncertainty and learning from mistakes are vital characteristics for all medical disciplines - particularly rural practice. Levels of coping constructs were examined in medical students with and without a rural background or an interest in rural practice.

Methods: Cross-sectional surveys identified two personality profiles, and their association with levels of Tolerance of Ambiguity, Resilience, Perfectionism-High Standards and Concern over mistakes as constructs indicative of coping. Medical students (N = 797) were stratified by rural background and degree of rural interest. Mediation analysis tested the effect of personality profile on levels of the coping constructs.

Results: More (72%) rural background students had Profile 1 which was associated with higher levels of Tolerance of Ambiguity, High standards, and Resilience, but lower Concern over mistakes. Non-rural background students reporting a strong rural interest also had Profile 1 (64%) and similar levels of coping constructs. Personality profile mediated the association between rural interest and levels of coping constructs regardless of background.

Conclusions: Having a rural background or strong rural interest are associated with a personality profile that indicates a better capacity for coping. Personality may play a part in an individual's interest in rural practice. Rural workforce initiatives through education should encourage and nurture students with a genuine interest in rural practice - regardless of background.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2017.1297530DOI Listing
May 2017

How Do Allied Health Professionals Construe the Role of the Remote Workforce? New Insight into Their Recruitment and Retention.

PLoS One 2016 1;11(12):e0167256. Epub 2016 Dec 1.

Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales, Australia.

Purpose: Allied health workforce recruitment and retention in remote areas is a global problem. Using case studies from the Australian allied health workforce, this paper adds new information by combining personality trait information with a detailed understanding of how the cases construe the demands of remote work, which may be useful in addressing this problem.

Methods: Four cases (two urban, two remote) are presented from a mixed methods study (n = 562), which used (1) the Temperament and Character Inventory to investigate personality traits of allied health professionals; and (2) repertory grid interviews to reveal quantitatively and qualitatively how the cases construed their Ideal work role compared with their Current and a Remote role. Cases also self-assessed their fit ('suited' or 'not suited') with remote.

Findings: Differences in the way cases construed their fit with remote work was related to prior experience. However all were satisfied with their work, perceiving their Current role as similar to their Ideal. All saw remote work as requiring generalist expertise and a reliance on relationships. Personality traits, especially Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance, fit with how allied health professionals perceived their role.

Conclusions: The combination of two distinct lines of investigation, illustrates what more can be revealed about allied health professional's career choices by taking into account the fit or lack of fit between their personality tendencies, their construing of remote work and their life circumstances. Understanding the combined influence of perceptions and traits on an individual toward or away from remote work may enhance recruitment and retention internationally.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0167256PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5131943PMC
June 2017

Investigating personality and conceptualising allied health as person or technique oriented.

Aust Health Rev 2014 Feb;38(1):86-92

Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825, Australia.

Objective: Allied health (AH) includes many diverse professions, each with a unique contribution to healthcare, making it possible to consider these professions as person oriented (PO) or technique oriented (TO). This paper explored the personality traits of AH professionals from the perspective of both the PO or TO orientation and the individual professions.

Methods: AH professionals (n=562) provided demographic data and completed the Temperament and Character Inventory. Examination of the literature and a consultation process resulted in nine professions classified as PO and 10 classified as TO. Multivariate analyses compared levels of personality traits and demographic variables between the PO (n=492) and TO (n=70) groups, and the professions within the groups.

Results: Professionals in the PO group showed significantly higher levels of traits that emphasise person orientation attributes, such as being sociable, empathic and cooperative, compared with AH professionals in professions with an emphasis on TO.

Conclusions: Trends in personality traits among AH professionals were congruent with the PO and TO aspects of their chosen profession. This supports the usefulness of the PO and TO concepts in describing AH professions and may provide new clues for policy aiming to enhance job satisfaction, retention and career development. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? The literature suggests that certain medical specialities can be classified as person (PO) or technique oriented (TO) and that individuals attracted to those specialties display traits that are similar to that orientation. There is scant information on the AH professions regarding similar person or technique orientations. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? The diversity of professions within AH allows a new approach to describing each profession as either PO (socially dependent, cooperative and relationship focused), or TO (focused on skills and procedures). The trend in personality traits of individuals in certain AH professions is compatible with the orientation of that profession. Findings suggest that individuals may be attracted to professions that favour a similar personality pattern to their own. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Gaining an improved understanding of the AH professions and individuals who are attracted to them in a climate of workforce shortage and increasing multidisciplinary service demand. The findings provide a new approach to understanding the characteristics of AH professions according to the personalities they attract. This information could guide recruitment and retention policy, and assist in career counselling by providing greater insight into personality profiles that are best suited to certain professions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AH13109DOI Listing
February 2014

What does personality tell us about working in the bush? Temperament and character traits of Australian remote allied health professionals.

