Publications by authors named "Naohiro Yano"

31 Publications

Irisin counteracts high glucose and fatty acid-induced cytotoxicity by preserving the AMPK-insulin receptor signaling axis in C2C12 myoblasts.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2020 05 17;318(5):E791-E805. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Roger Williams Medical Center, Providence, Rhode Island.

Irisin, a newly identified myokine, is critical to modulating body metabolism and biological homeostasis. However, whether irisin protects the skeletal muscles against metabolic stresses remains unknown. In this study, we determine the effect of irisin on high glucose and fatty acid-induced damages using irisin-overexpressed mouse C2C12 (irisin-C2C12) myoblasts and skeletal muscle from irisin-injected mice. Compared with empty vector-transfected control C2C12 cells, irisin overexpression resulted in a marked increase in cell viability and decrease in apoptosis under high-glucose stress. Progression of the cell cycle into the G2/M phase in the proliferative condition was also observed with irisin overexpression. Furthermore, glucose uptake, glycogen accumulation, and phosphorylation of AMPKα/insulin receptor (IR) β-subunit/Erk1/2 in response to insulin stimulation were enhanced by irisin overexpression. In irisin-C2C12 myoblasts, these responses of phosphorylation were preserved under palmitate treatment, which induced insulin resistance in the control cells. These effects of irisin were reversed by inhibiting AMPK with compound C. In addition, high glucose-induced suppression of the mitochondrial membrane potential was also prevented by irisin. Moreover, suppression of IR in irisin-C2C12 myoblasts by cotransfection of shRNA against IR also mitigated the effects of irisin while not affecting AMPKα phosphorylation. As an in vivo study, soleus muscles from irisin-injected mice showed elevated phosphorylation of AMPKα and Erk1/2 and glycogen contents. Our results indicate that irisin counteracts the stresses generated by high glucose and fatty acid levels and irisin overexpression serves as a novel approach to elicit cellular protection. Furthermore, AMPK activation is a crucial factor that regulates insulin action as a downstream target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00219.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7272726PMC
May 2020

p38-Regulated/activated protein kinase plays a pivotal role in protecting heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury and preserving cardiac performance.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2019 09 10;317(3):C525-C533. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Department of Surgery, Roger Williams Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island.

p38-Regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK) plays a critical role in modulating cellular survival and biological function. However, the function of PRAK in the regulation of myocardial ischemic injury remains unknown. This study is aimed at determining the function of PRAK in modulating myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial remodeling following myocardial infarction. Hearts were isolated from adult male homozygous PRAK and wild-type mice and subjected to global ischemia-reperfusion injury in Langendorff isolated heart perfusion. PRAK mice mitigated postischemic ventricular functional recovery and decreased coronary effluent. Moreover, the infarct size in the perfused heart was significantly increased by deletion of PRAK. Western blot showed that deletion of PRAK decreased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Furthermore, the effect of deletion of PRAK on myocardial function and remodeling was also examined on infarcted mice in which the left anterior descending artery was ligated. Echocardiography indicated that PRAK mice had accelerated left ventricular systolic dysfunction, which was associated with increased hypertrophy in the infarcted area. Deletion of PRAK augmented interstitial fibrosis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive myocytes. Furthermore, immunostaining analysis shows that CD31-postive vascular density and α-smooth muscle actin capillary staining decreased significantly in PRAK mice. These results indicate that deletion of PRAK enhances susceptibility to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, attenuates cardiac performance and angiogenesis, and increases interstitial fibrosis and apoptosis in the infarcted hearts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00122.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6766622PMC
September 2019

Inhibition of DUSP6 sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents via regulation of ERK signaling response genes.

Oncotarget 2019 May 21;10(36):3315-3327. Epub 2019 May 21.

Women and Infants Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Program in Women's Oncology, Providence, RI, USA.

Dual specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) is a protein phosphatase that deactivates extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Since the ovarian cancer biomarker human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) interacts with the ERK pathway, we sought to determine the relationship between DUSP6 and HE4 and elucidate DUSP6's role in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Viability assays revealed a significant decrease in cell viability with pharmacological inhibition of DUSP6 using (E/Z)-BCI hydrochloride in ovarian cancer cells treated with carboplatin or paclitaxel, compared to treatment with either agent alone. Quantitative PCR was used to evaluate levels of ERK pathway response genes to BCI in combination with recombinant HE4 (rHE4), carboplatin, and paclitaxel. Expression of EGR1, a promoter of apoptosis, was higher in cells co-treated with BCI and paclitaxel or carboplatin than in cells treated with chemotherapeutic agents alone, while expression of the proto-oncogene c-JUN was decreased with co-treatment. The effect of BCI on the expression of these two genes opposed that of rHE4. Pathway focused quantitative PCR also revealed suppression of in cells co-treated with BCI plus carboplatin or paclitaxel. Finally, expression levels of DUSP6 in EOC tissue were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, revealing significantly increased levels of DUSP6 in serous EOC tissue compared to adjacent normal tissue. A positive correlation between HE4 and DUSP6 levels was determined by Spearman Rank correlation. In conclusion, DUSP6 inhibition sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents and alters gene expression of ERK response genes, suggesting that DUSP6 could plausibly function as a novel therapeutic target to reduce chemoresistance in EOC.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6534361PMC
May 2019

Septin-2 is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer and mediates proliferation via regulation of cellular metabolic proteins.

Oncotarget 2019 Apr 26;10(31):2959-2972. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI, USA.

Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) is associated with dismal survival rates due to the fact that patients are frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage and eventually become resistant to traditional chemotherapeutics. Hence, there is a crucial need for new and innovative therapies. Septin-2, a member of the septin family of GTP binding proteins, has been characterized in EOC for the first time and represents a potential future target. Septin-2 was found to be overexpressed in serous and clear cell human patient tissue compared to benign disease. Stable septin-2 knockdown clones developed in an ovarian cancer cell line exhibited a significant decrease in proliferation rates. Comparative label-free proteomic analysis of septin-2 knockdown cells revealed differential protein expression of pathways associated with the TCA cycle, acetyl CoA, proteasome and spliceosome. Further validation of target proteins indicated that septin-2 plays a predominant role in post-transcriptional and translational modifications as well as cellular metabolism, and suggested the potential novel role of septin-2 in promoting EOC tumorigenesis through these mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6508204PMC
April 2019

Human Epididymis Secretory Protein 4 (HE4) Compromises Cytotoxic Mononuclear Cells via Inducing Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6.

