Publications by authors named "Naoto Fujita"

82 Publications

Effects of long-term childhood exercise and detraining on lipid accumulation in metabolic-related organs.

PLoS One 2022 24;17(6):e0270330. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Musculoskeletal Functional Research and Regeneration, Graduate School of Biomedicine and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan.

The preventive effects of regular exercise on obesity-related health problems are carried over to the non-exercise detraining period, even when physical activity decreases with aging. However, it remains unknown whether regular childhood exercises can be carried over to adulthood. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term childhood exercise and detraining on lipid accumulation in organs to prevent obesity in adulthood. Four-week-old male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were used as obese animals. OLETF rats were allocated into sedentary and exercise groups: exercise from 4- to 12-week-old and detraining from 12- to 20-week-old. At 12-week-old immediately after the exercise period, regular exercise completely inhibited hyperphagia, obesity, enlarged pancreatic islets, lipid accumulation and lobular inflammation in the liver, hypertrophied adipocytes in the white adipose tissue (WAT), and brown adipose tissue (BAT) whitening in OLETF rats. Additionally, exercise attenuated the decrease in the ratio of muscle wet weight to body weight associated with obesity. Decreased food consumption was maintained during the detraining period, which inhibited obesity and diabetes at 20-week-old after the detraining period. Histologically, childhood exercise inhibited the enlargement of pancreatic islets after the detraining period. In addition, inhibition of lipid accumulation was completely maintained in the WAT and BAT after the detraining period. However, the effectiveness was only partially successful in lipid accumulation and inflammation in the liver. The ratio of muscle wet weight to body weight was maintained after detraining. In conclusion, early long-term regular exercise effectively prevents obesity and diabetes in childhood, and its effectiveness can be tracked later in life. The present study suggests the importance of exercise during childhood and adolescence to inhibit hyperphagia-induced lipid accumulation in metabolic-related organs in adulthood despite exercise cessation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0270330PLOS
June 2022

Effect of Atezolizumab plus Bevacizumab in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Harboring Mutation in Early Clinical Experience.

J Cancer 2022 16;13(8):2656-2661. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-Kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

Atezolizumab plus bevacizumab (ATZ/BV) treatment is a combined immunotherapy consisting of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody, which has brought a major paradigm shift in the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Gain-of-function mutation of contributes to resistance of ICI monotherapy through the framework of non-T-cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment. However, whether mutation renders resistance to ATZ/BV similar to ICI monotherapy remains to be elucidated. In this study, a liquid biopsy sample in plasma of 33 patients with HCC treated with ATZ/BV was subjected to droplet digital PCR for detecting hotspot mutations at the exon 3 of locus. A total of eight patients (24.2%) exhibited at least one mutation. The objective response rate (ORR) in patients with wild-type (WT) and mutant (MT) was 8.0% and 12.5%, respectively, and the disease control rate (DCR) was 68.0% and 87.5%, respectively. No significant difference in both ORR and DCR has been observed between the two groups. The median progression-free survival in patients with WT and MT was 6.6 and 7.6 months, respectively (not statistically significant). Similarly, no significant difference in overall survival has been observed between patients with WT and MT (13.6 vs. 12.3 months). In conclusion, the treatment effect of ATZ/BV in patients with HCC with MT was comparable to those patients with WT . These results implicate that BV added to ATZ might improve immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment caused by mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.71494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9174847PMC
May 2022

Liver biopsy technique in the era of genomic cancer therapies: a single-center retrospective analysis.

Int J Clin Oncol 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Medical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: With the evolution of personalized medicine in the field of oncology, which includes optimal treatment selection using next-generation sequencing-based companion diagnostic systems and tumor-agnostic treatments according to common biomarkers, a liver tumor biopsy technique that can obtain a sufficient specimen volume must be established. The current study aimed to evaluate the safety and availability of a liver tumor biopsy technique with multiple puncture sites made using a coaxial introducer needle and embolization with gelatin sponge particles.

Methods: Patients with primary or metastatic liver cancer who underwent liver tumor biopsies with puncture tract embolization using gelatin sponge (Spongel) from October 2019 to September 2020 were included in the study. The complication and diagnostic rates were evaluated, and whether the specimen volume was sufficient for Foundation CDx was investigated.

Results: In total, 96 patients were enrolled in this analysis. The median total number of puncture times per patient was 3 (range 1-8). The pathological diagnostic rate was 79.2%. Using the FoundationOne CDx, specimens with a sufficient volume required for genomic medicine were collected in 84.9% of patients. The incidence rate of bleeding was 4.2% (n = 4), and only one patient presented with major bleeding requiring transfusion.

Conclusions: Liver biopsy with puncture tract embolization using a gelatin sponge may be safe and effective for collecting specimens with a volume sufficient for modern cancer treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10147-022-02195-9DOI Listing
June 2022

Coupled versus decoupled visuomotor feedback: Differential frontoparietal activity during curved reach planning on simultaneous functional near-infrared spectroscopy and electroencephalography.

Brain Behav 2022 Jun 14:e2681. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Musculoskeletal Functional Research and Regeneration, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.

Introduction: Interacting with the environment requires the planning and execution of reach-to-target movements along given reach trajectory paths. Human neural mechanisms for the motor planning of linear, or point-to-point, reaching movements are relatively well studied. However, the corresponding representations for curved and more complex reaching movements require further investigation. Additionally, the visual and proprioceptive feedback of hand positioning can be spatially and sequentially coupled in alignment (e.g., directly reaching for an object), termed coupled visuomotor feedback, or spatially decoupled (e.g., dragging the computer mouse forward to move the cursor upward), termed decoupled visuomotor feedback. During reach planning, visuomotor processing routes may differ across feedback types.

