Publications by authors named "Nancy S Younis"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Vanillin augments liver regeneration effectively in hioacetamide induced liver fibrosis rat model.

Life Sci 2021 Oct 9;286:120036. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta University for Science and Technology, Gamasa, Egypt; Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21500, Egypt. Electronic address:

Aims: This study has been designed to investigate the role of vanillin either as prophylaxis or treatment in liver regeneration augmentation and liver fibrosis regression in thioacetamide (TAA) induced liver damage.

Materials And Methods: Animals were injected with TAA to induce liver injury (200mg/kg twice weekly) for 8 weeks. In vanillin prophylaxis group; rats were administered vanillin (100 mg/Kg; IP, daily) from day 1 of TAA injection for 8 weeks. In vanillin treatment group; rats were confronted with the same dose of TAA injection for 8 weeks then treated with vanillin (100 mg/Kg, IP, daily) for 4 weeks. ALT, AST activities, serum albumin, hepatic GSH, MDA, HGF, VEGF, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were measured and also, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and cyclin D gene expression were determined. Liver sections were stained with H&E and Sirius red and immunostained for Ki-67 and α-SMA for histological and immunohistological changes analysis.

Key Findings: Vanillin improved liver function and histology. Also, showed a remarkable increase in hepatic HGF and VEGF level, and up-regulation of cyclin D1 expression accompanied by a significant up-regulation of MMP-2 and down- regulation of TIMP-1. All these effects were accompanied by TNF-α, IL-6 and oxidative stress significant attenuation.

Significance: In conclusion, vanillin enhanced liver regeneration in TAA induced liver damage model; targeting growth factors (HGF, VEGF) and cellular proliferation marker cyclin D1. As well as stimulating fibrosis regression by inhibition of ECM accumulation and enhancing its degradation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.120036DOI Listing
October 2021

Geraniol isolated from lemon grass to mitigate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity through Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Sep 31;347:109599. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, 31982 Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia; Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt. Electronic address:

Background: Geraniol, a natural monoterpene, is a component of many plant essential oils. It contains many medicinal and pharmacological properties. Doxorubicin is an anticancer drug; however, its clinical usage is limited due to its cumulative and dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. This study investigates geraniol as a protective agent against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and explores possible underlying mechanisms of action.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into five groups. Groups 1 and 2 were administered saline and geraniol 200 mg/kg/day/orally, respectively, for 15 days. Group 3 was administered intraperitoneal doxorubicin (5 mg/kg/IP on the 5th, 10th and 15th days to achieve a cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg) to induce cardiotoxicity. The fourth and fifth groups were treated with either geraniol 100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg orally and doxorubicin to equal the doxorubicin dose administered to Group 3.

Results: Treatment with geraniol significantly ameliorated cardiac damage and restored serum cardiac injury marker levels in doxorubicin treated animals. Geraniol upregulated Nrf2 and HO-1 expression, elevated total antioxidant capacity, decreased the nuclear accumulation of kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), decreased the phosphorylation and degradation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα), suppressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-18 (IL-18) levels, and restored the levels of Bax and caspase-3 and 9 in heart tissue.

Conclusion: Geraniol may function as a potential activator of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which subsequently improves Nrf2-dependent antioxidative signaling, diminishes apoptosis and subdues the inflammatory response. The downstream result is protection of the heart from doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2021.109599DOI Listing
September 2021

Taurine ameliorates thioacetamide induced liver fibrosis in rats via modulation of toll like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway.

Sci Rep 2021 06 10;11(1):12296. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta University, Gamasa, 35712, Egypt.

Liver fibrosis is a significant health problem that can cause serious illness and death. Unfortunately, a standard treatment for liver fibrosis has not been approved yet due to its complicated pathogenesis. The current study aimed at assessing the anti-fibrotic effect of taurine against thioacetamide induced liver fibrosis in rats through the modulation of toll like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway. Both concomitant and late taurine treatment (100 mg/kg, IP, daily) significantly reduced the rise in serum ALT and AST activities and significantly reversed the decrease in serum albumin and total protein. These results were confirmed by histopathological examinations and immunehistochemical inspection of α-SMA, caspase-3 and NF-κB. The antioxidant potential of taurine was verified by a marked increase of GSH content and a reduction of MDA level in liver tissue. The anti-fibrotic effects of taurine were evaluated by investigating the expression of TLR4, NF-κB. The protein levels of IL-6, LPS, MyD88, MD2, CD14, TGF-β1 and TNF-α were determined. Docking studies were carried out to understand how taurine interacts inside TLR4-MD2 complex and it showed good binding with the hydrophobic binding site of MD2. We concluded that the anti-fibrotic effect of taurine was attributable to the modulation of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91666-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192756PMC
June 2021