Front Pharmacol 2019 19;10:216. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Surgery, Roger Williams Medical Center, Boston University Medical School, Providence, RI, United States.

While selective overexpression of serum clinical biomarker Human epididymis secretory protein 4 (HE4) is indicative of ovarian cancer tumorigenesis, much is still known about the mechanistic role of the HE4 gene or gene product. Here, we examine the role of the secretory glycoprotein HE4 in ovarian cancer immune evasion. Through modified subtractive hybridization analyses of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we have characterized gene targets of HE4 and established a preliminary mechanism of HE4-mediated immune failure in ovarian tumors. Dual specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) emerged as the most upregulated gene in PBMCs upon exposure to HE4. DUSP6 was found to be upregulated in CD8 cells and CD56 cells. HE4 exposure reduced Erk1/2 phosphorylation specifically in these cell populations and the effect was erased by co-incubation with a DUSP6 inhibitor, (E)-2-benzylidene-3-(cyclohexylamino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (BCI). In co-culture with PBMCs, HE4-silenced SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells exhibited enhanced proliferation upon exposure to external HE4, while this effect was partially attenuated by adding BCI to the culture. Additionally, the reversal effects of BCI were erased in the co-culture with CD8 / CD56 cell deprived PBMCs. Taken together, these findings show that HE4 enhances tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer by compromising cytotoxic CD8 and CD56 cells through upregulation of self-produced DUSP6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433991PMC
March 2019

Irisin promotes cardiac progenitor cell-induced myocardial repair and functional improvement in infarcted heart.

J Cell Physiol 2019 02 1;234(2):1671-1681. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Department of Surgery, Roger Williams Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island.

Irisin, a newly identified hormone and cardiokine, is critical for modulating body metabolism. New evidence indicates that irisin protects the heart against myocardial ischemic injury. However, whether irisin enhances cardiac progenitor cell (CPC)-induced cardiac repair remains unknown. This study examines the effect of irisin on CPC-induced cardiac repair when these cells are introduced into the infarcted myocardium. Nkx2.5 CPC stable cells were isolated from mouse embryonic stem cells. Nkx2.5 CPCs (0.5 × 10 ) were reintroduced into the infarcted myocardium using PEGlylated fibrin delivery. The mouse myocardial infarction model was created by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Nkx2.5 CPCs were pretreated with irisin at a concentration of 5 ng/ml in vitro for 24 hr before transplantation. Myocardial functions were evaluated by echocardiographic measurement. Eight weeks after engraftment, Nkx2.5 CPCs improved ventricular function as evident by an increase in ejection fraction and fractional shortening. These findings are concomitant with the suppression of cardiac hypertrophy and attenuation of myocardial interstitial fibrosis. Transplantation of Nkx2.5 CPCs promoted cardiac regeneration and neovascularization, which were increased with the pretreatment of Nkx2.5 CPCs with irisin. Furthermore, irisin treatment promoted myocyte proliferation as indicated by proliferative markers Ki67 and phosphorylated histone 3 and decreased apoptosis. Additionally, irisin resulted in a marked reduction of histone deacetylase 4 and increased p38 acetylation in cultured CPCs. These results indicate that irisin promoted Nkx2.5 CPC-induced cardiac regeneration and functional improvement and that irisin serves as a novel therapeutic approach for stem cells in cardiac repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.27037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6510276PMC
February 2019

Human Epididymis Protein 4 Promotes Events Associated with Metastatic Ovarian Cancer Regulation of the Extracelluar Matrix.

Front Oncol 2017 22;7:332. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Program in Women's Oncology, Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI, United States.

Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) has received much attention recently due to its diagnostic and prognostic abilities for epithelial ovarian cancer. Since its inclusion in the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA), studies have focused on its functional effects in ovarian cancer. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of HE4 in invasion, haptotaxis, and adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, we sought to gain an understanding of relevant transcriptional profiles and protein kinase signaling pathways mediated by this multifunctional protein. Exposure of OVCAR8 ovarian cancer cells to recombinant HE4 (rHE4) promoted invasion, haptotaxis toward a fibronectin substrate, and adhesion onto fibronectin. Overexpression of HE4 or treatment with rHE4 led to upregulation of several transcripts coding for extracellular matrix proteins, including , and . Gene ontology indicated an enrichment of terms related to extracellular matrix, cell migration, adhesion, growth, and kinase phosphorylation. LAMC2 and LAMB3 protein levels were constitutively elevated in cells overexpressing HE4 and were upregulated in a time-dependent manner in cells exposed to rHE4 in the media. Deposition of laminin-332, the heterotrimer comprising LAMC2 and LAMB3 proteins, was increased in OVCAR8 cells treated with rHE4 or conditioned media from HE4-overexpressing cells. Enzymatic activity of matriptase, a serine protease that cleaves laminin-332 and contributes to its pro-migratory functional activity, was enhanced by rHE4 treatment . Proteomic analysis revealed activation of focal adhesion kinase signaling in OVCAR8 cells treated with conditioned media from HE4-overexpressing cells. Focal adhesions were increased in cells treated with rHE4 in the presence of fibronectin. These results indicate a direct role for HE4 in mediating malignant properties of ovarian cancer cells and validate the need for HE4-targeted therapies that will suppress activation of oncogenic transcriptional activation and signaling cascades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2017.00332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5786890PMC
January 2018

Irisin plays a pivotal role to protect the heart against ischemia and reperfusion injury.

J Cell Physiol 2017 Dec 3;232(12):3775-3785. Epub 2017 May 3.

Department of Surgery, Boston University Medical School, Roger Williams Medical Center, Providence, Rhode Island.

Irisin, a newly identified hormone, is critical to modulating body metabolism, thermogenesis and reducing oxidative stresses. However, whether irisin protects the heart against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. In this study, we determine the effect of irisin on myocardial I/R injury in the Langendorff perfused heart and cultured myocytes. Adult C57/BL6 mice were treated with irisin (100 mg/kg) or vehicle for 30 min to elicit preconditioning. The isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 30 min reperfusion. Left ventricular function was measured and infarction size were determined using by tetrazolium staining. Western blot was employed to determine myocardial SOD-1, active-caspase 3, annexin V, p38, and phospho-p38. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation for assessment of the effects of irisin on mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Irisin treatment produced remarkable improvements in ventricular functional recovery, as evident by the increase in RPP and attenuation in LVEDP. As compared to the vehicle treatment, irisin resulted in a marked reduction of myocardial infarct size. Notably, irisin treatment increased SOD-1 and p38 phosphorylation, but suppressed levels of active-caspase 3, cleaved PARP, and annexin V. In cardiomyoblasts exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation, irisin treatment significantly attenuated hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), as indicated by the reduction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and apoptotic cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, irisin treatments suppressed the opening of mPTP, mitochondrial swelling, and protected mitochondria function. Our results indicate that irisin serves as a novel approach to eliciting cardioprotection, which is associated with the improvement of mitochondrial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.25857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5550372PMC
December 2017

Sodium Butyrate Protects -Against High Fat Diet-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction and Metabolic Disorders in Type II Diabetic Mice.

