Publications by authors named "Nancy J Mendelsohn"

44 Publications

Expanding the phenotype of Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome: Craniovertebral junction anomalies.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 12 11;182(12):2877-2886. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Medical Genetics Unit, Meyer Children's University Hospital, Florence, Italy.

Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (WDSTS) is a rare autosomal dominant condition caused by heterozygous loss of function variants in the KMT2A (MLL) gene, encoding a lysine N-methyltransferase that mediates a histone methylation pattern specific for epigenetic transcriptional activation. WDSTS is characterized by a distinctive facial phenotype, hypertrichosis, short stature, developmental delay, intellectual disability, congenital malformations, and skeletal anomalies. Recently, a few patients have been reported having abnormal skeletal development of the cervical spine. Here we describe 11 such individuals, all with KMT2A de novo loss-of-function variants: 10 showed craniovertebral junction anomalies, while an 11th patient had a cervical abnormality in C7. By evaluating clinical and diagnostic imaging data we characterized these anomalies, which consist primarily of fused cervical vertebrae, C1 and C2 abnormalities, small foramen magnum and Chiari malformation type I. Craniovertebral anomalies in WDSTS patients have been largely disregarded so far, but the increasing number of reports suggests that they may be an intrinsic feature of this syndrome. Specific investigation strategies should be considered for early identification and prevention of craniovertebral junction complications in WDSTS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61859DOI Listing
December 2020

Genotype-phenotype correlation at codon 1740 of SETD2.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 09 24;182(9):2037-2048. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

The SET domain containing 2, histone lysine methyltransferase encoded by SETD2 is a dual-function methyltransferase for histones and microtubules and plays an important role for transcriptional regulation, genomic stability, and cytoskeletal functions. Specifically, SETD2 is associated with trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 36 (H3K36me3) and methylation of α-tubulin at lysine 40. Heterozygous loss of function and missense variants have previously been described with Luscan-Lumish syndrome (LLS), which is characterized by overgrowth, neurodevelopmental features, and absence of overt congenital anomalies. We have identified 15 individuals with de novo variants in codon 1740 of SETD2 whose features differ from those with LLS. Group 1 consists of 12 individuals with heterozygous variant c.5218C>T p.(Arg1740Trp) and Group 2 consists of 3 individuals with heterozygous variant c.5219G>A p.(Arg1740Gln). The phenotype of Group 1 includes microcephaly, profound intellectual disability, congenital anomalies affecting several organ systems, and similar facial features. Individuals in Group 2 had moderate to severe intellectual disability, low normal head circumference, and absence of additional major congenital anomalies. While LLS is likely due to loss of function of SETD2, the clinical features seen in individuals with variants affecting codon 1740 are more severe suggesting an alternative mechanism, such as gain of function, effects on epigenetic regulation, or posttranslational modification of the cytoskeleton. Our report is a prime example of different mutations in the same gene causing diverging phenotypes and the features observed in Group 1 suggest a new clinically recognizable syndrome uniquely associated with the heterozygous variant c.5218C>T p.(Arg1740Trp) in SETD2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61724DOI Listing
September 2020

Refining the phenotype associated with GNB1 mutations: Clinical data on 18 newly identified patients and review of the literature.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 11 8;176(11):2259-2275. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Carle Physician Group, Urbana, Illinois.

De novo germline mutations in GNB1 have been associated with a neurodevelopmental phenotype. To date, 28 patients with variants classified as pathogenic have been reported. We add 18 patients with de novo mutations to this cohort, including a patient with mosaicism for a GNB1 mutation who presented with a milder phenotype. Consistent with previous reports, developmental delay in these patients was moderate to severe, and more than half of the patients were non-ambulatory and nonverbal. The most observed substitution affects the p.Ile80 residue encoded in exon 6, with 28% of patients carrying a variant at this residue. Dystonia and growth delay were observed more frequently in patients carrying variants in this residue, suggesting a potential genotype-phenotype correlation. In the new cohort of 18 patients, 50% of males had genitourinary anomalies and 61% of patients had gastrointestinal anomalies, suggesting a possible association of these findings with variants in GNB1. In addition, cutaneous mastocytosis, reported once before in a patient with a GNB1 variant, was observed in three additional patients, providing further evidence for an association to GNB1. We will review clinical and molecular data of these new cases and all previously reported cases to further define the phenotype and establish possible genotype-phenotype correlations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.40472DOI Listing
November 2018

Intrafamilial variability in the clinical manifestations of mucopolysaccharidosis type II: Data from the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS).