Enhancement of Curcumin Anti-Inflammatory Effect via Formulation into Myrrh Oil-Based Nanoemulgel.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 14;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Alhofuf, Al-Ahsa 36362, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Curcumin (Cur) possesses a variety of beneficial pharmacological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, the low aqueous solubility and subsequent poor bioavailability greatly limits its effectiveness. Besides, the role of myrrh oil as an essential oil in treating inflammatory disorders has been recently demonstrated. The objective of the current investigation is to enhance Cur efficacy via developing Cur nanoemulgel, which helps to improve its solubility and permeability, for transdermal delivery.

Methods: The formulated preparations (Cur gel, emulgel and nanoemulgel) were evaluated for their physical appearance, spreadability, viscosity, particle size, in vitro release and ex vivo drug permeation studies. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was estimated using the carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema method.

Results: The formulated Cur-loaded preparations exhibited good physical characteristics that were in the acceptable range of transdermal preparations. The release of Cur from gel, emulgel and nanoemulgel after 12 h was 72.17 ± 3.76, 51.93 ± 3.81 and 62.0 ± 3.9%, respectively. Skin permeation of Cur was significantly ( < 0.05) improved when formulated into nanoemulgel since it showed the best steady state transdermal flux (SSTF) value (108.6 ± 3.8 µg/cm·h) with the highest enhancement ratio (ER) (7.1 ± 0.2). In vivo anti-inflammatory studies proved that Cur-loaded nanoemulgel displayed the lowest percent of swelling (26.6% after 12 h).

Conclusions: The obtained data confirmed the potential of the nanoemulgel dosage form and established the synergism of myrrh oil and Cur as an advanced anti-inflammatory drug.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13040577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917777PMC
February 2021

Cardioprotective Effect of Linalool against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction.

Life (Basel) 2021 Feb 5;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI), a life-threatening disorder, arises from the imbalance between oxygen supply and myocardial demand. Linalool is a naturally occurring monoterpenes with proved numerous pharmacological actions. This study investigated the cardioprotective effect of Linalool on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced MI in rat models and explored part of the underlying molecular mechanisms.

Methods: Rats were divided into five groups; groups I and II served as normal and linalool control groups, Group III administered ISO alone; groups V and VI received two different doses of Linalool and were challenged by ISO. Different biochemical parameters were determined, including hemodynamic, infarction size, cardiac enzymes, apoptotic markers, and inflammatory mediators.

Results: Linalool limited the infarcted area size and diminished the elevated cardiac enzymes. Linalool escalated HO-1 and Nrf2, both nuclear and cytosol fractions, and reduced Keap 1. Linalool enhanced cardiac antioxidant activities, reduced inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor-κ-B (NF-κB), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6)), apoptotic markers (Caspase-3, Caspase-9, and Bax), and elevated Bcl2.

Conclusion: Linalool could act as an effective cardioprotective agent in the MI model through improving the oxidative condition, probably via the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and by abolishing both apoptotic and inflammatory responses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11020120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915311PMC
February 2021

Protective effects of myrrh essential oil on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, Nrf2/HO-1 and apoptotic pathways.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 7;270:113793. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

BCPS, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, 31982 Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia; Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Myrrh, a traditional remedy, is the stem resinous exudate of Commiphora molmol Engler (Burseraceae). The aromatic yellowish-brown oleoresin has a long history in folk and traditional medicine, in Saudi Arabia and the Arab world. Severe universal concern attributable to the high mortality is Myocardial Infarction (MI). Acute administration of Isoproterenol (ISO) is an established animal model to induce myocardial injury.

Objective: The existing animal study was outlined to inspect the actions of Myrrh essential oil on cardiac functional, antioxidant status, apoptotic and inflammatory deviations in isoproterenol induced MI.

