Publications by authors named "Naomi Lee"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Canine models of spine disorders.

JOR Spine 2020 Dec 20;3(4):e1109. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery University of Missouri Columbia Missouri USA.

Neck and low back pain are common among the adult human population and impose large social and economic burdens on health care and quality of life. Spine-related disorders are also significant health concerns for canine companions with etiopathogeneses, clinical presentations, and diagnostic and therapeutic options that are very similar to their human counterparts. Historically, induced and spontaneous pathology in laboratory rodents, dogs, sheep, goats, pigs, and nonhuman primates have been used for study of human spine disorders. While each of these can serve as useful preclinical models, they all have inherent limitations. Spontaneously occurring spine disorders in dogs provide highly translatable data that overcome many of the limitations of other models and have the added benefit of contributing to veterinary healthcare as well. For this scoping review, peer-reviewed manuscripts were selected from PubMed and Google Scholar searches using keywords: "intervertebral disc," "intervertebral disc degeneration," "biomarkers," "histopathology," "canine," and "mechanism." Additional keywords such as "injury," "induced model," and "nucleus degeneration" were used to further narrow inclusion. The objectives of this review were to (a) outline similarities in key features of spine disorders between dogs and humans; (b) describe relevant canine models; and (c) highlight the applicability of these models for advancing translational research and clinical application for mechanisms of disease, diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and treatment, with a focus on intervertebral disc degeneration. Best current evidence suggests that dogs share important anatomical, physiological, histological, and molecular components of spinal disorders in humans, such that induced and spontaneous canine models can be very effective for translational research. Taken together, the peer-reviewed literature supports numerous advantages for use of canine models for study of disorders of the spine when the potential limitations and challenges are addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsp2.1109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770205PMC
December 2020

HPV Knowledge and Attitudes Among American Indian and Alaska Native Health and STEM Conference Attendees.

Int J Indig Health 2019 Oct 13;14(2):205-221. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

MedStar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville, MD, USA. Georgetown-Howard Universities Center for Clinical and Translational Science, Washington, DC, USA.

American Indian and Alaska Native women had approximately twice the incidence of cervical cancer as white women. Preventive measures for cervical cancer rely on screening and HPV vaccination. However, vaccine series completion and catch-up vaccinations for eligible adults are low across all racial/ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify gaps in knowledge and evaluate the attitudes toward HPV and the vaccine among AIANs with various levels of training in the STEM and health-related fields. A survey was used to collect data from audience members at two national conferences geared towards American Indian and Alaska Natives in health and STEM fields in September 2017. A vignette study was administered via a live electronic poll to test knowledge (true/false questions), attitudes, and to collect demographic information. Respondents self-identified as primarily American Indian and Alaska Native (74%), pursuing or completed a graduate degree (67%), and female (85%). Most respondents (86%) were aware of HPV-associated cancer in men. However, most (48-90%) answered incorrectly to detailed true/false statements about HPV and available vaccines. After educational information was provided, opinions collected via vignettes highlighted mainly positive attitudes toward vaccination; specifically, that vaccines are safe and all eligible community members should be vaccinated (75% and 84%, respectively). We observed that our respondents with higher educational attainment still lacked accurate knowledge pertaining to HPV and the vaccine. Overall, continued education about HPV and the vaccine is needed across all levels of education including American Indian and Alaska Native community members and health professionals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.32799/ijih.v14i2.31920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199482PMC
October 2019

Effects of Giardia lamblia Colonization and Fenbendazole Treatment on Canine Fecal Microbiota.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