Methods: We investigated the involvement of the frontoparietal regions, including the superior parietal lobule (SPL), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), in curved reach planning under different feedback conditions. Participants engaged in two delayed-response reaching tasks with identical starting and target position sets but different reach trajectory paths (linear or curved) under two feedback conditions (coupled or decoupled). Neural responses in frontoparietal regions were analyzed using a combination of functional near-infrared spectroscopy and electroencephalography.

Results: The results revealed that, regarding the cue period, curved reach planning had a higher hemodynamic response in the left SPL and bilateral PMd and a smaller high-beta power in the left parietal regions than linear reach planning. Regarding the delay period, higher hemodynamic responses during curved reach planning were observed in the right dlPFC for decoupled feedback than those for coupled feedback.

Conclusion: These findings suggest the crucial involvement of both SPL and PMd activities in trajectory-path processing for curved reach planning. Moreover, the dlPFC may be especially involved in the planning of curved reaching movements under decoupled feedback conditions. Thus, this study provides insight into the neural mechanisms underlying reaching function via different feedback conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.2681DOI Listing
June 2022

A diet-induced murine model for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with obesity and insulin resistance that rapidly develops steatohepatitis and fibrosis.

Lab Invest 2022 May 28. Epub 2022 May 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Chiba University, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, 260-8677, Japan.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Patients with NAFLD often suffer steatohepatitis, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The presence of visceral obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor and potential therapeutic target for NAFLD. The establishment of animal models with these metabolic comorbidities and with the rapid progression of the disease is needed for developing treatments for NAFLD but remains to be archived. In the present study, KK-A mice, widely used as T2DM models, or C57BL6 mice were fed a high-fat, high-fructose, and high-cholesterol diet supplemented with cholic acid (NAFLD diet). The KK-A mice fed a NAFLD diet exhibited remarkable obesity and insulin resistance. A prominent accumulation of triglycerides and cholesterol in the liver was observed at 4 weeks. These mice developed steatohepatitis at 4 weeks and fibrosis at 12 weeks. In contrast, C57BL6 mice fed a NAFLD diet remained lean, although they still developed steatohepatitis and fibrosis. In summary, we established a diet-induced murine NAFLD model with the rapid development of steatohepatitis and fibrosis, bearing obesity and insulin resistance. This model could be useful as preclinical models for drug development of NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41374-022-00807-6DOI Listing
May 2022

Discontinuation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in pediatric chronic myeloid leukemia.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022 Aug 11;69(8):e29699. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The feasibility of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) discontinuation in pediatric chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) remains to be fully elucidated.

Procedures: TKI was prospectively discontinued in patients who were diagnosed with CML at <20 years of age, treated with TKI for ≥3 years, and sustained molecular response 4.0 (MR4.0) for ≥2 years. Molecular relapse was defined as a single loss of major molecular response (MMR) (BCR-ABL1 >0.1%). Relapsed patients resumed the same TKI therapy administered before discontinuation.

Results: Twenty-two patients with chronic-phase CML were enrolled, and the median ages at diagnosis and at TKI discontinuation were 9 (range: 1-14) years and 16 (5-26) years, respectively. The median follow-up time after TKI discontinuation was 37 months (range: 24-41 months). The median duration of TKI treatment before discontinuation was 100 (42-178) months, and that of MR4.0 was 53.5 (25-148) months. The treatment-free remission (TFR) rate at 12 months was 50.0% (90% confidence interval: 31.7%-65.8%). Eleven patients experienced loss of MMR within 4 months after TKI discontinuation and resumed TKI as originally prescribed. No progression was observed, and all 11 patients regained MR4.0 after TKI resumption. No patient had a withdrawal syndrome. The quality-of-life analysis suggested that successful TFR may improve academic performance in some patients. In patients who discontinued TKI therapy before puberty, the possibility of improvement in growth velocity upon TKI discontinuation was observed.

Conclusions: TKI could be discontinued safely in patients with pediatric CML showing a sustained deep MR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.29699DOI Listing
August 2022

Voluntary exercise reverses social behavior deficits and the increases in the densities of cholecystokinin-positive neurons in specific corticolimbic regions of diabetic OLETF rats.

Behav Brain Res 2022 06 7;428:113886. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Department of Musculoskeletal Functional Research and Regeneration, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan. Electronic address:

Diabetes mellitus induces neuropsychiatric comorbidities at an early stage, which can be ameliorated by exercise. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this ameliorative effect remain unclear. The present study was conducted in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats, which develop diabetes with age, and aimed to investigate whether social and anxiety-like behaviors and neurobiological changes associated with these behavioral phenotypes were reversed by voluntary exercise and whether those were maintained in the later stage. We investigated the effects of exercise at different diabetic stages in OLETF rats by comparing with control rats. Three groups of OLETF rats were used: sedentary rats, rats exercising on a wheel for two weeks at 4-5 weeks of age (early voluntary exercise), and those exercising at 10-11 weeks of age (late voluntary exercise). In the elevated plus-maze test, both early and late voluntary exercises did not affect anxiety-like behavior. In the social interaction tests, both early and late voluntary exercises ameliorated impaired sociability, novel exploration deficits, and hypoactivity in OLETF rats. Both early and late voluntary exercises reversed the increases in cholecystokinin-positive neuron densities in the infralimbic cortex and hippocampal cornu ammonis area 3 in the OLETF rats, although they did not affect the area-reduction in the medial prefrontal cortex and the increase in cholecystokinin-positive neuron densities in the basolateral amygdala. These suggest that voluntary exercise has therapeutic effects on impaired sociability and novel exploration deficits associated with cholecystokinin-positive neurons in specific corticolimbic regions in OLETF rats, and those are maintained after early exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2022.113886DOI Listing
June 2022

Durvalumab with or without tremelimumab combined with particle therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with macrovascular invasion: protocol for the DEPARTURE phase Ib trial.