Materials And Methods: Normal and Myrrh control animals were administered normal saline and Myrrh essential oil for thirty days orally, respectively. On the 29th and 30th day, the animals were injected by saline (s.c.). In the ISO control, the animals were administered saline orally for 30 days and then confronted with ISO (85 mg/kg s.c.) on 29th and 30th days. In the Myrrh Groups (IV and V), the animals were treated with Myrrh essential oil (50 and 100 mg/k) respectively for 30 days and injected with ISO (85 mg/kg, s.c.) on 29th and 30th days.

Results: Animals experienced MI displayed functional blood pressure deviations, intensification in the heart to body weight ratio, myocytes indicative markers (CK-MB, CPK, LDH, cTnT, cTnI), lipid peroxidation (MDA), protein expression of Nrf2 and HO-1, apoptotic markers (Caspase 3,9), and inflammatory indicators. Conversely, animals pre-treated with Myrrh revealed obliteration of those elevations triggered by ISO induction, diminished elevated biochemical values and improved heart function.

Conclusion: Myrrh abstain effective cardio-protective action in MI model through improving the oxidative condition with myocytes and abolishing apoptotic as well as inflammatory responses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.113793DOI Listing
April 2021

Ameliorative Effect of Linalool in Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity: The Role of HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB and Nrf2/HO1 Pathways.

Biomolecules 2020 10 28;10(11). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The monoterpene linalool is a well-known essential oil component produced by several aromatic plants. Cisplatin is a widely used anticancer drug that produces many side effects, particularly nephrotoxicity. Here, we aimed to inspect linalool's protective activity against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and explore part of the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were given linalool (50 and 100 mg/kg/day orally) for 15 days; then challenged with cisplatin (8 mg/kg) on the 12th day. Renal function parameters, oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers, and toll-like receptor pathway gene, and protein expressions were investigated. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and cell-line mediated cytotoxicity assays were conducted.

Results: Linalool ameliorated kidney function after cisplatin challenge and managed all oxidation system parameters including GSH, SOD, CAT, MDA, NADPH, and particularly the Nrf2-mediated pathway markers. Linalool decreased TLR4, MYD88 and TRIF gene and protein expressions; diminished related inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and NF-κB; and down-regulated HMBG1. Linalool mitigated cisplatin-induced apoptotic markers such as caspase 3, caspase 9, and Bax expression, and boosted the anti-apoptotic Bcl2 expression. Linalool potentiated the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin when investigated on HeLa and PC3 human cancer cell lines.

Conclusion: Linalool could protect against cisplatin-induced kidney function and tissue damage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10111488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693927PMC
October 2020

Protective Effect of Geraniol on Oxidative, Inflammatory and Apoptotic Alterations in Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiotoxicity: Role of the Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathways.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Oct 12;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, 31982 Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is still a major contributor to mortality worldwide, and therefore, searching for new drugs is an urgent priority. Natural products are a renewable source for medicinally and pharmacologically active molecules. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of geraniol, a monoterpene alcohol, to protect against MI.

Methods: Five groups of Wister rats were used: a control group; a group treated only with geraniol; a group treated only with isoproterenol, to induce MI; and two groups pretreated with geraniol (100 or 200 mg/kg, respectively) for 14 days and challenged with isoproterenol on the 13th and 14th days. Several parameters were measured including electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac markers, the expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and other downstream antioxidant enzymes, as well as the expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and other downstream apoptotic and inflammatory mediators.

Results: Geraniol treatment reduced the size of the infarct region, attenuated the levels of cardiac indicators, and diminished myocardial necrosis and immune cell infiltration. Geraniol treatment also activated the Keap1/Nrf2/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway, increased antioxidant enzyme activities, modulated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, and ameliorated myocardial autophagy, inflammation, and apoptosis.

Conclusion: Geraniol may possess a protective effect against MI through moderating MI-induced myocardial oxidative stress (glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and Keap1/Nrf2 pathway), inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)), apoptosis (caspase-3, caspase-9, Bcl2, and Bax), and autophagy (PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599734PMC
October 2020

Antidiabetic Activity of Dihydropyrimidine Scaffolds and Structural Insight by Single Crystal X-ray Studies.