The gut microbiota (GM) is the sum of hundreds of distinct microbial species that can equal or outnumber their host'ssomatic cells. The GM influences a multitude of physiologic and immunologic processes in the host, and changes in the GM have been shown to alter the phenotypes of animal models. Previous studies using rodents have also shown that the composition of the GM is affected by many factors, including diet, husbandry, housing, and the genetic background of the animals. However, limited information exists about factors that may modulate GM in other laboratory species, such as dogs. We sought to eliminate sporadic Giardia colonization of dogs using fenbendazole (FBZ), an antiprotozoal widely used in biomedical research dog colonies. Concerns that FBZ could have inadvertent effects on the canine GM led us to assess GM over the course of treatment. FBZ (50 mg/kg) was given orally to all dogs in 3 different facilities (n = 19 to 25) for 10 consecutive days. Fecal samples were obtained 2 d before the initiation of treatment, on the last day of treatment, and 2 wk after the completion of treatment. Targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to analyze fecal microbiota. All dogs were clinically normal throughout the sample collection period. Statistical analyses of data showed significant differences between dogs housed in the 3 different facilities, further emphasizing the effect of housing and husbandry factors on the GM. However,negligible differences were seen between time points, indicating that FBZ did not significantly alter the canine GM. Comparison of the GM of Giardia lamblia positive and negative dogs revealed no significant difference between the 2 groups. These findings suggest that FBZ can be used therapeutically in dogs with minimal impact on the GM. Furthermore, the presence ofG. lamblia in clinically normal animals may not be sufficient to influence the normal canine microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-19-000113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7338874PMC
May 2020

Muscle fiber-type selective propensity to pathology in the nmd mouse model of SMARD1.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 08 28;516(1):313-319. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA; Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA. Electronic address:

Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is an autosomal recessive disease that causes distal limb muscle atrophy, due to motor neuron degeneration. Similar to other motor neuron diseases, SMARD1 shows differential vulnerability to denervation in various muscle groups, which is recapitulated in the nmd mouse, a model of SMARD1. In multiple neurodegenerative disease models, transcriptomic analysis has identified differentially expressed genes between vulnerable motor neuron populations, but the mechanism leading to susceptibility is largely unknown. To investigate if denervation vulnerability is linked to intrinsic muscle properties, we analyzed muscle fiber-type composition in muscles from motor units that show different degrees of denervation in nmd mice: gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior (TA), and extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Our results revealed that denervation vulnerability correlated with atrophy and loss of MyHC-IIb and MyHC-IIx muscle fiber types. Interestingly, increased vulnerability also correlated with an increased abundance of MyHC-I and MyHC-IIa muscle fibers. These results indicated that MyHC-IIx muscle fibers are the most vulnerable to denervation, followed by MyHC-IIb muscle fibers. Moreover, our data indicate that type MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIb muscle fibers show resistance to denervation and compensate for the loss of MyHC-IIx and MyHC-IIb muscle fibers in the most vulnerable muscles. Taken together these results provide a basis for the selective vulnerability to denervation of specific muscles in nmd mice and identifies new targets for potential therapeutic intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.06.117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6662199PMC
August 2019

WHO and ITU establish benchmarking process for artificial intelligence in health.

Lancet 2019 Jul 29;394(10192):9-11. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

China Academy of Information and Communications Technology, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30762-7DOI Listing
July 2019

Human Papillomavirus Prevalence Among American Indian Women of the Great Plains.

J Infect Dis 2019 02;219(6):908-915

Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine, Initiative for Research and Education to Advance Community Health, Washington State University, Seattle.

Background: High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) causes cervical cancer. In the United States, approximately 40% of women aged 14-59 years from all racial and ethnic groups are infected with HPV, and prevalence typically declines with age. However, American Indian (AI) women are insufficiently sampled to permit a population-specific estimate of hrHPV prevalence.

Methods: Vaginal swabs were self-collected by 698 AI women aged 21-65 years from a tribal community in the Great Plains. We estimated the population prevalence of hrHPV and identified predominant genotypes.

Results: The combined prevalence of hrHPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68 was 34.8%. HPV-51 (7.6%), HPV-58 (5.3%), HPV-52 (4.3%), HPV-18 (4.3%), and HPV-16 (3.9%) were most prevalent. hrHPV prevalence declined with age, from 42.2% in women aged 21-24 years to 27.9% in women aged 50-65 years.