J Cell Biochem 2017 08 25;118(8):2395-2408. Epub 2017 Apr 25.

Department of Surgery, Roger Williams Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island.

Histone deacetylases are recently identified to act as key regulators for cardiac pathophysiology and metabolic disorders. However, the function of histone deacetylase (HDAC) in controlling cardiac performance in Type II diabetes and obesity remains unknown. Here, we determine whether HDAC inhibition attenuates high fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiac dysfunction and improves metabolic features. Adult mice were fed with either HFD or standard chow food for 24 weeks. Starting at 12 weeks, mice were divided into four groups randomly, in which sodium butyrate (1%), a potent HDAC inhibitor, was provided to chow and HFD-fed mice in drinking water, respectively. Glucose intolerance, metabolic parameters, cardiac function, and remodeling were assessed. Histological analysis and cellular signaling were examined at 24 weeks following euthanization of mice. HFD-fed mice demonstrated myocardial dysfunction and profound interstitial fibrosis, which were attenuated by HDAC inhibition. HFD-induced metabolic syndrome features insulin resistance, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, lipid accumulations, and cardiac hypertrophy, these effects were prevented by HDAC inhibition. Furthermore, HDAC inhibition attenuated myocyte apoptosis, reduced production of reactive oxygen species, and increased angiogenesis in the HFD-fed myocardium. Notably, HFD induced decreases in MKK3, p38, p38 regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK), and Akt-1, but not p44/42 phosphorylation, which were prevented by HDAC inhibition. These results suggest that HDAC inhibition plays a critical role to preserve cardiac performance and mitigate metabolic disorders in obesity and diabetes, which is associated with MKK3/p38/PRAK pathway. The study holds promise in developing a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of Type II diabetic-induced heart failure and metabolic disorders. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2395-2408, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.25902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5462877PMC
August 2017

Exendin-4 induces myocardial protection through MKK3 and Akt-1 in infarcted hearts.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2016 Feb 6;310(4):C270-83. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Department of Surgery, Roger Williams Medical Center, Boston University Medical School, Boston University, Providence, Rhode Island;

We have demonstrated that glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) protects the heart against ischemic injury. However, the physiological mechanism by which GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) initiates cardioprotection remains to be determined. The objective of this study is to elucidate the functional roles of MAPK kinase 3 (MKK3) and Akt-1 in mediating exendin-4-elicited protection in the infarcted hearts. Adult mouse myocardial infarction (MI) was created by ligation of the left descending artery. Wild-type, MKK3(-/-), Akt-1(-/-), and Akt-1(-/-);MKK3(-/-) mice were divided into one of several groups: 1) sham: animals underwent thoracotomy without ligation; 2) MI: animals underwent MI and received a daily dose of intraperitoneal injection of vehicle (saline); 3) MI + exendin-4: infarcted mice received daily injections of exendin-4, a GLP-1R agonist (0.1 mg/kg, ip). Echocardiographic measurements indicate that exendin-4 treatment resulted in the preservation of ventricular function and increases in the survival rate, but these effects were diminished in MKK3(-/-), Akt-1(-/-), and Akt-1(-/-);MKK3(-/-) mice. Exendin-4 treatments suppressed cardiac hypotrophy and reduced scar size and cardiac interstitial fibrosis, respectively, but these beneficial effects were lost in genetic elimination of MKK3, Akt-1, or Akt-1(-/-);MKK3(-/-) mice. GLP-1R stimulation stimulated angiogenic responses, which were also mitigated by deletion of MKK3 and Akt-1. Exendin-4 treatment increased phosphorylation of MKK3, p38, and Akt-1 at Ser129 but decreased levels of active caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase; these proteins were diminished in MKK3(-/-), Akt-1(-/-), and Akt-1(-/-);MKK3(-/-) mice. These results reveal that exendin-4 treatment improves cardiac function, attenuates cardiac remodeling, and promotes angiogenesis in the infarcted myocardium through MKK3 and Akt-1 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00194.2015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4864970PMC
February 2016

Tetrathiomolybdate mediates cisplatin-induced p38 signaling and EGFR degradation and enhances response to cisplatin therapy in gynecologic cancers.

Sci Rep 2015 Nov 16;5:15911. Epub 2015 Nov 16.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Cisplatin and its analogs are among the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents against various types of cancer. It is known that cisplatin can activate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which may provide a survival benefit in cancers. Tetrathiomolybdate (TM) is a potent anti-cancer and anti-angiogenic agent and has been investigated in a number of clinical trials for cancer. In this study, we explore the therapeutic potential of TM on cisplatin-mediated EGFR regulation. Our study shows that TM is not cytotoxic, but exerts an anti-proliferative effect in ECC-1 cells. However, TM treatment prior to cisplatin markedly improves cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. TM suppressed cisplatin-induced activation of EGFR while potentiating activation of p38; the activation of p38 signaling appeared to promote cisplatin-induced EGFR degradation. These results are in contrast to what we saw when cells were co-treated with cisplatin plus an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, where receptor activation was inhibited but receptor degradation was also blocked. Our current study is in agreement with previous findings that TM may have a therapeutic benefit by inhibiting EGFR activation. We furthermore provide evidence that TM may provide an additional benefit by potentiating p38 activation following cisplatin treatment, which may in turn promote receptor degradation by cisplatin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep15911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4644948PMC
November 2015

Tetrathiomolybdate inhibits mitochondrial complex IV and mediates degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in cancer cells.