BMJ Open 2022 04 8;12(4):e059779. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Chiba, Japan.

Introduction: Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with macrovascular invasion (MVI) has the worst prognosis among all phenotypes. This trial aims to evaluate whether treatment with durvalumab, alone or in combination with tremelimumab, plus particle therapy is a safe and synergistically effective treatment in patients with advanced HCC and MVI.

Methods And Analysis: This phase Ib, multicentre (two sites in Japan), open-label, single-arm, investigator-initiated clinical trial will assess durvalumab monotherapy in combination with particle therapy (cohort A) and that of durvalumab plus tremelimumab in combination with particle therapy (cohort B) for patients with advanced HCC with MVI. Cohort A will receive 1500 mg durvalumab every 4 weeks. Cohort B will receive 1500 mg durvalumab every 4 weeks in principle and 300 mg tremelimumab only on day 1 of the first cycle. Carbon-ion radiotherapy will be administered after day 8 of the first cycle. The primary endpoints are rates of any and severe adverse events, including dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs); secondary endpoints are overall survival, 6-month survival, objective response, 6-month progression-free survival and time to progression. Patients are initially enrolled into cohort A. If cohort A treatment is confirmed to be tolerated (ie, no DLT in three patients or one DLT in six patients), the trial proceeds to enrol more patients into cohort B. Similarly, if cohort B treatment is confirmed to be tolerated (ie, no DLT in three patients or one DLT in six patients), a total of 15 patients will be enrolled into cohort B.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study was approved by the ethics committees of the two participating institutions (Chiba University Hospital and National Institutes for Quantum (approval number: 2020040) and Radiological Science and Technology, QST Hospital (approval number: C20-001)). Participants will be required to provide written informed consent. Trial results will be reported in a peer-reviewed journal publication.

Trial Registration Number: jRCT2031210046.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-059779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8995959PMC
April 2022

Involvement of the Rostromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Human-Robot Interaction: fNIRS Evidence From a Robot-Assisted Motor Task.

Front Neurorobot 2022 17;16:795079. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Department of Musculoskeletal Functional Research and Regeneration, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.

Assistive exoskeleton robots are being widely applied in neurorehabilitation to improve upper-limb motor and somatosensory functions. During robot-assisted exercises, the central nervous system appears to highly attend to external information-processing (IP) to efficiently interact with robotic assistance. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. The rostromedial prefrontal cortex (rmPFC) may be the core of the executive resource allocation that generates biases in the allocation of processing resources toward an external IP according to current behavioral demands. Here, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate the cortical activation associated with executive resource allocation during a robot-assisted motor task. During data acquisition, participants performed a right-arm motor task using elbow flexion-extension movements in three different loading conditions: robotic assistive loading (ROB), resistive loading (RES), and non-loading (NON). Participants were asked to strive for kinematic consistency in their movements. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance and general linear model-based methods were employed to examine task-related activity. We demonstrated that hemodynamic responses in the ventral and dorsal rmPFC were higher during ROB than during NON. Moreover, greater hemodynamic responses in the ventral rmPFC were observed during ROB than during RES. Increased activation in ventral and dorsal rmPFC subregions may be involved in the executive resource allocation that prioritizes external IP during human-robot interactions. In conclusion, these findings provide novel insights regarding the involvement of executive control during a robot-assisted motor task.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbot.2022.795079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8970051PMC
March 2022

Evolution of Survival Impact of Molecular Target Agents in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Liver Cancer 2022 Jan 6;11(1):48-60. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background And Aims: The prognosis of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is expected to improve as multiple molecular target agents (MTAs) are now available. However, the impact of the availability of sequential MTAs has not been fully verified yet.

Approach And Results: We retrospectively collected the data on the whole clinical course of 877 patients who received any MTAs as first-line systemic therapy for advanced HCC between June 2009 and March 2019. The study population was divided into 3 groups according to the date of first-line MTA administration (period 1: 2009-2012, = 267; period 2: 2013-2016, = 352; period 3: 2017-2019, = 258). Then, we compared the number of MTAs used, overall survival (OS), and MTA treatment duration among the 3 groups. Analysis was also performed separately for advanced-stage and nonadvanced-stage HCC. The proportion of patients who received multiple MTAs was remarkably increased over time (1.1%, 10.2%, and 42.6% in periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively, < 0.001). The median OS times were prolonged to 10.4, 11.3, and 15.2 months in periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively ( = 0.016). Similarly, the MTA treatment durations were extended (2.7, 3.2, and 6.6 months in periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively; < 0.001). We confirmed that the correlation between OS and MTA treatment duration was strengthened (period 1: 0.395, period 2: 0.505, and period 3: 0.667). All these trends were pronounced in the patients with advanced-stage HCC but limited in the patients with nonadvanced-stage HCC.

Conclusions: The availability of multiple MTAs had steadily improved the prognosis of patients with advanced HCC patients, particularly advanced-stage HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000519868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8820147PMC
January 2022

Exploring microsatellite instability in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and its tumor microenvironment.

JGH Open 2021 Nov 1;5(11):1266-1274. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine Chiba University Chiba Japan.

Background And Aim: Immune checkpoint inhibitors and their combination with other agents have recently been available in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hence, a thorough understanding of the tumor microenvironment based on tumor samples is yet to be achieved. This study aimed to explore the tumor microenvironment in advanced HCC in terms of microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) by using tumor samples from advanced HCC patients eligible for systemic therapy.