Am J Med Genet A 2018 02 6;176(2):301-310. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Rare Metabolic Disease Unit, Pediatric Department, Fondazione MBBM, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy.

Several cases of phenotypic variability among family members with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) have been reported, but the data are limited. Data from patients enrolled in the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS) were used to investigate intrafamilial variability in male siblings with MPS II. As of July 2015, data were available for 78 patients aged ≥5 years at last visit who had at least one affected sibling (39 sibling pairs). These patients were followed prospectively (i.e., they were alive at enrollment in HOS). The median age at the onset of signs and symptoms was the same for the elder and younger brothers (2.0 years); however, the younger brothers were typically diagnosed at a younger age than the elder brothers (median age, 2.5 and 5.1 years, respectively). Of the 39 pairs, eight pairs were classified as being discordant (the status of four or more signs and symptoms differed between the siblings); 21 pairs had one, two, or three signs and symptoms that differed between the siblings, and 10 pairs had none. Regression status of the majority of the developmental milestones studied was generally concordant among siblings. Functional classification, a measure of central nervous system involvement, was the same in 24/28 pairs, although four pairs were considered discordant as functional classification differed between the siblings. Overall, this analysis revealed similarity in the clinical manifestations of MPS II among siblings. This information should help to improve our understanding of the clinical presentation of the disease, including phenotype prediction in affected family members.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5814921PMC
February 2018

Sustained immune tolerance induction in enzyme replacement therapy-treated CRIM-negative patients with infantile Pompe disease.

JCI Insight 2017 Aug 17;2(16). Epub 2017 Aug 17.

Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Cross-reactive immunological material-negative (CRIM-negative) infantile Pompe disease (IPD) patients develop an immune response against enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alfa that nullifies ERT efficacy. Prophylactic immune tolerance induction (ITI) with rituximab, methotrexate, and IVIG successfully prevents development of deleterious rhGAA IgG antibodies; however, safety, likelihood of success, and long-term efficacy of ITI in a larger cohort remain unknown.

Methods: Clinical data were analyzed for 19 CRIM-negative IPD patients who received ITI with rituximab, methotrexate, and IVIG in the ERT-naive setting (ERT+ITI) and compared to a historical cohort of 10 CRIM-negative IPD patients on ERT monotherapy.

Results: ITI was safely tolerated, although infections were reported in 4 patients. Fourteen (74%) ERT+ITI patients were alive, with a median age of 44.2 months at their final assessment. The eldest survivor was 103.9 months old, with 100.2 months of follow-up after initiation of ERT+ITI. Death (n = 5) occurred at a median age of 29.2 months and was unrelated to the administration of ITI. Fifteen patients either did not seroconvert (n = 8) or maintained low titers (n = 7; defined as titers of ≤6,400 throughout the course of ERT) following ERT+ITI. Only one patient developed high and sustained antibody titers (defined as titers of ≥51,200 at or beyond 6 months on ERT). Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) decreased from a median of 248.5 g/m2 at baseline to 76.8 g/m2 at a median time from ERT+ITI initiation to 59 weeks. ERT+ITI significantly improved overall survival (P = 0.001), eliminated/reduced antibodies at values of ≤6,400 at week 52 on ERT (P = 0.0004), and improved LVMI at week 52 on ERT (P = 0.02) when compared with ERT monotherapy.

Conclusion: Evidence from this international cohort of CRIM-negative IPD patients further supports the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of ITI in the prevention of immune responses to ERT.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01665326.