Sci Rep 2015 Oct 15;5:14296. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that triggers adaptive responses upon low oxygen conditions and plays a crucial role in cancer metabolism and therapy resistance. Tetrathiomolybdate (TM), a therapy option for copper overload disorder, has also been shown to be capable of limiting tumor angiogenesis, although its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Using ovarian and endometrial cancer cell lines, we observed that TM downregulates HIF-1α protein levels and HIF-transcriptional targets involved in tumor angiogenesis and glycolysis, but did not affect HIF-1α protein synthesis. TM-mediated HIF-1α downregulation was suppressed when HIF-prolyl hydroxylase activity was pharmacologically inhibited using deferoxamine or dimethyloxaloylglycine, and also when the oxygen-dependent degradation domains of HIF-1α, which are responsible for the interaction with HIF-prolyl hydroxylase, were deleted. These findings suggest that TM causes HIF-1α downregulation in a HIF-prolyl hydroxylase-dependent manner. Our studies showed that TM inhibits the activity of the copper-dependent mitochondrial complex IV and reduces mitochondrial respiration, thereby possibly increasing oxygen availability, which is crucial for HIF-prolyl hydroxylase activity. Pimonidazole staining also showed that TM elevates oxygen tension in hypoxic cells. Our studies provide mechanistic evidence for TM-mediated HIF-1α regulation and suggest its therapeutic potential as a method of blocking angiogenesis in ovarian and endometrial tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep14296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4606568PMC
October 2015

Metformin protects cardiomyocyte from doxorubicin induced cytotoxicity through an AMP-activated protein kinase dependent signaling pathway: an in vitro study.

PLoS One 2014 15;9(8):e104888. Epub 2014 Aug 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Women & Infants Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.

Doxorubicin (Dox) is one of the most widely used antitumor drugs, but its cumulative cardiotoxicity have been major concerns in cancer therapeutic practice for decades. Recent studies established that metformin (Met), an oral anti-diabetic drug, provides protective effects in Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. Met has been shown to increase fatty acid oxidation, an effect mediated by AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). Here we delineate the intracellular signaling factors involved in Met mediated protection against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity in the H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell line. Treatment with low dose Met (0.1 mM) increased cell viabilities and Ki-67 expressions while decreasing LDH leakages, ROS generations and [Ca2+]i. The protective effect was reversed by a co-treatment with compound-C, an AMPK specific inhibitor, or by an over expression of a dominant-negative AMPKα cDNA. Inhibition of PKA with H89 or a suppression of Src kinase by a small hairpin siRNA also abrogated the protective effect of the low dose Met. Whereas, with a higher dose of Met (1.0 mM), the protective effects were abolished regardless of the enhanced AMPK, PKA/CREB1 and Src kinase activity. In high dose Met treated cells, expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) was significantly suppressed. Furthermore, the protective effect of low dose Met was totally reversed by co-treatment with AG1296, a PDGFR specific antagonist. These data provide in vitro evidence supporting a signaling cascade by which low dose Met exerts protective effects against Dox via sequential involvement of AMPK, PKA/CREB1, Src and PDGFR. Whereas high dose Met reverses the effect by suppressing PDGFR expression.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0104888PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4134245PMC
November 2015

Stimulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor through exendin-4 preserves myocardial performance and prevents cardiac remodeling in infarcted myocardium.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2014 Oct 12;307(8):E630-43. Epub 2014 Aug 12.

Department of Surgery, Roger Williams Medical Center, Boston University Medical School, Boston University, Providence, Rhode Island;

We have demonstrated that GLP-1 improved myocardial functional recovery in acute myocardial ischemic injury. However, whether stimulation of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) with exendin-4, a selective GLP-1R agonist, could initiate a protective effect in the heart remains to be determined. Mouse myocardial infarction (MI) was created by ligation of the left descending artery. After 48 h of MI, animals were divided into the following groups (n = 5-7/group): 1) sham (animals that underwent thoracotomy without ligation), 2) MI [animals that underwent MI and received a daily dose of intraperitoneal injection (ip) of saline]; and 3) MI + exendin-4 [infarcted mice that received injections of exendin-4 (0.1 mg/kg ip)]. Two weeks later, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and an isovolumetrically perfused heart. Compared with control MI hearts, stimulation of GLP-1R improved cardiac function, which was associated with attenuation of myocardial hypertrophy, the mitigation of interstitial fibrosis, and an increase in survival rate in post-MI hearts. Furthermore, H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were preconditioned with exendin-4 at a dose of 100 nmol/l and then subjected to hydrogen peroxide exposure at concentrations of 50 and 100 μmol/l. The exendin-4 treatment decreased lactate dehydrogenase leakage and increased cell survival. Notably, this event was also associated with the reduction of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9 and attenuation of reactive oxygen species production. Exendin-4 treatments improved mitochondrial respiration and suppressed the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore and protected mitochondria function. Our results indicate that GLP-1R serves as a novel approach to eliciting cardioprotection and mitigating oxidative stress-induced injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00109.2014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4200306PMC
October 2014

HE4 expression is associated with hormonal elements and mediated by importin-dependent nuclear translocation.

Sci Rep 2014 Jun 30;4:5500. Epub 2014 Jun 30.

Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital, Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, RI, 02905, USA.

Antiestrogens including tamoxifen and fulvestrant have been evaluated as chemotherapeutics for ovarian cancer, particularly in cases of platinum resistant disease. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is highly overexpressed in women with ovarian cancer and overexpression of HE4 has been found to correlate with platinum resistance. However, the role of HE4 in modulating responses to hormones and hormonal therapy has not been characterized in ovarian cancer. Here we demonstrate that 17β-estradiol, tamoxifen, and fulvestrant induce nuclear and nucleolar translocation of HE4 and that HE4 overexpression induces resistance to antiestrogens. HE4 was found to interact with estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), and HE4 overexpression resulted in ER-α downregulation in vitro and in human ovarian cancers. We identified a novel role for importin-4 in governing the nuclear transport of HE4. Treatment with ivermectin, an importin inhibitor, blocked HE4/importin-4 nuclear accumulation and sensitized HE4-overexpressing ovarian cancer cells to fulvestrant and tamoxifen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep05500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4074789PMC
June 2014

HE4 (WFDC2) gene overexpression promotes ovarian tumor growth.

Sci Rep 2014 Jan 6;4:3574. Epub 2014 Jan 6.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Women and Infants' Hospital of Rhode Island, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA.

Selective overexpression of Human epididymal secretory protein E4 (HE4) points to a role in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis but little is known about the role the HE4 gene or the gene product plays. Here we show that elevated HE4 serum levels correlate with chemoresistance and decreased survival rates in EOC patients. HE4 overexpression promoted xenograft tumor growth and chemoresistance against cisplatin in an animal model resulting in reduced survival rates. HE4 displayed responses to tumor microenvironment constituents and presented increased expression as well as nuclear translocation upon EGF, VEGF and Insulin treatment and nucleolar localization with Insulin treatment. HE4 interacts with EGFR, IGF1R, and transcription factor HIF1α. Constructs of antisense phosphorothio-oligonucleotides targeting HE4 arrested tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively these findings implicate increased HE4 expression as a molecular factor in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. Selective targeting directed towards the HE4 protein demonstrates therapeutic benefits for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep03574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3880958PMC
January 2014

In vitro silencing of the insulin receptor attenuates cellular accumulation of fibronectin in renal mesangial cells.