Methods: MSI-H was assessed by polymerase chain reaction, and the expression of mismatch repair proteins, PD-L1, CD8, VEGF, and HLA-class1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Whole-exome sequencing was performed for MSI-H tumor samples.

Results: Of 50 patients, one (2.0%) was confirmed with MSI-H. In the MSI-H advanced HCC tumor, a high tumor mutation burden, infiltration of CD8 lymphocytes, and low expression of VEGF were identified. Although PD-L1 expression was negative, there was shrinkage of tumor following pembrolizumab. However, another tumor nonresponsive to pembrolizumab was present simultaneously. Checking the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, we found a similar case to this patient. The TCGA case had unique gene features of miR-21 and miR-155 overexpression and hypermethylation of the gene.

Conclusion: We identified a very small number of MSI-H cases in HCC using one tumor biopsy sample for each patient with advanced HCC. In addition, epigenetic aberrations possibly lead to MSI-H in HCC patients. Since different HCC clones might coexist in the liver, sampling from multiple tumors should be considered to clarify the true proportion of MSI-H in HCC and to analyze tumor microenvironments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgh3.12660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8593775PMC
November 2021

Structural Changes in Skeletal Muscle Fibers after Icing or Heating on Downhill Running in Mice.

Kobe J Med Sci 2021 Sep 30;67(2):E48-E54. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe, Japan.

An experimental animal model that causes mild structural disorders of skeletal muscles is essential to understand general exercise-induced muscle damage. Thermal stimulations such as icing and heating are commonly used as treatments for muscle injuries in sports. We established a downhill running (DR) protocol that leads to structural muscle disorders without sarcolemmal disruption and directly compared the structural changes produced by icing and heating after DR. Male ddY mice were divided into the DR, DR plus icing (Ice), and DR plus heating (Heat) groups. All mice ran at 20 m/min, -20% grade on a treadmill for a total of 90 min (three rounds of 30 min). In the Ice and Heat groups, an ice pack and a hot pack were, respectively, applied to the exercised triceps brachii muscles for 20 min just after DR. The proportion of myofibers with structural disorders was higher in the Ice group than in the DR and Heat groups at days 1 and 7 after DR. Moreover, the structural disorder of myofibers was slightly improved in the Heat group at day 1 after DR compared with the DR group. These findings suggest that icing treatment might aggravate the structural changes after DR.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8622214PMC
September 2021

Posttreatment after Lenvatinib in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Liver Cancer 2021 Sep 20;10(5):473-484. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: There is no standard posttreatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in whom lenvatinib therapy has failed. This study aimed to investigate rates of migration to posttreatment after lenvatinib and to explore candidates for second-line agents in the patients with failed lenvatinib therapy.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data on patients with advanced HCC who received lenvatinib as the first-line agent in 7 institutions.

Results: Overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) of 178 patients who received lenvatinib as the first-line agent were 13.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.5-15.2) and 6.7 months (95% CI, 5.6-7.8), respectively. Sixty-nine of 151 patients (45.7%) who discontinued lenvatinib moved on to posttreatment. The migration rates from lenvatinib to the second-line agent and from the second-line agent to the third-line agent were 41.7 and 44.4%, respectively. Based on multivariate analysis, response to lenvatinib (complete or partial response according to modified RECIST) and discontinuation of lenvatinib due to radiological progression, as well as male were associated with a significantly higher probability of migration to posttreatment after lenvatinib. On the other hand, alpha-fetoprotein levels of 400 ng/mL or higher was correlated with a significantly lower probability of migration to posttreatment after lenvatinib. Of 63 patients who received second-line systemic therapy, 53 (84.2%) were administered sorafenib. PFS, objective response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (DCR) for sorafenib treatment were 1.8 months (95% CI, 0.6-3.0), 1.8%, and 20.8%, respectively. According to the Cox regression hazard model, Child-Pugh class B significantly contributed to shorter PFS. PFS, ORR, and DCR of 22 patients who received regorafenib after lenvatinib in any lines were 3.2 months (range, 1.5-4.9 months), 13.6%, and 36.3%, respectively. Similarly, PFS, ORR, and DCR of 17 patients who received regorafenib after lenvatinib in the third-line (after sorafenib) were 3.8 months (range, 1.1-6.5 months), 17.6%, and 41.2%, respectively.

Conclusion: Sorafenib may not be a candidate for use as a posttreatment agent after lenvatinib, according to the results of the present study. Regorafenib has the potential to become an appropriate posttreatment agent after lenvatinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8527907PMC
September 2021

Impact of Exercise and Detraining during Childhood on Brown Adipose Tissue Whitening in Obesity.

Metabolites 2021 Oct 1;11(10). Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Musculoskeletal Functional Research and Regeneration, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553, Japan.

This study aimed to investigate the influence of childhood exercise and detraining on brown adipose tissue (BAT) whitening in obesity. Four-week-old male Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats ( = 9) and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats ( = 24) were used as non-obese and obese animals, respectively. OLETF rats were divided into non-exercise sedentary ( = 9) and exercise groups. OLETF rats in the exercise group were further divided into subgroups according to the exercise period-exercise from 10- to 12-weeks-old ( = 6); and exercise from 4- to 6-weeks-old, and detraining from 6- to 12-weeks-old ( = 9). At 12-weeks-old, immediately after exercise period, BAT whitening in OLETF rats was inhibited by exercise despite the fact that hypertrophy was not caused in the plantaris muscle. However, the effectiveness was attenuated during the detraining period. Histological BAT whitening and downregulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) were found in non-exercise sedentary OLETF rats at 12-weeks-old. The downregulation was not inhibited, even though exercise histologically inhibited BAT whitening in OLETF rats. Childhood exercise decreased BAT whitening in obesity. Detraining attenuated the inhibition of BAT whitening. These results suggest that regular exercise is needed to improve BAT whitening and downregulation of UCP-1 in obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11100677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8540482PMC
October 2021

Medial prefrontal area reductions, altered expressions of cholecystokinin, parvalbumin, and activating transcription factor 4 in the corticolimbic system, and altered emotional behavior in a progressive rat model of type 2 diabetes.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(9):e0256655. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Musculoskeletal Functional Research and Regeneration, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan.