Conclusions: HPV-51 was the single most prevalent oncogenic genotype. The combined prevalence of hrHPV among AI women in our sample was high, particularly among women aged 50-65 years, for whom hrHPV prevalence was approximately triple that of other races. Cervical cancer screening efforts should be increased, particularly among women from the community aged 30 years and older.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386810PMC
February 2019

REFINING A SUMMER BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH TRAINING PROGRAM FOR AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE (AIAN) STUDENTS.

Int J Des Learn 2018 Jun 9;9(1):88-97. Epub 2018 May 9.

The University of New Mexico is an assistant professor at the The University of New Mexico. She studies how people learn when they design. She also serves as the evaluator for an NIH program that aims to increase the diversity of biomedical researchers.

Literature shows that students who enter the science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medical-related (STEMM) pipeline at earlier stages of their career are more likely to be successful. This is especially true for underrepresented and economically disadvantaged students. Despite the increasing number of students entering the pipeline, American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) students still have a higher attrition rate compared to other ethnic groups. Educators and government agencies have worked to improve the success rate for AIAN students across all levels and fields by developing various programs aimed at training and mentorship. In 2007, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, increased their outreach efforts for recruiting AIAN students for the summer internship program. Our goal was to develop a culturally tailored research-training program that could recruit and retain AIAN students into STEMM degrees and careers. We adapted an existing program that provides training in biomedical science and mentorship at an NINDS research laboratory. From 2007 to 2016, of the 41 AIAN interns who participated, 35 (85%) remained in STEMM fields. Five interns obtained post baccalaureate positions at NIH and four entered graduate or medical school. These successful outcomes were brought about only after navigating myriad obstacles. We identified obstacles for AIAN student participation, and made adaptations to the summer internship. We made design decisions regarding recruitment, feasibility, lab placement and mentorship, supporting research and social networking, and sustaining AIAN culture. This design case highlights the obstacles and strategies for success that we developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14434/ijdl.v9i1.23049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6166885PMC
June 2018

Clinical Pictures in The Lancet: a good eye for detail.

Lancet 2018 04;391(10128):1339-1340

The Lancet, London EC2Y 5AS, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30567-1DOI Listing
April 2018

The Vatican-Mario Negri-Lancet Commission on the value of life.

Lancet 2017 Sep 28;390(10102):1573. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

The Lancet, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32100-1DOI Listing
September 2017

The Lancet Technology: pharming blood.

Authors:
Naomi Lee

Lancet 2016 Jun;387(10037):2496

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30800-5DOI Listing
June 2016

Health of the UK population in 2040.

Lancet 2015 Aug;386(9994):643-4

Department of Public Health and Policy, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GB, UK. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61491-XDOI Listing
August 2015

Learning from The Lancet.

BJU Int 2015 Jun;115(6):847

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.13167DOI Listing
June 2015

The Lancet Technology: January, 2015.

Authors:
Naomi Lee

Lancet 2015 Jan;385(9966):408

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(15)60140-4DOI Listing
January 2015

Robotic surgery: where are we now?

Authors:
Naomi Lee

Lancet 2014 Oct 17;384(9952):1417. Epub 2014 Oct 17.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61851-1DOI Listing
October 2014

Effects of varied sequence pattern on the self-assembly of amphipathic peptides.

Biomacromolecules 2013 Sep 29;14(9):3267-77. Epub 2013 Aug 29.

Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627-0216, United States.