Funding: This research was supported in part by the Lysosomal Disease Network, a part of NIH Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network, and by a grant from Genzyme, a Sanofi company.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.94328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5621909PMC
August 2017

A patient with germ-line gain-of-function PDGFRB p.N666H mutation and marked clinical response to imatinib.

Genet Med 2018 01 20;20(1):142-150. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Children's Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

PurposeHeterozygous germ-line activating mutations in PDGFRB cause Kosaki and Penttinen syndromes and myofibromatosis. We describe a 10-year-old child with a germ-line PDGFRB p.N666H mutation who responded to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib by inhibition of PDGFRB.MethodsThe impact of p.N666H on PDGFRB function and sensitivity to imatinib was studied in cell culture.ResultsCells expressing the p.N666H mutation showed constitutive PDGFRB tyrosine phosphorylation. PDGF-independent proliferation was abolished by imatinib at 1 μM concentration. Patient fibroblasts showed constitutive receptor tyrosine phosphorylation that was also abrogated by imatinib with reduced proliferation of treated cells.This led to patient treatment with imatinib at 400 mg daily (340 mg/m) for a year with objective improvement of debilitating hand and foot contractures, reduced facial coarseness, and significant improvement in quality of life. New small subcutaneous nodules developed, but remained stable. Transient leukopenia, neutropenia, and fatigue resolved without intervention; however, mildly decreased growth velocity resulted in reducing imatinib dose to 200 mg daily (170 mg/m). The patient continues treatment with ongoing clinical response.ConclusionTo our knowledge, this is one of the first personalized treatments of a congenital disorder caused by a germ-line PDGF receptor mutation with a PDGFRB inhibitor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/gim.2017.104DOI Listing
January 2018

Ten years of the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS): insights, achievements, and lessons learned from a global patient registry.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2017 05 2;12(1):82. Epub 2017 May 2.

Shire Human Genetic Therapies, Inc., 300 Shire Way HA100-310, Lexington, MA, 02421, USA.

Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; Hunter syndrome; OMIM 309900) is a rare lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem manifestations caused by deficient activity of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. Disease-specific treatment is available in the form of enzyme replacement therapy with intravenous idursulfase (Elaprase®, Shire). Since 2005, the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS) has collected real-world, long-term data on the safety and effectiveness of this therapy, as well as the natural history of MPS II. Individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of MPS II who are untreated or who are receiving/have received treatment with idursulfase or bone marrow transplant can be enrolled in HOS. A broad range of disease- and treatment-related information is captured in the registry and, over the past decade, data from more than 1000 patients from 124 clinics in 29 countries have been collected. Evidence generated from HOS has helped to improve our understanding of disease progression in both treated and untreated patients and has extended findings from the formal clinical trials of idursulfase. As a long-term, global, observational registry, various challenges relating to data collection, entry, and analysis have been encountered. These have resulted in changes to the HOS database platform, and novel approaches to maximize the value of the information collected will also be needed in the future. The continued evolution of the registry should help to ensure that HOS provides further insights into the burden of the disease and patient care and management in the coming years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-017-0635-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5414331PMC
May 2017

Retinal dystrophy in two boys with Costello syndrome due to the HRAS p.Gly13Cys mutation.

Am J Med Genet A 2017 May 23;173(5):1342-1347. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Features of Costello Syndrome, a systemic disorder caused by germline mutations in the proto-oncogene HRAS from the RAS/MAPK pathway, include failure-to-thrive, short stature, coarse facial features, cardiac defects including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, intellectual disability, and predisposition to neoplasia. Two unrelated boys with Costello syndrome and an HRAS mutation (p.Gly13Cys) are presented with their ophthalmologic findings. Both had early symptoms of nystagmus, photophobia, and vision abnormalities. Fundus examination findings of retinal dystrophy were present at age 3 years. Both boys have abnormal electroretinograms with reduced or undetectable rod responses along with reduced cone responses consistent with rod-cone dystrophy. Our observations suggest that early ophthalmic examination and re-evaluations are indicated in children with Costello syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38110DOI Listing
May 2017