Cell Commun Signal 2012 Oct 12;10(1):29. Epub 2012 Oct 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Women & Infants Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, 02905, USA.

Unlabelled:

Background: Insulin receptor (InsR) and insulin signaling proteins are widely distributed throughout the kidney cortex. Insulin signaling can act in the kidney in multiple ways, some of which may be totally independent of its primary role of the maintenance of whole-body glucose homeostasis. However, descriptions of the insulin signaling in renal glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) are quite limited and the roles of insulin signaling in MC functions have not been sufficiently elucidated.

Results: InsR silencing induced a unique phenotype of reduced fibronectin (FN) accumulation in renal glomerular MCs. Transcription level of FN was not significantly changed in the InsR silenced cells, suggesting the phenotype switching was caused by post-transcriptional modification. The decreased expression of InsR was associated with enhanced activity of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R)/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway which contributed in part to the attenuation of cellular FN accumulation. Formation of IGF-1R homodimer was increased in the InsR silenced cells. The InsR silenced cells also showed increased sensitivity to exogenous IGF-1, and increased PI3K activity was reversed significantly by incubating cells with IGF-1R specific antagonist, AG538. PI3K/Akt dependent activation of cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-1 induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and suppressing MMP activity by doxycycline partially reversed FN accumulation in the InsR silenced cells.

Conclusions: The effects of InsR silencing on cellular FN accumulation in vitro are, at least partially, mediated by increased degradation of FN by MMPs which is induced by enhanced signaling sequence of IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt/CREB-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1478-811X-10-29DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3507851PMC
October 2012

Efficacy of a non-hypercalcemic vitamin-D2 derived anti-cancer agent (MT19c) and inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in an ovarian cancer xenograft model.

PLoS One 2012 3;7(4):e34443. Epub 2012 Apr 3.

Molecular Therapeutics Laboratory, Program in Women's Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants' Hospital of Rhode Island, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.

Background: Numerous vitamin-D analogs exhibited poor response rates, high systemic toxicities and hypercalcemia in human trials to treat cancer. We identified the first non-hypercalcemic anti-cancer vitamin D analog MT19c by altering the A-ring of ergocalciferol. This study describes the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action of MT19c in both in vitro and in vivo models.

Methodology/principal Finding: Antitumor efficacy of MT19c was evaluated in ovarian cancer cell (SKOV-3) xenografts in nude mice and a syngenic rat ovarian cancer model. Serum calcium levels of MT19c or calcitriol treated animals were measured. In-silico molecular docking simulation and a cell based VDR reporter assay revealed MT19c-VDR interaction. Genomewide mRNA analysis of MT19c treated tumors identified drug targets which were verified by immunoblotting and microscopy. Quantification of cellular malonyl CoA was carried out by HPLC-MS. A binding study with PPAR-Y receptor was performed. MT19c reduced ovarian cancer growth in xenograft and syngeneic animal models without causing hypercalcemia or acute toxicity. MT19c is a weak vitamin-D receptor (VDR) antagonist that disrupted the interaction between VDR and coactivator SRC2-3. Genome-wide mRNA analysis and western blot and microscopy of MT19c treated xenograft tumors showed inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN) activity. MT19c reduced cellular levels of malonyl CoA in SKOV-3 cells and inhibited EGFR/phosphoinositol-3kinase (PI-3K) activity independently of PPAR-gamma protein.

Significance: Antitumor effects of non-hypercalcemic agent MT19c provide a new approach to the design of vitamin-D based anticancer molecules and a rationale for developing MT19c as a therapeutic agent for malignant ovarian tumors by targeting oncogenic de novo lipogenesis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0034443PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3317945PMC
August 2012

β-Adrenergic receptor-PI3K signaling crosstalk in mouse heart: elucidation of immediate downstream signaling cascades.

PLoS One 2011 19;6(10):e26581. Epub 2011 Oct 19.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Sustained β-adrenergic receptors (βAR) activation leads to cardiac hypertrophy and prevents left ventricular (LV) atrophy during LV unloading. The immediate signaling pathways downstream from βAR stimulation, however, have not been well investigated. The current study was to examine the early cardiac signaling mechanism(s) following βAR stimulation. In adult C57BL/6 mice, acute βAR stimulation induced significant increases in PI3K activity and activation of Akt and ERK1/2 in the heart, but not in lungs or livers. In contrast, the same treatment did not elicit these changes in β(1)/β(2)AR double knockout mice. We further showed the specificity of β(2)AR in this crosstalk as treatment with formoterol, a β(2)AR-selective agonist, but not dobutamine, a predominantly β(1)AR agonist, activated cardiac Akt and ERK1/2. Acute βAR stimulation also significantly increased the phosphorylation of mTOR (the mammalian target of rapamycin), P70S6K, ribosomal protein S6, GSK-3α/β (glycogen synthase kinase-3α/β), and FOXO1/3a (the forkhead box family of transcription factors 1 and 3a). Moreover, acute βAR stimulation time-dependently decreased the mRNA levels of the muscle-specific E3 ligases atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger protein-1 (MuRF1) in mouse heart. Our results indicate that acute βAR stimulation in vivo affects multiple cardiac signaling cascades, including the PI3K signaling pathway, ERK1/2, atrogin-1 and MuRF1. These data 1) provide convincing evidence for the crosstalk between βAR and PI3K signaling pathways; 2) confirm the β(2)AR specificity in this crosstalk in vivo; and 3) identify novel signaling factors involved in cardiac hypertrophy and LV unloading. Understanding of the intricate interplay between β(2)AR activation and these signaling cascades should provide critical clues to the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and enable identification of targets for early clinical interaction of cardiac lesions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0026581PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3197531PMC
February 2012

Effect of disruption of Akt-1 of lin(-)c-kit(+) stem cells on myocardial performance in infarcted heart.

Cardiovasc Res 2010 Sep 21;87(4):704-12. Epub 2010 Apr 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Women and Infants Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Aims: We have demonstrated an important role of bone marrow-derived stem cells in preservation of myocardial function. We investigated whether Akt-1 of lin(-)c-kit(+) stem cells preserves ventricular function following myocardial infarction (MI).

