Publications by authors named "Nanna Ariaban"

3 Publications

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Profound hypothermia protects neurons and astrocytes, and preserves cognitive functions in a Swine model of lethal hemorrhage.

J Surg Res 2005 Jun;126(2):172-81

Trauma Research and Readiness Institute for Surgery, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: Lethal injuries can be repaired under asanguineous hypothermic arrest (suspended animation) with excellent survival. This experiment was designed to test the impact of this strategy on neuronal and astroglial damage in a swine model of lethal hemorrhage. Furthermore, our goal was to correlate the histological changes in the brain with neurological outcome, and the levels of circulating brain specific markers.

Materials And Methods: Uncontrolled hemorrhage was induced in 32 female swine (80-120 lbs) by creating an iliac artery and vein injury, followed 30 min later by laceration of the thoracic aorta. Through a thoracotomy approach, organ preservation fluid was infused into the aorta using a roller pump. Experimental groups included normothermic controls (no cooling, NC), and groups where hypothermia was induced at three different rates: 0.5 degrees C/min (slow, SC), 1 degrees C/min (medium, MC), or 2 degrees C/min (fast, FC). Profound hypothermia (core temperature of 10 degrees C) was maintained for 60 min for repair of vascular injuries, after which the animals were re-warmed (0.5 degrees C/min) and resuscitated on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Circulating levels of neuron specific enolase (NSE) and S-100beta were serially measured as markers of damage to neurons and astrocytes, respectively. Light microscopy and quantitative immunohistochemical techniques were used to evaluate hippocampal CA1 area and caudate putamen for neuronal injury and astrogliosis (astrocyte hyperplasia/hypertrophy). Surviving animals were observed for 6 weeks and neurological status was documented on an objective scale, and cognitive functions were evaluated using a technique based upon the concept of operant conditioning.

Results: Normothermic arrest resulted in clinical brain death in all of the animals. None of the surviving hypothermic animals displayed any neurological deficits or cognitive impairment. On histological examination, normothermic animals were found to have ischemic changes in the neurons and astrocytes (hypertrophy). In contrast, all of the hypothermic animals had histologically normal brains. The circulating levels of brain specific proteins did not correlate with the degree of brain damage. The changes in NSE levels were not statistically significant, whereas S-100beta increased in the circulation after CPB, largely independent of the temperature modulation.

Conclusions: Profound hypothermia can preserve viability of neurons and astrocytes during prolonged periods of cerebral hypoxia. This approach is associated with excellent cognitive and neurological outcome following severe shock. Circulating markers of central nervous system injury did not correlate with the actual degree of brain damage in this model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2005.01.019DOI Listing
June 2005

The rate of induction of hypothermic arrest determines the outcome in a Swine model of lethal hemorrhage.

J Trauma 2004 Nov;57(5):961-9

Trauma Research and Readiness Institute for Surgery, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, USA.

Background: Lethal injuries can be surgically repaired under asanguineous hypothermic condition (suspended animation) with excellent outcome. However, the optimal rate for the induction of hypothermic metabolic arrest following uncontrolled lethal hemorrhage (ULH) is unknown.

Methods: ULH was induced in 32 female swine (80-120 lbs) by creating an iliac artery and vein injury, followed 30 minutes later by laceration of the descending thoracic aorta. Through a left thoracotomy approach, total body hypothermic hyperkalemic metabolic arrest was induced by infusing organ preservation fluids into the aorta. Experimental groups were: normothermic controls (no cooling, NC), or hypothermia induced at a rate of 0.5 degrees C/min (slow, SC), 1 degrees C/min (medium, MC), or 2 degrees C/min (fast, FC). Vascular injuries were repaired during the 60 minutes of profound (10 degrees C) hypothermic arrest. Hyperkalemia was reversed by hypokalemic fluid exchange, and blood was infused for resuscitation during the re-warming (0.5 degrees C/ minute) period. The survivors were monitored for 6 weeks.

Results: The 6 week survival rates were 0% (NC), 37.5% (SC), 62.5% (MC), and 87.5% (FC) respectively (p < 0.05 MC&FC versus NC). All of the surviving hypothermic arrest animals were neurologically intact and displayed no long term organ dysfunction.

Conclusion: Hypothermic metabolic arrest can be used to maintain viability of key organs during repair of lethal injuries. Survival is influenced by the rate of cooling with the best outcome following rapid induction of hypothermia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ta.0000149549.72389.3fDOI Listing
November 2004

Application of a zeolite hemostatic agent achieves 100% survival in a lethal model of complex groin injury in Swine.

J Trauma 2004 May;56(5):974-83

Department of Surgery, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: Techniques for better hemorrhage control after injury could change outcome. We have previously shown that a zeolite mineral hemostatic agent (ZH) can control aggressive bleeding through adsorption of water, which is an exothermic process. Increasing the residual moisture content (RM) of ZH can theoretically decrease heat generation, but its effect on the hemostatic properties is unknown. We tested ZH with increasing RM against controls and other hemostatic agents in a swine model of battlefield injury.

Methods: A complex groin injury was created in 72 swine (37 +/- 0.8 kg). This included semitransection of the proximal thigh and complete division of the femoral artery and vein. After 3 minutes, the animals were randomized to 1 of 10 groups: group 1, no dressing (ND); group 2, standard dressing (SD); group 3, SD + 3.5 oz ZH with 1% RM (1% ZH); group 4, SD + 3.5 oz ZH with 4% RM (4% ZH); group 5, SD + 2 oz ZH with 1% RM (1% ZH 2oz); group 6, SD + 3.5 oz ZH with 8% RM (8% ZH); group 7, SD + chitosan-based hemostat, HemCon (HC); group 8, SD + 3.5 oz nonzeolite mineral hemostat, Quick Relief (NZH); group 9, SD + bovine clotting factors-based hemostat, Fast Act (FA); and group 10, SD + 30 g of starch-based hemostat, TraumaDex (TDex). Resuscitation (500 mL of Hespan over 30 minutes) was started 15 minutes after injury and hemodynamic monitoring was performed for 180 minutes. Primary endpoints were survival for 180 minutes and blood loss. In addition, maximum wound temperatures were recorded, and histologic damage to artery, vein, nerve, and muscle was documented.

Results: Use of 1% ZH decreased blood loss and reduced mortality to 0% (p < 0.05). Increasing the RM adversely affected efficacy without any significant decrease in wound temperatures. Minimal histologic tissue damage was seen with ZH independent of the percentage of RM.

Conclusion: The use of zeolite hemostatic agent (1% residual moisture, 3.5 oz) can control hemorrhage and dramatically reduce mortality from a lethal groin wound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ta.0000127763.90890.31DOI Listing
May 2004