Rapid molecular diagnostics of severe primary immunodeficiency determined by using targeted next-generation sequencing.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016 10 12;138(4):1142-1151.e2. Epub 2016 Jul 12.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex. Electronic address:

Background: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) are inherited disorders of the immune system. The most severe form, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), presents with profound deficiencies of T cells, B cells, or both at birth. If not treated promptly, affected patients usually do not live beyond infancy because of infections. Genetic heterogeneity of SCID frequently delays the diagnosis; a specific diagnosis is crucial for life-saving treatment and optimal management.

Objective: We developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based multigene-targeted panel for SCID and other severe PIDDs requiring rapid therapeutic actions in a clinical laboratory setting.

Methods: The target gene capture/NGS assay provides an average read depth of approximately 1000×. The deep coverage facilitates simultaneous detection of single nucleotide variants and exonic copy number variants in one comprehensive assessment. Exons with insufficient coverage (<20× read depth) or high sequence homology (pseudogenes) are complemented by amplicon-based sequencing with specific primers to ensure 100% coverage of all targeted regions.

Results: Analysis of 20 patient samples with low T-cell receptor excision circle numbers on newborn screening or a positive family history or clinical suspicion of SCID or other severe PIDD identified deleterious mutations in 14 of them. Identified pathogenic variants included both single nucleotide variants and exonic copy number variants, such as hemizygous nonsense, frameshift, and missense changes in IL2RG; compound heterozygous changes in ATM, RAG1, and CIITA; homozygous changes in DCLRE1C and IL7R; and a heterozygous nonsense mutation in CHD7.

Conclusion: High-throughput deep sequencing analysis with complete clinical validation greatly increases the diagnostic yield of severe primary immunodeficiency. Establishing a molecular diagnosis enables early immune reconstitution through prompt therapeutic intervention and guides management for improved long-term quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.05.035DOI Listing
October 2016

Whole Exome Sequencing, Familial Genomic Triangulation, and Systems Biology Converge to Identify a Novel Nonsense Mutation in TAB2-encoded TGF-beta Activated Kinase 1 in a Child with Polyvalvular Syndrome.

Congenit Heart Dis 2016 Sep 25;11(5):452-461. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

Departments of Cardiovascular Diseases (Division of Heart Rhythm Services), Pediatrics (Division of Pediatric Cardiology), and Molecular Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics (Windland Smith Rice Sudden Death Genomics Laboratory), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, USA.

Objective: To use whole exome sequencing (WES) of a family trio to identify a genetic cause for polyvalvular syndrome.

Methods And Results: A male child was born with mild pulmonary valve stenosis and mild aortic root dilatation, and an atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, and patent ductus arteriosus that were closed surgically. Subsequently, the phenotype of polyvalvular syndrome with involvement of both semilunar and both atrioventricular valves emerged. His family history was negative for congenital heart disease. Because of hypotonia, myopia, soft pale skin, joint hypermobility, and mild facial dysmorphism, either Noonan syndrome- or William syndrome-spectrum disorders were suspected clinically. However, chromosomal analysis was normal and commercially available Noonan syndrome and William syndrome genetic tests were negative. Whole exome sequencing of the patient and both parents was performed. Variants were analyzed by sporadic and autosomal recessive inheritance models. A sporadic mutation, annotated as c.1491 T > A, in TAB2, resulting in a nonsense mutation, p.Y497X, in the TAB2-encoded TGF-beta activated kinase 1 (TAK1) was identified as the most likely disease-susceptibility gene. This mutation results in elimination of the terminal 197 amino acids, including the C-terminal binding motif critical for interactions with TRAF6 and TAK1.

Conclusions: The combination of WES, genomic triangulation, and systems biology has uncovered perturbations in TGF-beta activated kinase 1 signaling as a novel pathogenic substrate for polyvalvular syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/chd.12400DOI Listing
September 2016

The natural history of growth in patients with Hunter syndrome: Data from the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS).