Med Chem 2020 ;16(7):996-1003

Department of Chemistry, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra, India

Background: This research project is designed to identify the anti-diabetic effects of the newly synthesized compounds to conclude the perspective of consuming one or more of these new synthetic compounds for diabetes management.

Introduction: A series of dihydropyrimidine (DHPM) derivative bearing electron releasing and electron-withdrawing substituent's on phenyl ring (a-j) were synthesized and screened for antihyperglycemic( anti-diabetic) activity on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rat model. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by using FT-IR, melting point, 1H and 13C NMR analysis. The crystal structure and supramolecular features were analyzed through single-crystal X-ray study. Anti-diabetic activity testing of newly prepared DHPM scaffolds was mainly based on their relative substituent on the phenyl ring along with urea and thiourea. Among the synthesized DHPM scaffold, the test compound c having chlorine group on phenyl ring at the ortho position to the hydropyrimidine ring with urea and methyl acetoacetate derivative shows moderate lowering of glucose level. However, the title compounds methyl 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)- 6-methyl-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate(g) and ethyl 4-(3-ethoxy-4- hydroxyphenyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate(h) having methoxy and ethoxy substituents on phenyl ring show significant hypoglycemic activity compared to the remaining compounds from the Scheme 1.

Methods: The experimental rat models for the study were divided into 13 groups (n = 10); group 1 animals were treated with 0.5% CMC (0.5mL) (vehicle); group 2 were considered the streptozotocin (STZ)/nicotinamide diabetic control group (DC) and untreated, group 3 diabetic animals were administered with gliclazide 50 mg/kg and act as a reference drug group. The remaining groups of the diabetic animals were administered with the newly synthesized dihydropyrimidine compounds in a single dose of 50 mg/kg orally using the oral gavage, daily for 7 days continuously. The blood glucose level was measured before and 72 hrs after nicotinamide-STZ injection, for confirmation of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes development.

Results: Blood glucose levels were significantly (p<0.05) reduced after treatment with these derivatives. The mean percentage reduction for gliclazide was 50%, while that of synthesized compounds were approximately 36%.

Conclusion: Our result suggests that the synthesized new DHPM derivative containing alkoxy group on the phenyl ring shows a significant lowering of glucose level compared to other derivatives.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573406416666191227123048DOI Listing
June 2021

Mebendazole augments sensitivity to sorafenib by targeting MAPK and BCL-2 signalling in n-nitrosodiethylamine-induced murine hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2019 12 13;9(1):19095. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta University for Science and Technology, Gamasa, Egypt.

Sorafenib (SO) is a multi-kinase inhibitor that targets upstream signals in the MAPK pathway. Drug resistance and transient survival benefits are the main obstacles associated with SO treatment in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Mebendazole (MBZ), an anthelmintic agent, has demonstrated activity against various cancer types. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the possible mechanisms of MBZ other than its anti-tubulin activity. MBZ (100 mg/kg/day, P.O.) was administered to N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced HCC mice as a monotherapeutic agent or in combination with SO. Our results revealed that MBZ decreased AFP levels, improved liver function and histology and increased survival in HCC mice, particularly when administered in combination with SO. MBZ also reduced hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis as evidenced by reductions in TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels, respectively. Increased hepatic caspases-3 and -9 and decreased BCL-2 levels suggest induced-cell death. In addition, MBZ demonstrated anti-angiogenic, anti-metastatic, and anti-proliferative effects, as indicated by reduced VEGF levels, MMP-2:TIMP-1 ratios, and reduced cyclin D1 levels and Ki67 immunostaining, respectively. Our main finding was that MBZ targeted downstream signal of the MAPK pathway by inhibiting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Targeting downstream MAPK signalling by MBZ and upstream signalling by SO is a novel approach to minimizing resistance and prolonging survival.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55666-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6911098PMC
December 2019

Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Abnormalities in Rats: Attenuation via Sandalwood Oil.

Authors:
Nancy S Younis

Pharmacology 2020 20;105(9-10):522-530. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Alhsaa, Saudi Arabia,

Introduction: The clinical use of doxorubicin (DOX) is challenged by its incremental dose-related cardiotoxicity.