Amphipathic peptides have an increased propensity to self-assemble into amyloid-like β-sheet fibrils when their primary sequence pattern consists of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids. These fibrils adopt a bilayer architecture composed of two β-sheets laminated to bury the hydrophobic side chains of the β-sheet in the bilayer interior, leaving the hydrophilic side chains exposed at the bilayer surface. In this study, the effects of altering the sequence pattern of amphipathic peptides from strictly alternating hydrophobic/hydrophilic repeats to more complex patterning of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues on self-assembly of the resulting sequences is reported. Self-assembly of the Ac-(FKFE)2-NH2 peptide was compared to that of four related sequences with varied amino acid sequence patterning: Ac-(FK)2(FE)2-NH2, Ac-KEFFFFKE-NH2, Ac-(KFFE)2-NH2, and Ac-FFKEKEFF-NH2. The Ac-(FKFE)2-NH2 and Ac-(FK)2(FE)2-NH2 peptides effectively self-assembled at high (1.0 mM) and low (0.2 mM) concentrations (pH 3-4) into β-sheet nanoribbons that were 8 and 4 nm wide, respectively. The Ac-KEFFFFKE-NH2 peptide failed to self-assemble at low concentration (pH 3-4), but self-assembled into distinct nanotapes that were ~20 nm in width at high concentration. Ac-(KFFE)2-NH2 and Ac-FFKEKEFF-NH2 failed to self-assemble into fibril/tape-like materials at either high or low concentration at pH 3-4, although Ac-FFKEKEFF-NH2 formed micelle-like aggregates at higher concentrations. At neutral pH, similar self-assembly behavior was observed for each peptide as was observed at acidic pH. An exception was the Ac-FFKEKEFF-NH2 peptide, which formed ~20 nm nanotapes at neutral pH. These results indicate that amino acid sequence patterns exert a profound influence on self-assembly propensity and morphology of the resulting materials even when the overall hydrophobicity or charge of the related peptides are identical. Sequence pattern variation can thus be exploited as a variable in the creation of novel materials composed of self-assembled peptides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm400876sDOI Listing
September 2013

Sequence length determinants for self-assembly of amphipathic β-sheet peptides.

Biopolymers 2013 Nov;100(6):738-50

Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 14627-0216.

Amphipathic peptides composed of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids are a privileged class of peptide, which have a high propensity to self-assemble into β-sheet fibrils. The Ac-(FKFE)2-NH2 peptide has been extensively studied and forms putative β-sheet bilayer fibrils in which the hydrophobic Phe side chains are organized to a single face of each constituent sheet; upon bilayer formation, these hydrophobic benzyl groups are sequestered in the hydrophobic core of the resulting fibril. In order for the Phe side chains to be uniformly displayed on one face of Ac-(FKFE)2-NH2 β-sheets, an antiparallel packing orientation in which one amino acid residue is unpaired must be adopted. Based on molecular models, we hypothesized that truncated seven amino acid derivatives of Ac-(FKFE)2-NH2 in which either the N-terminal Phe residue (Ac-KFEFKFE-NH2) or the C-terminal Glu residue (Ac-FKFEFKF-NH2) is eliminated should readily self-assemble into β-sheet bilayers in which all hydrogen bond and hydrophobic/charge interactions are satisfied. We found, however, that these minute changes in peptide sequence have unanticipated and dramatic effects on the self-assembly of each peptide. Ac-FKFEFKF-NH2 self-assembled into fibrils with unique morphology relative to the parent peptide, whereas the Ac-KFEFKFE-NH2 peptide had a strongly reduced propensity to self-assemble, even failing to self-assemble altogether under some conditions. These findings provide significant insight into the effect of sequence length and strand registry as well as hydrophobicity and charge on the self-assembly of simple amphipathic peptides to illuminate the possibility of tuning self-assembly processes and the resulting structures with minute changes to peptide sequence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bip.22248DOI Listing
November 2013

Probing aromatic, hydrophobic, and steric effects on the self-assembly of an amyloid-β fragment peptide.

Mol Biosyst 2011 Feb 9;7(2):486-96. Epub 2010 Nov 9.

Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0216, USA.