Methods And Results: Isolated lin(-)c-kit(+) cells were conjugated with anti-c-kit heteroconjugated to anti-vascular cell adhesion molecule to facilitate the attachment of stem cells into damaged tissues. Female severe combined immunodeficient mice were used as recipients. MI was created by ligation of the left descending artery. After 48 h, animals were divided into four groups: (i) sham (n = 5): animals underwent thoracotomy without MI; (ii) MI (n = 5): animals underwent MI and received medium; (iii) MI + wild-type (Wt) stem cells (n = 6): MI animals received 5 x 10(5) Wt lin(-)c-kit(+) stem cells; (iv) MI + Akt-1(-/-) stem cells (n = 6): MI animals received 5 x 10(5) Akt-1(-/-) lin(-)c-kit(+) stem cells. Two weeks later, left ventricular function was measured in the Langendorff mode. The peripheral administration of Wt armed stem cells into MI animals restored ventricular function, which was absent in animals receiving Akt-1(-/-) cells. Real-time PCR indicates a decrease in SRY3, a Y chromosome marker in hearts receiving Akt-1(-/-) cells. An increase in angiogenic response was demonstrated in hearts receiving Wt stem cells but not Akt-1(-/-) stem cells.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the peripheral administration of Wt lin(-)c-kit(+) stem cells restores ventricular function and promotes angiogenic response following MI. These benefits were abrogated in MI mice receiving Akt-1(-/-) stem cells, suggesting the pivotal role of Akt-1 in mediating stem cells to protect MI hearts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvq110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920805PMC
September 2010

High ambient glucose induces angiotensin-independent AT-1 receptor activation, leading to increases in proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation in MES-13 mesangial cells.

Biochem J 2009 Sep 14;423(1):129-43. Epub 2009 Sep 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Women & Infants Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA.

Diabetic nephropathy is associated with mesangial ECM (extracellular matrix) accumulation. We have shown that AT-1R [Ang II (angiotensin II) type I receptor] signalling induces ECM proteins via transactivation of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) in mesangial cells. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the effect of high ambient glucose on cell proliferation and ECM expansion in a mesangial context. High glucose induced increases in PI3K activity, proliferation and ECM accumulation in mesangial cells. These effects were abrogated by losartan, an AT-1R antagonist, but not by [Sar1,Thr8]-Ang II (Sar is sarcosine), an inactive analogue of Ang II, or by a neutralizing antibody against Ang I/II. Overexpression of a constitutively active PI3Kalpha or AT-1R alone was sufficient to induce similar changes by high glucose. In contrast, overexpression of an inactive AT-1R lowered the basal levels and rendered the cells non-responsive to high glucose. Moreover, cells overexpressing wild-type AT-1R had enhanced sensitivity to acute Ang II stimulation. These cells, however, did not respond to conditioned medium obtained from mesangial cells cultured in high glucose. We further demonstrated that iAng (intracellular Ang II) can be induced by high glucose but only under certain conditions. Efficient suppression of iAng by short hairpin RNA against angiotensinogen, however, did not affect high glucose-induced effects on MES-13 cells. These results suggest that high ambient glucose induces activation of AT-1R in an Ang II-independent manner to transactivate PI3K, resulting in proliferation and ECM accumulation in mesangial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20082277DOI Listing
September 2009

Temporally controlled overexpression of cardiac-specific PI3Kalpha induces enhanced myocardial contractility--a new transgenic model.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2008 Oct 22;295(4):H1690-4. Epub 2008 Aug 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Women and Infant's Hospital of Rhode Island, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02905, USA.

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway regulates multiple cellular processes including cell survival/apoptosis and growth. In the cardiac context, PI3Kalpha plays important roles in cardiac growth. We have shown that cardiac PI3K activity is highly regulated during development, with the highest levels found during the fetal-neonatal transition period and the lowest levels in the adult. There is a close relationship between cardiomyocyte proliferation and cardiac PI3K activity. In adult transgenic mice, however, the prolonged constitutive activation of PI3Kalpha in the heart results in hypertrophy. To develop a strategy to allow temporally controlled overexpression of cardiac PI3Kalpha, we engineered a tetracycline (tet) transactivator tet-off controlled transgenic mouse line with a conditional overexpression of a cardiac-specific fusion protein of the SH2 domain of p85 and p110alpha. Cardiac PI3K activity and Akt phosphorylation were significantly increased in adult mice after transgene induction following the removal of doxycycline for 2 wk. The heart weight-to-body weight ratio was not changed, and there were no signs of cardiomyopathy. The overexpression of PI3Kalpha resulted in increased left ventricular (LV) developed pressure and the maximal and minimal positive values of the first derivative of LV pressure, but not heart rate, as assessed in Langendorff hearts. Mice overexpressing PI3Kalpha also had increases in the levels of Ca(2+)-regulating proteins, including the L-type Ca(2+) channels, ryanodine receptors, and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2a. Thus the temporally controlled overexpression of cardiac PI3Kalpha does not induce hypertrophy or cardiomyopathy but results in increased contractility, probably via the increased expression of multiple Ca(2+)-regulating proteins. These distinct phenotypes suggest a fundamental difference between transgenic mice with temporal or prolonged activation of cardiac PI3Kalpha.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00531.2008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2593510PMC
October 2008

Beta-adrenergic receptor mediated protection against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes: the impact of high ambient glucose.

Endocrinology 2008 Dec 21;149(12):6449-61. Epub 2008 Aug 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Women and Infant's Hospital, 101 Dudley Street, Kilguss 122, Providence, Rhode Island 02905, USA.

Recent studies have demonstrated that the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR)-Galphai signaling pathway exerts a cardiac antiapoptotic effect. The goals of this study were to determine the intracellular signaling factors involved in beta2AR-mediated protection against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocyte and explore the impact of high ambient glucose on the antiapoptotic effect. Under physiological glucose environment (100 mg/dl), beta2AR stimulation prevented doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, which was attenuated by cotreatment with wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, or transfection of a dominant-negative Akt. Inhibition of Src kinase with 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine or cSrc small interfering RNA 32 also attenuated the antiapoptotic effect. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) with AG1296 reversed the beta2AR-induced antiapoptotic effect. Transfection of an active Src cDNA (Y529F) alone was sufficient to render the cells resistant to apoptosis, and the resistance was blocked by wortmannin. Transfection of an active PI3K minigene (iSH2-p110) alone also induced resistance to apoptosis, and the resistance was reversed by an Akt-inhibitor but not by AG1296. High ambient glucose (450 mg/dl) caused two major effects: 1) it significantly reduced betaAR-induced PDGFR phosphorylation, Src kinase activity, and activation of PI3K signaling pathway; and 2) it partially attenuated beta2AR-induced antiapoptotic effect. These data provide in vitro evidence supporting a signaling cascade by which beta2AR exerts a protective effect against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis via sequential involvement of Galphai, Gbetagamma, Src, PDGFR, PI3K, and Akt. High ambient glucose significantly attenuates beta2AR-mediated cardioprotection by suppressing factors involved in this cascade including PDGFR, Src, and PI3K/Akt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2008-0292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2613054PMC
December 2008

Targeting human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells with anti-CD45 x anti-myosin light-chain bispecific antibody preserves cardiac function in myocardial infarction.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2008 Jun 21;104(6):1793-800. Epub 2008 Feb 21.