Objective: The aim of the hereby study was to investigate sandalwood essential oil (SEO) against DOX-induced cardiac toxicity.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups. Groups 1 signified the control, whereas group 2 administered 100 mg/kg/day SEO, both act as control. In group 3, DOX was given intraperitoneal in a dose of 3 mg/kg/ every other day for 2 weeks to induced cardiotoxicity. While group 4 received a combination of SEO and DOX for 2 weeks. DOX prompted variations were assessed by measuring cardiac injury biomarkers, including creatine phosphokinase, cardiac troponin T, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), electrocardiogram (ECG) fluctuations, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) indices. The effect of both DOX and SEO on various antioxidants such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase and inflammatory mediators including interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and NF-κB was quantified.

Results: DOX augmented cardiac injury biomarkers, altered ECG, deceased HR and antioxidants, and finally increased BP indices. Treatment with SEO significantly (p < 0.05) decreased cardiac biomarkers and reversing ECG changes and BP. Moreover, treatment with SEO enhanced HR anomalies and antioxidant activity reduction and precluded the intensive inflammatory response induced by DOX.

Conclusion: SEO may have the potential of mitigating cardiac rhythm and BP indices changes induced with DOX. SEO modifications may be due to antioxidant capacity improvement and inflammatory response prohibition of the heart muscle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000504372DOI Listing
February 2021

Cyanobacteria as Nanogold Factories II: Chemical Reactivity and anti-Myocardial Infraction Properties of Customized Gold Nanoparticles Biosynthesized by sp.

Mar Drugs 2019 Jul 8;17(7). Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Biological Sciences Department, College of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia.

sp., a coccoid, unicellular, nitrogen-fixing and hydrogen-producing cyanobacterium, has been used in this study to biosynthesize customized gold nanoparticles under certain chemical conditions. The produced gold nanoparticles had a characteristic absorption band at 525-535 nm. Two types of gold nanoparticle, the purple and blue, were formed according to the chemical environment in which the cyanobacterium was grown. Dynamic light scattering was implemented to estimate the size of the purple and blue nanoparticles, which ranged from 80 ± 30 nm and 129 ± 40 nm in diameter, respectively. The highest scattering of laser light was recorded for the blue gold nanoparticles, which was possibly due to their larger size and higher concentration. The appearance of anodic and cathodic peaks in cyclic voltammetric scans of the blue gold nanoparticles reflected the oxidation into gold oxide, followed by the subsequent reduction into the nano metal state. The two produced forms of gold nanoparticles were used to treat isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in experimental rats. Both forms of nanoparticles ameliorated myocardial infarction injury, with a slight difference in their curative activity with the purple being more effective. Mechanisms that might explain the curative effect of these nanoparticles on the myocardial infarction were proposed. The morphological, physiological, and biochemical attributes of the sp. cyanobacterium were fundamental for the successful production of "tailored" nanoparticles, and complemented the chemical conditions for the differential biosynthesis process. The present research represents a novel approach to manipulate cyanobacterial cells towards the production of different-sized gold nanoparticles whose curative impacts vary accordingly. This is the first report on that type of manipulated gold nanoparticles biosynthesis which will hopefully open doors for further investigations and biotechnological applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md17070402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6669522PMC
July 2019

β-Caryophyllene as a Potential Protective Agent Against Myocardial Injury: The Role of Toll-Like Receptors.

Molecules 2019 May 19;24(10). Epub 2019 May 19.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, 31982 Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

Myocardial infarction (MI) remains one of the major causes of mortality around the world. A possible mechanism involved in myocardial infarction is the engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). This study was intended to discover the prospective cardioprotective actions of β-caryophyllene, a natural sesquiterpene, to ameliorate isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction through HSP-60/TLR/MyD88/NFκB pathway. β-Caryophyllene (100 or 200 mg/kg/day orally) was administered for 21 days then MI was induced via ISO (85 mg/kg, subcutaneous) on 20th and 21st days. The results indicated that ISO induced a significant infarcted area associated with several alterations in the electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood pressure (BP) indices and caused an increase in numerous cardiac indicators such as creatine phosphokinase (CPK), creatine kinase-myocardial bound (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cardiac tropinine T (cTnT). In addition, ISO significantly amplified heat shock protein 60 (HSP-60) and other inflammatory markers, such as TNF-α, IL-Iβ, and NFκB, and affected TLR2 and TLR4 expression and their adaptor proteins; Myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88), and TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF). On the other hand, consumption of β-caryophyllene significantly reversed the infarcted size, ECG and BP alterations, ameliorated the ISO elevation in cardiac indicators; it also notably diminished HSP-60, and subsequently TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, and TRIF expression, with a substantial reduction in inflammatory mediator levels. This study revealed the cardioprotective effect of β-caryophyllene against MI through inhibiting HSP-60/TLR/MyD88/NFκB signaling pathways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6572120PMC
May 2019

Public Understanding and Awareness of Isotretinoin Use and Safety in Al Ahsa, Eastern Saudi Arabia.