Aust J Rural Health 2013 Oct;21(5):240-8

School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland; School of Medicine, Northern Territory Medical Program Flinders University, Darwin, Northern Territory.

Objective: To describe the personality (temperament and character traits) of remote Australian allied health professionals (AHPs). Recent research shows that health professionals can be differentiated by personality traits but little is known about the personality traits of AHPs.

Design: Cross-sectional (online) survey design with snowball sampling of participants.

Setting And Participants: Australian AHPs (N = 561; women, n = 502) classified into Remote (n = 266), Not Remote (n = 295).

Main Outcome Measure(s): Demographic variables and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI R-140).

Results: Remote AHPs were higher in novelty seeking (P = 0.037) and self-transcendence (P = 0.042). Remote women were lower in harm avoidance (P = 0.042). Older remote AHPS were lower in reward dependence (P = 0.001); younger remote AHPs were lower in self directedness (P = 0.001) and higher in harm avoidance (P < 0.001). Women were more reward dependent (P < 0.001) and cooperative (P = 0.008) than men.

Conclusions: The sample demonstrated personality trait levels aligned with research on rural doctors and nurses and which might be advantageous for working in a challenging environment. Exploring the more stable nature of temperament traits coupled with the modifiable potential of character traits provides new insight into people who choose to work as a remote AHP. These findings might contribute to a better understanding of the personality trends in these AHPs which might provide clues to improve recruitment and retention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajr.12047DOI Listing
October 2013

Work-integrated learning (WIL) supervisors and non-supervisors of allied health professional students.

Rural Remote Health 2013 Jan-Mar;13(1):1993. Epub 2013 Feb 14.

Northern Territory Medical Program, Flinders University, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.

Introduction: This study sought to characterise the allied health professional (AHP) workforce of the Northern Territory (NT), Australia, in order to understand the influence of student supervision on workload, job satisfaction, and recruitment and retention.

Methods: The national Rural Allied Health Workforce Study survey was adapted for the NT context and distributed through local AHP networks. Valid responses (n=179) representing 16 professions were collated and categorised into 'supervisor' and 'non-supervisor' groups for further analysis.

Results: The NT AHP workforce is predominantly female, non-Indigenous, raised in an urban environment, trained outside the NT, now concentrated in the capital city, and principally engaged in individual patient care. Allied health professionals cited income and type of work or clientele as the most frequent factors for attraction to their current positions. While 62% provided student supervision, only half reported having training in mentoring or supervision. Supervising students accounted for an estimated 9% of workload. Almost 20% of existing supervisors and 33% of non-supervising survey respondents expressed an interest in greater supervisory responsibilities. Despite indicating high satisfaction with their current positions, 67% of respondents reported an intention to leave their jobs in less than 5 years. Student supervision was not linked to perceived job satisfaction; however, this study found that professionals who were engaged in student supervision were significantly more likely to report intention to stay in their current jobs (>5 years; p<0.05).

Conclusion: The findings are important for supporting ongoing work-integrated learning opportunities for students in a remote context, and highlight the need for efforts to be focused on the training and retention of AHPs as student supervisors.
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June 2013

Outcomes of longitudinal integrated clinical placements for students, clinicians and society.

Med Educ 2012 Nov;46(11):1028-41

Flinders University Rural Clinical School, Faculty of Health Sciences, Flinders University, Mount Gambier, South Australia, Australia.

Context: Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) have been widely implemented in both rural and urban contexts, as is now evident in the wealth of studies published internationally. This narrative literature review aims to summarise current evidence regarding the outcomes of LICs for student, clinician and community stakeholders.

Methods: Recent literature was examined for original research articles pertaining to outcomes of LICs.

Results: Students in LICs achieve academic results equivalent to and in some cases better than those of their counterparts who receive clinical education in block rotations. Students in LICs are reported to have well-developed patient-centred communication skills, demonstrate understanding of the psychosocial contributions to medicine, and report more preparedness in higher-order clinical and cognitive skills in comparison with students in traditional block rotations (TBRs). Students in LICs take on increased responsibility with patients and describe having more confidence in dealing with ethical dilemmas. Continuity of supervision reportedly facilitates incremental knowledge acquisition, and supervisors provide incrementally progressive feedback. Despite early disorientation regarding the organising of their learning, students feel well supported by the continuity of student-preceptor relationships and value the contributions made by these. Students in LICs living and working in rural areas are positively influenced towards primary care and rural career choices.

Discussion: A sound body of knowledge in the field of LIC research suggests it is time to move beyond descriptive or exploratory research that is designed to justify this new educational approach by comparing academic results. As the attributes of LIC alumni are better understood, it is important to conduct explanatory research to develop a more complete understanding of these findings and a foundation for new theoretical frameworks that underpin educational change.

Conclusions: Longitudinal integrated clerkships are now recognised as representing credible and effective pedagogical alternatives to TBRs in medical education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2012.04331.xDOI Listing
November 2012