Metabolic disorders are associated with a higher risk of psychiatric disorders. We previously reported that 20-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of progressive type 2 diabetes, showed increased anxiety-like behavior and regional area reductions and increased cholecystokinin-positive neurons in the corticolimbic system. However, in which stages of diabetes these alterations in OLETF rats occur remains unclear. We aimed to investigate anxiety-like behavior and its possible mechanisms at different stages of type 2 diabetes in OLETF rats. Eight- and 30-week-old OLETF rats were used as diabetic animal models at the prediabetic and progressive stages of type 2 diabetes respectively, and age-matched Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats served as non-diabetic controls. In the open-field test, OLETF rats showed less locomotion in the center zone and longer latency to leave the center zone at 8 and 30 weeks old, respectively. The areas of the medial prefrontal cortex were smaller in the OLETF rats, regardless of age. The densities of cholecystokinin-positive neurons in OLETF rats were higher in the lateral and basolateral amygdala only at 8 weeks old and in the anterior cingulate and infralimbic cortices and hippocampal cornu ammonis area 3 at both ages. The densities of parvalbumin-positive neurons of OLETF rats were lower in the cornu ammonis area 2 at 8 weeks old and in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices at both ages. No apoptotic cell death was detected in OLETF rats, but the percentage of neurons co-expressing activating transcription factor 4 and cholecystokinin and parvalbumin was higher in OLETF rats at both ages in the anterior cingulate cortex and basolateral amygdala, respectively. These results suggest that altered emotional behavior and related neurological changes in the corticolimbic system are already present in the prediabetic stage of OLETF rats.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256655PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432800PMC
November 2021

Impact of event-free survival status after stem cell transplantation on subsequent survival of patients with lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 03;5(5):1412-1424

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Shimane University Hospital, Izumo, Japan.

We evaluated the impact of event-free survival (EFS) status at 24 months (EFS24) and 60 months (EFS60) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using registry data. Patients who underwent their first autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) or allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT) for lymphoma between 1981 and 2018 were included. Overall survival was compared with that of the age-, sex, and calendar period-matched general population. A total of 14 977 patients, including 10 964 and 4013 who underwent auto-HSCT and allo-HSCT, respectively, were analyzed. Although patients who achieved EFS24 and EFS60 had favorable outcomes, most had significantly poorer survival rates than the general population. The standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) were significantly higher than that of the general population even after achieving EFS24 or EFS60. The SMRs of those after auto-HSCT were 2.5 to 3.5 and 2.7 to 3.7, respectively. The SMR was consistently highest in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients after HSCT. By contrast, subsequent survival of patients with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, intravascular large B-cell lymphoma, or peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, who achieved EFS60 after auto-HSCT, and those with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma who achieved EFS60 after allo-HSCT did not significantly differ from that of the general population, with SMRs of 1.6, 1.2, 1.8, and 1.3, respectively. Our results suggest that EFS24 and EFS60 were clinically useful end points after HSCT for lymphoma patients. Furthermore, patients with certain lymphoma subtypes who achieved EFS had a comparable prognosis with that of the general population and were potentially cured after HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948259PMC
March 2021

Propofol midazolam for sedation during radiofrequency ablation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

JGH Open 2021 Feb 22;5(2):273-279. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Departmetn of Anesthesiology, Graduate School of Medicine Chiba University Chiba Japan.

Background And Aim: Standardization of the sedation protocol during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is needed. This randomized, single-blind, investigator-initiated trial compared clinical outcomes during and after RFA using propofol and midazolam, respectively, in patients with HCC.

Methods: Few- and small-nodule HCC patients (≤3 nodules and ≤3 cm) were randomly assigned to either propofol or midazolam. Patient satisfaction was assessed using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) (1 mm = not at all satisfied, 100 mm = completely satisfied). Sedation recovery rates 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after RFA were evaluated based on Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) scores; full recovery was defined as a MOAA/S score of 5.

Results: Between July 2013 and September 2017, 143 patients with HCC were enrolled, and 135 patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group. Compared with midazolam, propofol exhibited similar median procedural satisfaction (propofol: 73.1 mm, midazolam: 76.9 mm, = 0.574). Recovery rates 1 and 2 h after RFA were higher in the propofol group than in the midazolam group. Meanwhile, recovery rates observed 3 and 4 h after RFA were similar in the two groups. The safety profiles during and after RFA were almost identical in the two groups.

Conclusion: Patient satisfaction was almost identical in patients receiving propofol and midazolam sedation during RFA. Propofol sedation resulted in reduced recovery time compared with midazolam sedation in patients with HCC. The safety profiles of both propofol and midazolam sedation during and after RFA were acceptable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgh3.12483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857294PMC
February 2021

Region-specific brain area reductions and increased cholecystokinin positive neurons in diabetic OLETF rats: implication for anxiety-like behavior.

J Physiol Sci 2020 Sep 16;70(1):42. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Musculoskeletal Functional Research and Regeneration, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8553, Japan.