Aromatic amino acids have been shown to promote self-assembly of amyloid peptides, although the basis for this amyloid-inducing behavior is not understood. We adopted the amyloid-β 16-22 peptide (Aβ(16-22), Ac-KLVFFAE-NH(2)) as a model to study the role of aromatic amino acids in peptide self-assembly. Aβ(16-22) contains two consecutive Phe residues (19 and 20) in which Phe 19 side chains form interstrand contacts in fibrils while Phe 20 side chains interact with the side chain of Va l18. The kinetic and thermodynamic effect of varying the hydrophobicity and aromaticity at positions 19 and 20 by mutation with Ala, Tyr, cyclohexylalanine (Cha), and pentafluorophenylalanine (F(5)-Phe) (order of hydrophobicity is Ala < Tyr < Phe < F(5)-Phe < Cha) was characterized. Ala and Tyr position 19 variants failed to undergo fibril formation at the peptide concentrations studied, but Cha and F(5)-Phe variants self-assembled at dramatically enhanced rates relative to wild-type. Cha mutation was thermodynamically stabilizing at position 20 (ΔΔG = -0.2 kcal mol(-1) relative to wild-type) and destabilizing at position 19 (ΔΔG = +0.2 kcal mol(-1)). Conversely, F(5)-Phe mutations were strongly stabilizing at both positions (ΔΔG = -1.3 kcal mol(-1) at 19, ΔΔG = -0.9 kcal mol(-1) at 20). The double Cha and F(5)-Phe mutants showed that the thermodynamic effects were additive (ΔΔG = 0 kcal mol(-1) for Cha 19,20 and -2.1 kcal mol(-1) for F(5)-Phe 19,20). These results indicate that sequence hydrophobicity alone does not dictate amyloid potential, but that aromatic, hydrophobic, and steric considerations collectively influence fibril formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0mb00080aDOI Listing
February 2011

Body composition and muscle strength as predictors of bone mineral density in Crohn's disease.

J Bone Miner Metab 2009 31;27(4):456-63. Epub 2009 Mar 31.

School of Human Movement Studies, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Compromised skeletal status is a frequent finding in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), leading to increased fracture risk. Low body weight is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in CD, although the relative importance of its components, lean and fat mass, is unclear. Muscle strength is also a predictor of BMD in nondiseased populations; however, its association with bone in CD is unknown. We examined the independent effects of body composition and muscle strength on regional and whole-body BMD in a cohort of CD patients. Sixty men and women, aged 22-72 years, with disease duration of 13 +/- 7 years, underwent scanning of the spine, hip, forearm, and whole-body BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Lean tissue, appendicular muscle mass (AMM), and fat mass were derived by DXA and grip strength by dynamometry. Medical history, medication usage, clinical variables, and nutritional intake were obtained by questionnaire. Prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was 32 and 17%, respectively, with osteopenia more common at the hip and osteoporosis more common at the spine. In multiple regression analyses, AMM was an independent predictor of whole-body and regional BMD whereas lean mass was an independent predictor at the hip. Neither grip strength nor fat mass was independently associated with BMD. Of the components of body composition, muscle mass was strongly associated with regional and whole-body BMD. Preserving or augmenting muscle mass in this population may be a useful strategy to preserve BMD and thereby reduce fracture risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00774-009-0059-5DOI Listing
September 2009

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha haplotype is strongly associated with bone mineral density in patients with Crohn's disease.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007 Jun;22(6):913-9

School of Human Movement Studies, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background And Aim: There is limited consensus on the major variables that determine bone integrity and bone loss in patients with Crohn's disease. Twin and family studies in the general population indicate that up to 85% of variance in bone mineral density is inherited. The aim was to determine the prevalence of bone loss and both molecular and clinical risk factors for bone loss in a large Crohn's disease population.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 304 patients with Crohn's disease attending the Inflammatory Bowel Disease unit at Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Queensland. The results of bone density testing were ascertained directly and by a mailed questionnaire. Bone mineral density data were combined with clinical information and correlated with single nucleotide polymorphisms within the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-10, and NOD2/CARD15 genes.

Results: Of 304 Crohn's disease patients, 101 had undergone previous bone density testing. Forty-five patients (45%) had been diagnosed with osteopenia and 18 (18%) were osteoporotic. After multivariate analysis, both the TNF-alpha GT haplotype and the -857 CC genotype showed strong associations with bone mineral density overall (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively). Body mass index (P = 0.01) and previous bowel resection in female patients (P = 0.03) were predictive of a higher spine bone density, while body mass index (P = 0.003) and the effect of years since first bowel resection (P = 0.02) remained independent predictors of proximal femur bone mineral density. There were no other significant associations observed.

Conclusions: This study has identified a novel protective association between a TNF-alpha haplotype and bone mineral density in Crohn's disease. It confirms the important influence of body mass index and intestinal resection on bone loss in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2006.04679.xDOI Listing
June 2007

Bone loss in Crohn's disease: exercise as a potential countermeasure.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2005 Dec;11(12):1108-18

School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia.

Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with a number of secondary conditions including osteoporosis, which increases the risk of bone fracture. The cause of metabolic bone disease in this population is believed to be multifactorial and may include the disease itself and associated inflammation, high-dose corticosteroid use, weight loss and malabsorption, a lack of exercise and physical activity, and an underlying genetic predisposition to bone loss. Reduced bone mineral density has been reported in between 5% to 80% of CD sufferers, although it is generally believed that approximately 40% of patients suffer from osteopenia and 15% from osteoporosis. Recent studies suggest a small but significantly increased risk of fracture compared with healthy controls and, perhaps, sufferers of other gastrointestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis. The role of physical activity and exercise in the prevention and treatment of CD-related bone loss has received little attention, despite the benefits of specific exercises being well documented in healthy populations. This article reviews the prevalence of and risk factors for low bone mass in CD patients and examines various treatments for osteoporosis in these patients, with a particular focus on physical activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.mib.0000192325.28168.08DOI Listing
December 2005

The diagnostic role of dual femur bone density measurement in low-impact fractures.

Osteoporos Int 2003 Jun 1;14(4):339-44. Epub 2003 Apr 1.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Bone Densitometry, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston Road, 4029, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia,

A high correlation has been documented between the left and right femoral bone mineral densities in the normal population. This suggests that dual femur measurements are not justified in clinical practice. This study evaluated whether this premise holds for subjects who have lost bone mass and have sustained fractures with minimal trauma. Seventy-eight women aged 31-83 years (mean=66 years) with previous low-impact fractures had both proximal femora measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were significant correlations between values in the left and right total hip (TH) (r=0.95; p<0.05) and in the left and right femoral neck (FN) (r=0.90; p<0.05). The mean differences between the left and right TH and FN densities were not significant. However, the range of the limits of agreement for the TH (-0.074 to 0.086 g/cm2) and FN (-0.115 to 0.105 g/cm2) were greater than the 95% confidence interval for true change for the TH (0.05 g/cm2) and FN (0.07 g/cm2). Any longitudinal BMD assessment therefore needs to measure the same proximal femur to get a reliable comparison. A one-tailed analysis showed that for the TH, 7.5% of subjects had a T-score discordance greater than or equal to 0.5 and 0.5% had a T-score discordance greater than or equal to 1. For the FN, 9% had a T-score discordance greater than or equal to 0.5 and 2.5% had a T-score discordance greater than or equal to 1. The use of dual femur measurements increases the diagnostic yield by about 10% in subjects with prior minimal trauma fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-003-1378-3DOI Listing
June 2003

Infants' learning, memory, and generalization of learning for bimodal events.

J Exp Child Psychol 2003 Jan;84(1):1-19

Psychology Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont., Canada N1G 2W1.

Study 1 investigated whether infants 3 and 7 months of age show differential learning of and memory for sight-sound pairs depending on whether or not temporal synchrony was present; memory was assessed after a 10-min and 1-week interval. Study 2 examined whether 7-month-olds show generalization of learning when they encounter novel bimodal events that are similar (changes in size, orientation, or color, and spectral sound properties) to the sight-sound pairs learned 1 week earlier based on temporal synchrony. For Study 1, infants received a familiarization phase followed by a paired-comparison preference procedure to assess for learning of the sight-sound pairs. One week later a memory test was given. Results confirmed that 7-month-olds had no difficulty learning auditory-visual pairings regardless of whether or not events were temporally synchronous, and they remembered these 10 min and 1 week later. In contrast, 3-month-olds showed poorer learning of sight-sound associations in the no-synchrony than synchrony conditions, and memory for sight-sound pairs 1 week later was shown only for the synchrony conditions. Results for Study 2 revealed generalization of learning of bimodal pairings under all stimulus conditions after a 1-week interval at 7 months of age. Implications of these findings for development of intersensory knowledge are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0022-0965(02)00162-5DOI Listing
January 2003