Dept. of Pediatrics, Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

We have previously shown that targeting human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) with a bispecific antibody (BiAb) directed against myosin light chain (MLC) increases delivery of cells to the injured hearts and improves cardiac performance in the nude rat. In this study, we have sought to validate our previous observations and to perform more detailed determination of ventricular function in immunocompetent mice with myocardial infarction (MI) that were treated with armed CD34(+) HSC. We examined whether armed CD34(+) HSC would target the injured heart following MI and restore ventricular function in vitro. MI was created by ligation of the left anterior descending artery. After 48 h, adult ICR mice received either 0.5 x 10(6) human CD34(+) HSC armed with anti-CD45 x anti-MLC BiAb or an equal volume of medium through a single tail vein injection. Two weeks after stem cell administration, ventricular function of hearts from mice receiving armed CD34(+) HSC was significantly greater compared with the same parameters from control mice. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the accumulation of CD34(+) HSC in MI hearts infused with stem cells. Angiogenesis was significantly enhanced in CD34(+) HSC-treated heart as determined by vascular density per area. Furthermore, histopathological examination revealed that the retained cardiac function observed in CD34(+) HSC-treated mice was associated with decreased ventricular fibrosis. These results suggest that peripheral administration of armed CD34(+) HSC results in localization of CD34(+) HSC to injured myocardium and restores myocardial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01109.2007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3792713PMC
June 2008

A novel phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent pathway for angiotensin II/AT-1 receptor-mediated induction of collagen synthesis in MES-13 mesangial cells.

J Biol Chem 2007 Jun 10;282(26):18819-30. Epub 2007 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Women and Infant's Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02905, USA.

Chronic activation of the angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1 receptor (AT-1R) is critical in the development of chronic kidney disease. ANG II activates mesangial cells (MCs) and stimulates the synthesis of extracellular matrix components. To determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of MC collagen, a mouse mesangial cell line MES-13 was employed. ANG II treatment induced an increase in collagen synthesis, which was abrogated by co-treatment with losartan (an AT-1R antagonist), wortmannin (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor), an Akt inhibitor, and stable transfection of dominant negative-Akt1. ANG II induced a significant increase in PI3K activity, which was abolished by co-treatment with losartan or 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (2',5'-DOA, an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor) but not by PD123319 (an AT-2R antagonist) or H89 (a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor). The Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP)-specific cAMP analog, 8-pHPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, significantly increased PI3K activity, whereas a PKA-specific analog, 6-benzoyladenosine-cAMP, showed no effect. The ANG II-induced increase in PI3K activity was also blocked by co-treatment with PP2, an Src inhibitor, or AG1478, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonist. ANG II induced phosphorylation of Akt and p70S6K and EGFR, which was abrogated by knockdown of c-Src by small interference RNA. Knockdown of Src also effectively abolished ANG II-induced collagen synthesis. Conversely, stable transfection of a constitutively active Src mutant enhanced basal PI3K activity and collagen production, which was abrogated by AG1478 but not by 2',5'-DOA. Moreover, acute treatment with ANG II significantly increased Src activity, which was abrogated with co-treatment of 2',5'-DOA. Taken together, these results suggest that ANG II induces collagen synthesis in MCs by activating the ANG II/AT-1R-EGFR-PI3K pathway. This transactivation is dependent on cAMP/Epac but not on PKA. Src kinase plays a pivotal role in this signaling pathway between cAMP and EGFR. This is the first demonstration that an AT1R-PI3K/Akt crosstalk, along with transactivation of EGFR, mediates ANG II-induced collagen synthesis in MCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M610537200DOI Listing
June 2007

A novel signaling pathway for beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2007 Jul 16;293(1):H385-93. Epub 2007 Mar 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, Brown Medical School, 101 Dudley Street, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

Stimulation of cardiac beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-AR) activates both the G(s)- and G(i)-coupled signaling cascades, including the phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) pathway, that have important physiological implications. Multiple isoforms of PI3K exist in the heart. The goals of this study were to examine the intracellular signaling pathways linking beta-AR to PI3K and to identify the PI3K isoform mediating this transactivation in a cardiac context. Acute beta-AR stimulation with isoproterenol resulted in increased tyrosine kinase-associated PI3K activity and phosphorylation of Akt and p70S6K in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cotreatment with ICI-118,551, but not CGP-20712, abolished the increase in PI3K activity, suggesting a beta(2)-AR-mediated event. PI3K activation was also abrogated by cotreatment with pertussis toxin, 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolol[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2, a selective Src-family tyrosine kinases inhibitor), or AG-1296 [selective platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor] but not with an inhibitor for protein kinase A, protein kinase C, Ras, adenylyl cyclase, epidermal growth factor receptor, or insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. beta-AR stimulation induced an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of PDGFR, which was abolished by inhibition of Src either by PP2 or small interfering RNA. Moreover, H9c2 cardiomyocytes stably transfected with a vector expressing a Gbetagamma sequestrant peptide derived from the COOH-terminus of beta-AR kinase-1 failed to activate PI3K after beta-AR stimulation, suggesting Gbetagamma is required for the transactivation. Furthermore, acute beta-AR stimulation in vivo resulted in increases in PDGFR-associated PI3K and PI3Kalpha isoform activities but not the activities of other isoforms (PI3Kbeta, -delta, -gamma) in adult mouse heart. Taken together, these data provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for a novel mechanism of beta-AR-mediated transactivation of cardiac PI3Kalpha via sequential involvement of Galpha(i)/Gbetagamma, Src, and PDGFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.01318.2006DOI Listing
July 2007

The molecular mechanism of EGF receptor activation in pancreatic beta-cells by thyrotropin-releasing hormone.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2006 May;290(5):E889-99

The Center for Stem Cell Biology, Department of Research, Roger Williams Hospital, 825 Chalkstone Ave., Providence, RI 02908, USA.