Metabolic disorders can induce psychiatric comorbidities. Both brain and neuronal composition imbalances reportedly induce an anxiety-like phenotype. We hypothesized that alterations of localized brain areas and cholecystokinin (CCK) and parvalbumin (PV) expression could induce anxiety-like behavior in type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats. Twenty-week-old OLETF and non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were used. The areas of corticolimbic regions were smaller in OLETF rats. The densities of CCK positive neurons in the lateral and basolateral amygdala, hippocampal cornu ammonis area 2, and prelimbic cortex were higher in OLETF rats. The densities of PV positive neurons were comparable between OLETF and LETO rats. Locomotion in the center zone in the open field test was lower in OLETF rats. These results suggest that imbalances of specific brain region areas and neuronal compositions in emotion-related areas increase the prevalence of anxiety-like behaviors in OLETF rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12576-020-00771-0DOI Listing
September 2020

Conditioning regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in children with acquired bone marrow failure: fludarabine/melphalan vs. fludarabine/cyclophosphamide.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 07 23;55(7):1272-1281. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Fludarabine/cyclophosphamide-based conditioning regimens are standard in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acquired bone marrow failure in children, however, graft failure may occur. Using the data from a nationwide transplantation registry, we compared the outcomes of children aged <16 years with acquired aplastic anemia and refractory cytopenia of childhood who underwent allogeneic BMT with either fludarabine/melphalan (n = 71) or fludarabine/cyclophosphamide (n = 296) between 2000 and 2016. The fludarabine/melphalan regimen provided excellent outcomes, with 3-year overall survival and failure-free survival rates of 98% and 97%, respectively. The 83% 3-year failure-free survival in the fludarabine/cyclophosphamide group was significantly inferior (P = 0.002), whereas the overall survival did not differ between the two groups. Late graft failure was the most common cause of treatment failure in the fludarabine/cyclophosphamide group, which experienced a significantly higher incidence of late graft failure than the fludarabine/melphalan group (11% vs. 3%; P = 0.035). Multivariate analyses showed that the fludarabine/melphalan regimen was associated with a better failure-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.12; P = 0.005) and lower risk of late graft failure (HR 0.16; P = 0.037). Fludarabine/melphalan-based conditioning regimen can be a promising option for children with acquired bone marrow failure receiving BMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0948-8DOI Listing
July 2020

Nationwide study of pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia with chromosome 8q24/MYC rearrangement in Japan.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 07 23;67(7):e28341. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Saitama Children's Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

Background: Rearrangements of chromosome 8q24/MYC (8q24/MYC-r), resulting from t(8;14)(q24;q32), t(2;8)(p11;q24), or t(8;22)(q24;q11), are mainly associated with Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia (BL) and rarely observed in patients with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). The characteristics of BCP-ALL with 8q24/MYC-r are poorly understood.

Procedure: A retrospective nationwide study of data from patients with pediatric BCP-ALL with 8q24/MYC-r in Japan was conducted to clarify the clinical and biological characteristics associated with 8q24/MYC-r BCP-ALL.

Results: Ten patients with BCP-ALL with 8q24/MYC-r, including three with double-hit leukemia (DHL) (two with t(8;14)(q24;q32) and t(14;18)(q32;q21) and one with t(8;14) and t(3;22)(q27;q11)), were identified. Patients with BCP-ALL with 8q24/MYC-r had higher median age and uric acid and lactate dehydrogenase levels, than those without 8q24/MYC-r. All patients were initially treated with ALL-type chemotherapy; however, four, including one with DHL, were switched to BL-type chemotherapy, based on cytogenetic findings. One patient relapsed after standard-risk ALL-type chemotherapy, and two patients with DHL did not attain complete remission with chemotherapy; all three died within 11 months. The other seven patients treated with BL-type or high-risk ALL-type chemotherapy are alive without disease.

Conclusions: The clinical and laboratory features of BL with IG-MYC rearrangement, displaying a BCP immunophenotype (Wagener et al. and Herbrueggen et al. termed it as pre-BLL), are similar to those of BCP-ALL with 8q24/MYC-r. Low-risk ALL-type chemotherapy may not be appropriate for them, and further studies are required to establish an adequate therapeutic strategy. Further studies of DHL to identify new treatment strategies are also needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28341DOI Listing
July 2020

A Multicenter, Open-label, Clinical Trial to Assess the Effectiveness and Safety of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Using Reduced-intensity Conditioning in Relapsed/refractory Anaplastic Large-cell Lymphoma in Children.

Acta Med Okayama 2020 Feb;74(1):89-94

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescence, Sapporo Hokuyu Hospital, Sapporo 003-0006, Japan.

No standard treatment for relapsed or refractory anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) has been established. This study is a multicenter, open-label trial to examine the effectiveness and safety of transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) for patients under 20 years old with relapsed or refractory ALCL. We defined RIC as the administration of fludarabine (30 mg/m2/day) for five days plus melphalan (70 mg/m2/day) for two days and total body irradiation at 4 Gy, followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18926/AMO/57959DOI Listing
February 2020

Hemodynamic response during hyperbaric treatment on skeletal muscle in a type 2 diabetes rat model.

Biomed Res 2020 ;41(1):23-32

Department of Musculoskeletal Functional Research and Regeneration, Graduate School of Biomedicine and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University.