Ther Innov Regul Sci 2019 09 31;53(5):618-622. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

2 College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Hasa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Background: Acne vulgaris, a chronic inflammatory disease, is among the most common dermatologic conditions worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, Isotretinoin is commonly used to treat mild acne even without prescription.

Objective: To explore the practice and knowledge of community in Saudi Arabia regarding dispensing, counseling practices, and safety of isotretinoin-containing products.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, was conducted in 3 sections: demographics, self-medication attitude (in the form of self Isotretinoin use), and identifying the side effects associated with the use of isotretinoin.

Results: A total of 1069 participated in the study. Around half of the participants (44.2%) used isotretinoin with only mild acne as their first choice, which is contrary to the recommended guidelines. Virtually one-fifth of the participants did not examine the lipid profile, liver enzymes, and blood glucose level before isotretinoin use. Not many participants identified lipid (58.7%) and liver (44.1%) depression (53.3%), inflammatory bowel disease (75.9%), osteoporosis (60.3%), and sunburns (36.3%) as risks allied with isotretinoin use. Most participants (88.9%) appropriately recognized teratogenicity as the greatest hazard concomitant with the use of isotretinoin. Nevertheless, 20% of the women did not know that they must cease the drug at least 6 months before pregnancy.

Conclusion: This study shows that community residents are not satisfactorily aware of the proper use and jeopardies of isotretinoin. Therefore, greater consideration ought to be dedicated to augment the safe use of isotretinoin. We recommend the implementation of tools to enhance the safe use of isotretinoin and the imposition of more effective regulations to limit nonprescribed isotretinoin dispensing in Saudi Arabia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2168479018807677DOI Listing
September 2019

Cyanobacteria as Nanogold Factories: Chemical and Anti-Myocardial Infarction Properties of Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized by .

Mar Drugs 2018 Jun 20;16(6). Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Biological Sciences Department, College of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia.

To the best of our knowledge, cyanobacterial strains from the Arabian Gulf have never been investigated with respect to their potential for nanoparticle production. was isolated from the AlOqair area, Al-Ahsa Government, Eastern Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The cyanobacterium was initially incubated with 1500 mg/mL of HAuCl₄ for two days. The blue-green strain turned purple, which indicated the intracellular formation of gold nanoparticles. Prolonged incubation for over two months triggered the extracellular production of nanogold particles. UV-visible spectroscopy measurements indicated the presence of a resonance plasmon band at ~535 nm, whereas electron microscopy scanning indicated the presence of gold nanoparticles with an average diameter of 41.7 ± 0.2 nm. The antioxidant and anti-myocardial infarction activities of the cyanobacterial extract, the gold nanoparticle solution, and a combination of both were investigated in animal models. Isoproterenol (100 mg/kg, SC (sub cutaneous)) was injected into experimental rats for three days to induce a state of myocardial infarction; then the animals were given cyanobacterial extract (200 mg/kg/day, IP (intra peritoneal)), gold nanoparticles (200 mg/kg/day, IP), ora mixture of both for 14 days. Cardiac biomarkers, electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, and antioxidant enzymes were determined as indicators of myocardial infarction. The results showed that isoproterenol elevates ST and QT segments and increases heart rate and serum activities of creatine phosphokinase (CPK), creatine kinase-myocardial bound (CP-MB), and cardiac troponin T (cTnT). It also reduces heart tissue content of glutathione peroxidase (GRx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the arterial pressure indices of systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Gold nanoparticles alone or in combination with cyanobacterial extract produced an inhibitory effect on isoproterenol-induced changes in serum cardiac injury markers, ECG, arterial pressure indices, and antioxidant capabilities of the heart.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md16060217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6025002PMC
June 2018
-->