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and its receptor subtype TRH receptor-1 (TRHR1) are found in pancreatic beta-cells, and it has been shown that TRH might have potential for autocrine/paracrine regulation through the TRHR1 receptor. In this paper, TRHR1 is studied to find whether it can initiate multiple signal transduction pathways to activate the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in pancreatic beta-cells. By initiating TRHR1 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and dissociated alphabetagamma-complex, TRH (200 nM) activates tyrosine residues at Tyr845 (a known target for Src) and Tyr1068 in the EGF receptor complex of an immortalized mouse beta-cell line, betaTC-6. Through manipulating the activation of Src, PKC, and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), with corresponding individual inhibitors and activators, multiple signal transduction pathways linking TRH to EGF receptors in betaTC-6 cell line have been revealed. The pathways include the activation of Src kinase and the release of HB-EGF as a consequence of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 activation. Alternatively, TRH inhibited PKC activity by reducing the EGF receptor serine/threonine phosphorylation, thereby enhancing tyrosine phosphorylation. TRH receptor activation of Src may have a central role in mediating the effects of TRH on the EGF receptor. The activation of the EGF receptor by TRH in multiple circumstances may have important implications for pancreatic beta-cell biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00466.2005DOI Listing
May 2006

Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) affects gene expression in pancreatic beta-cells.

Endocr Res 2005 ;31(3):185-98

The Center for Stem Cell Biology, Department of Research, Roger Williams Hospital, 825 Chalkstone Avenue, Providence, RI 02908, USA.

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), originally identified as a hypothalamic hormone, is expressed in the pancreas. The peptide has been shown to control glycemia, although the role of TRH in the pancreas has not yet been clarified. In quiescent INS-1 cells (rat immortalized beta-cell line), 200 nM of TRH for 24 hours significantly increased insulin levels in the culture medium and in cell extracts. In studies with gene array technology where about 60% to 75% of the 1081 genes were detected, TRH significantly stimulated multiple groups of gene expressions, including G-protein-coupled receptor and related signaling, such as insulin secretion, endoplasmic reticulum traffic mechanisms, cell-cycle regulators, protein turnover factors, DNA recombination, and growth factors. Noticeably, TRH suppressed the genes of proapoptotic Bcl-2-associated protein X, Bcl-xL/ Bcl-2-associated death promoter, and Fas. The multiple gene expressions in response to TRH in pancreatic cells suggest that the changed microenvironment brought about by TRH may influence beta-cellfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07435800500371763DOI Listing
January 2006

Ontogeny of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in developing heart: effect of acute beta-adrenergic stimulation.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2005 Nov 8;289(5):H1834-42. Epub 2005 Jul 8.

Dept. of Pediatrics, Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, Brown Medical School, Providence, RI 02905, USA.

Signaling pathways underlying transition of cardiomyocyte growth from hyperplasia in fetal/newborn to hypertrophy in postnatal/adult hearts are not well understood. We have shown that beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR)-mediated regulation of neonatal cardiomyocyte proliferation involves p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K). Here we examined the ontogeny of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/p70S6K signaling pathway in rat hearts and investigated the influence of beta-AR on this pathway during development. Cardiac PI3K and p70S6K1 activities were high in the embryonic day 20 fetus, decreased gradually postnatally, and were low in the adult. In contrast, p70S6K2 was barely detectable. Phosphorylation of p70S6K1, Akt, and phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 were markedly increased in late gestation and early postnatal life but not in adult hearts. Phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a negative regulator of PI3K, was highly expressed in adult hearts but only at low levels and mostly in the phosphorylated (inactivated) form in the fetus. Beta-AR stimulation resulted in increased cardiac p70S6K1 activity only in animals > or = 2 wk old, whereas Akt level was increased in all developmental stages tested. These increases were accompanied by increased Bcl-2 associated death promoter (Ser136) phosphorylation without changes in PTEN level. Thus there is globally high input of cardiac PI3K signaling during the fetal-neonatal transition period. Inactivation of PTEN may in part contribute to the high activity of PI3K signaling, which coincides with the period of high cardiomyocyte proliferation. Beta-AR stimulation activates cardiac p70S6K1 and Akt in postnatal animals and may activate cardiac survival signals. These data provide further evidence for the importance of beta-AR and PI3K signaling in the regulation of cardiac growth during development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00435.2005DOI Listing
November 2005

Effect of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) on gene expressions in rat pancreas: approach by microarray hybridization.

JOP 2004 Jul;5(4):193-204

Hallett Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown Medical School, Providence, RI 02903, USA.

Context: Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), originally identified as a hypothalamic hormone, expresses in the pancreas. The effects of TRH such as, inhibiting amylase secretion in rats through a direct effect on acinar cells, enhancing basal glucagon secretion from isolated perfused rat pancreas, and potentiating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in perfused rat islets and insulin-secreting clonal beta-cell lines, suggest that TRH may play a role in pancreas. TRH also enlarged pancreas and increased pancreatic DNA content but deletion of TRH gene expression caused hyperglycemia in mice, suggesting that TRH may play a critical role in pancreatic development; however, the biological mechanisms of TRH in the adult pancreas remains unclear.

Objectives: This study explored the effect of TRH on rat pancreas.

Subjects: Four male-Sprague-Dawley-rats (200-250 g) were given 10 microg/kg BW of TRH intraperitoneally on 1st and 3rd day and sacrificed on 7th day. Four same-strain rats without TRH injection served as controls.

Main Outcome Measures: Wet pancreatic weights were measured. Pancreatic tissues were homogenized and extracted. The insulin levels of the extracts were measured by ELISA. Total RNA from the pancreases were fluorescently labeled and hybridized to microarray with 1,081 spot genes.

Results: TRH increased pancreatic wet weight and insulin contents. About 75% of the 1,081 genes were detected in the pancreas. TRH regulated up 99 genes and down 76 genes. The administration of TRH induced various types of gene expressions, such as G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and signal transduction related genes (GPCR kinase 4, transducin beta subunit 5, arrestin beta1MAPK3, MAPK5, c-Src kinase, PKCs, PI3 kinase), growth factors (PDGF-B, IGF-2, IL-18, IGF-1, IL-2, IL-6, endothelin-1) and apoptotic factors (Bcl2, BAD, Bax).

Conclusion: Reprogramming of transcriptome may be a way for TRH-regulation of pancreatic cellular functions.
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July 2004