Mild hyperbaric treatment prevents type 2 diabetes progression due to increased oxygen concentration and blood flow in skeletal muscle. However, it remains unknown whether this treatment is effective during all stages of type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the influences of hyperbaric treatment at 1.3 atmospheres absolute (ATA) on hemodynamic response in various stages of type 2 diabetes. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were used as models of type 2 diabetes and healthy controls, respectively. Glucose levels were significantly higher in OLETF rats than in LETO rats at all ages. Glucose intolerance gradually increased with age in OLETF rats. Insulin levels in OLETF rats were significantly higher at 20-week-old, however, were significantly lower at 60-week-old than in LETO rats. Oxy-Hb, total Hb, and StO in skeletal muscle were increased during hyperbaric treatment in both rats. The hemodynamic changes were significantly higher in OLETF rats than LETO rats, and those changes were also pronounced at 8-week-old compared with other age in OLETF rats. These results suggest that hyperbaric treatment at 1.3 ATA acts on pathophysiological factors and the efficacy could be found only in the early stage of type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2220/biomedres.41.23DOI Listing
August 2021

Effects of appropriate-intensity treadmill exercise on skeletal muscle and respiratory functions in a rat model of emphysema.

Biomed Res 2020 ;41(1):13-22

Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kio University.

The number of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a typical respiratory disorder, is rapidly increasing globally. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of appropriate-intensity treadmill exercise on skeletal muscle and respiratory functions in a rat model of emphysema. Twenty-one Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: the sham (SH) group, pulmonary emphysema (PE) group, and emphysema + exercise (EX) group. Cigarette smoke solution and lipopolysaccharide were intratracheally administered for 4 weeks in the PE and EX groups. The rats in the EX group were made to run on treadmills in the latter 2 weeks of the experiment. Lung tissue was stained with anti-macrophage antibodies; the specific force (contractile force per unit cross-sectional area) of the diaphragm and hind-limb muscles was measured, and blood was analyzed for serum cytokine levels. Many macrophages were observed in the lung tissue of the PE group. In the EX group, the population of macrophages was smaller, and the specific force of the diaphragm and extensor digitorum longus muscles was higher than in the PE group. Moreover, the degree of inflammation in the pulmonary tissue was reduced in the EX group. These results suggest that adaptive exercise may improve not only respiratory and muscle functions but also inflammation of the pulmonary tissue associated with emphysema.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2220/biomedres.41.13DOI Listing
August 2021

The effect of graft-versus-host disease on outcomes after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for refractory lymphoblastic lymphoma in children and young adults.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 04 26;67(4):e28129. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Sapporo Hokuyu Hospital, Sapporo, Japan.

Background: Patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) have a poor prognosis. The efficacy of allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation for treatment of this disease remains unclear in terms of transplantation-related toxicity. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host diseases (GVHD) are both harmful to patients after allogeneic transplantation, but may have some positive effects through a substitute graft-versus-lymphoma effect.

Methods: To investigate the effect of GVHD on the survival of patients with refractory LBL, we retrospectively studied the outcomes of 213 patients with LBL who underwent first allogeneic stem cell transplantation before the age of 18 years, between 1990 and 2015 in Japan.

Results: The five-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival rates after stem cell transplantation were 50.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.2-56.9) and 47.8% (95% CI, 40.8-54.4), respectively. In univariate landmark analyses, the probability of OS was significantly better in patients with aGVHD than in those without (P = 0.002, five-year OS 58.1% vs 39.0%). The probability of OS was also better in patients with cGVHD than in those without (P = 0.036, five-year OS 72.2% vs 54.7%). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only aGVHD was associated with better OS (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42-0.94, P = 0.024). Progression and recurrence statuses at SCT were associated with poor prognosis. The patients with grade II aGVHD showed the best prognosis (five-year OS: 65.6%).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the occurrence of aGVHD may be associated with better outcomes in patients with relapsed/refractory LBL who undergo allogeneic transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28129DOI Listing
April 2020

Hyperbaric Normoxia Improved Glucose Metabolism and Decreased Inflammation in Obese Diabetic Rat.

J Diabetes Res 2019 19;2019:2694215. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Department of Musculoskeletal Functional Research and Regeneration, Graduate School of Biomedicine and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553, Japan.

Hyperbaric treatment improves hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in type 2 diabetes associated with obesity. However, its mode of action is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influences of regular hyperbaric treatment with normal air at 1.3 atmospheres absolute (ATA) on glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetes with obesity. The focus was directed on inflammatory cytokines in the adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were used as models of type 2 diabetes with obesity and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats served as healthy controls. The rats were randomly assigned to untreated or hyperbaric treatment groups exposed to 1.3 ATA for 8 h d and 5 d wk for 16 wks. Glucose levels were significantly higher in the diabetic than in the healthy control rats. Nevertheless, glucose levels at 30 and 60 min after glucose administration were significantly lower in the diabetic rats treated with 1.3 ATA than in the untreated diabetic rats. Insulin levels at fasting and 120 min after glucose administration were significantly lower in the diabetic rats treated with 1.3 ATA than in the untreated diabetic rats. Hyperbaric treatment also increased interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression in the skeletal muscle and decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expression in adipose tissue. These results suggested that TNF downregulation and IL-10 upregulation in diabetic rats subjected to hyperbaric treatment participate in the crosstalk between the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues and improve glucose intolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/2694215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6885850PMC
June 2020

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients with KMT2A rearrangement; A nationwide retrospective analysis in Japan.

Leuk Res 2019 12 25;87:106263. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan.

Objective: Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with KMT2A rearrangement is detected in 15-20% of all pediatric AML patients and is associated with adverse outcomes even after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To investigate outcomes and prognostic factors, we investigated 90 pediatric AML patients with KMT2A rearrangement after allogeneic HSCT.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed Japanese registration data for patients who had received allogeneic HSCT between 1988 and 2011. Median age was 3 years (range, 0-15 years), and no gender difference was evident. Median observation period was 119 months.

Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate of KMT2A-rearranged AML was 52.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 42.4-64%, n = 90), and the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 46.7% (95%CI, 36.8-58.2%). The 3-year DFS of KMT2A-rearranged AML was not significantly poorer than that of other AML (P = 0.09), and no significant difference was also seen in 3-year OS rate (P = 0.21). Multivariate analysis showed disease status (complete remission) at HSCT was associated with better outcomes. A significant difference in treatment-related mortality (TRM) was apparent between HSCT from a HLA full-matched related donor and that from a haploidentical donor (P = 0.001).

Discussion: HSCT is a curative option for pediatric AML with KMT2A rearrangement. Pretransplant status was the most significant prognostic indicator for relapse and survival. Enhancing supportive therapy to reduce TRM will further improve treatment outcomes of KMT2A-rearranged pediatric AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2019.106263DOI Listing
December 2019

Successful outcome with reduced-intensity condition regimen followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for relapsed or refractory anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

Int J Hematol 2019 Dec 16;110(6):723-728. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Division of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

We report a retrospective analysis of 38 patients (age ≤ 30 years) who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for relapsed or refractory anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL). Median follow-up for survivors after undergoing allo-SCT was 72 months (range, 35-96 months). Eight patients received reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens, including three patients with fludarabine plus melphalan-based regimens and five patients with fludarabine plus busulfan-based regimens. The remaining 30 patients received myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens. Median ages in the RIC and MAC groups were 24 and 15 years, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates in the RIC and MAC groups were 100% and 49%, respectively (P = 0.018). The 5-year event-free survival rates in the RIC and MAC groups were 88% and 43%, respectively (P = 0.039). In the RIC group, four of the eight patients showed residual disease at allo-SCT, but all eight patients survived with complete remission (CR), including one patient with relapse. This result suggests that allo-SCT using the RIC regimen may be effective for relapsed or refractory ALCL in children, adolescents, and young adults, even in non-CR cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-019-02748-1DOI Listing
December 2019

The effectiveness of busulfan-based conditioning regimens for stem cell transplantation against lymphomas in children, adolescents, and young adults in Japan.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2019 10 12;66(10):e27918. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Yamagata University Hospital, Yamagata, Yamagata Prefecture, Japan.

Conditioning regimens for stem cell transplantation (SCT) involving total body irradiation (TBI) are generally preferred over busulfan (BU)-based ones for lymphoid malignancies. However, reports of favorable results using BU against lymphomas have recently emerged. This study sought to compare the effectiveness of BU and TBI regimens for SCT against lymphomas. We retrospectively analyzed 893 lymphoma patients who underwent primary SCT in Japan between 1980 and 2015. The median age of all patients was 18 years (range, 0-30 years) with 589 males, 303 females, and 1 patient whose sex was unknown. Overall survival (OS) was not different between those receiving BU and TBI (P = 0.672). OS in patients receiving autologous SCT was significantly better with BU over TBI regimens (P = 0.038), particularly in children (0-15 years) (P = 0.024). Conversely, OS in adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 16-30 years) receiving allogeneic SCT was significantly worse with BU over TBI regimens (P = 0.035). Overall, BU regiments had comparable effectiveness to TBI conditioning regimens, and, although less effective for AYAs with allogeneic SCT, were particularly more effective than TBI regimens for children who received autologous SCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27918DOI Listing
October 2019

The Relationship between Knee Biomechanics and Clinical Assessments in ACl Deficient Patients.

Int J Sports Med 2019 Jul 12;40(7):477-483. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.

The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between knee biomechanics and clinical assessments in ACL deficient patients. Subjects included 22 patients with unilateral ACL rupture and 22 healthy controls. Knee kinematics and kinetics during walking and running were examined using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. The passive knee joint laxity, range of motion of knee joint, and knee muscle strength were also measured. Correlations between the knee kinematic and kinetic data and clinical assessments were evaluated. In the ACL deficient patients, there were no significant relationships between tibial translation during walking and running and passive knee joint laxity. The correlations between knee kinematics and kinetics and range of motion of knee joint were also not significant. Additionally, there were no significant correlations between knee kinematics during walking and knee muscle strength. However, there were several significant correlations between knee kinematics during running and knee muscle strength. The results demonstrate the importance of knee muscle strength for knee kinematics and kinetics during running in ACL deficient patients. Patients with stronger knee muscle strength may demonstrate more nearly normal knee joint movement during dynamic activities such as running.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0809-5366DOI Listing
July 2019

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children and adolescents with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Int J Hematol 2019 Apr 30;109(4):483-490. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan.

We undertook a retrospective study using the national registry data of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in Japan to investigate the effect of graft source, particularly autologous or allogeneic tissue, on the treatment outcome in patients aged less than 18 years with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Survival analysis was conducted on 31 autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) and 48 allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT) recipients between 1990 and 2013. The 5-year survival rates were significantly lower for allo-HSCT compared to auto-HSCT recipients (32% vs. 55%; P = 0.036). Multivariate analysis of survival rates identified allogeneic graft, Burkitt histology, and lack of response to chemotherapy as poor prognostic factors for survival. The cumulative incidence of treatment-related mortality (TRM) was significantly higher in allo-HSCT compared to auto-HSCT recipients (P = 0.017), explaining the difference in survival rates. In patients with Burkitt lymphoma (BL), overall survival was significantly inferior in the group of patients undergoing HSCT within 12 months from the initial diagnosis (P = 0.039). These data indicate that treatment outcomes for HSCT in children and adolescents with B-NHL were better in autograft recipients, suggesting that greater attention should be paid to the risk of TRM, especially after allografts, for patients with BL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-019-02608-yDOI Listing
April 2019
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