Mol Genet Metab 2016 Apr 25;117(4):438-46. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Department of Medical Genetics, Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, 2525 Chicago Ave South, CSC 560, Minneapolis, MN 55404, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genetics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II) affects growth but the overall impact is poorly understood. This study investigated the natural history of growth and related parameters and their relationship with disease severity (as indicated by cognitive impairment). Natural history data from males followed prospectively in the Hunter Outcome Survey registry and not receiving growth hormone or enzyme replacement therapy, or before treatment start, were analysed (N=676; January 2014). Analysis of first-reported measurements showed short stature by 8years of age; median age-corrected standardized height score (z-score) in patients aged 8-12years was -3.1 (1st, 3rd quartile: -4.3, -1.7; n=68). Analysis of growth velocity using consecutive values found no pubertal growth spurt. Patients had large head circumference at all ages, and above average body weight and body mass index (BMI) during early childhood (median z-score in patients aged 2-4years, weight [n=271]: 1.7 [0.9, 2.4]; BMI [n=249]: 2.0 [1.1, 2.7]). Analysis of repeated measurements over time found greater BMI in those with cognitive impairment than those without, but no difference in height, weight or head circumference. Logistic regression modelling (data from all time points) found that increased BMI was associated with the presence of cognitive impairment (odds ratio [95% CI], 3.329 [2.313-4.791]), as were increased weight (2.365 [1.630-3.433]) and head circumference (1.749 [1.195-2.562]), but not reduced height. Unlike some other MPS disorders, there is no evidence at present for predicting disease severity in patients with Hunter syndrome based on changes in growth characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2016.01.009DOI Listing
April 2016

POGZ truncating alleles cause syndromic intellectual disability.

Genome Med 2016 Jan 6;8(1). Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Background: Large-scale cohort-based whole exome sequencing of individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) has identified numerous novel candidate disease genes; however, detailed phenotypic information is often lacking in such studies. De novo mutations in pogo transposable element with zinc finger domain (POGZ) have been identified in six independent and diverse cohorts of individuals with NDDs ranging from autism spectrum disorder to developmental delay.

Methods: Whole exome sequencing was performed on five unrelated individuals. Sanger sequencing was used to validate variants and segregate mutations with the phenotype in available family members.

Results: We identified heterozygous truncating mutations in POGZ in five unrelated individuals, which were confirmed to be de novo or not present in available parental samples. Careful review of the phenotypes revealed shared features that included developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, and similar facial characteristics. Variable features included short stature, microcephaly, strabismus and hearing loss.

Conclusions: While POGZ has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in large cohort studies, our data suggest that loss of function variants in POGZ lead to an identifiable syndrome of NDD with specific phenotypic traits. This study exemplifies the era of human reverse clinical genomics ushered in by large disease-directed cohort studies; first defining a new syndrome molecularly and, only subsequently, phenotypically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-015-0253-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4702300PMC
January 2016

Variable brain phenotype primarily affects the brainstem and cerebellum in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta caused by recessive WNT1 mutations.

J Med Genet 2016 06 15;53(6):427-30. Epub 2015 Dec 15.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA Genetic Medicine Central California, Fresno, California, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4898782PMC
June 2016

Levels of glycosaminoglycans in the cerebrospinal fluid of healthy young adults, surrogate-normal children, and Hunter syndrome patients with and without cognitive impairment.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2015 Dec 9;5:103-106. Epub 2015 Nov 9.

Shire, 300 Shire Way, Lexington, MA 02421, USA.

In mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), glycosaminoglycans (GAG) accumulate in tissues. In MPS II, approximately two-thirds of patients are cognitively impaired. We investigated levels of GAG in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in different populations from four clinical studies (including NCT00920647 and NCT01449240). Data indicate that MPS II patients with cognitive impairment have elevated levels of CSF GAG, whereas those with the attenuated phenotype typically have levels falling between those of the cognitively affected patients and healthy controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2015.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5471392PMC
December 2015

MKS1 regulates ciliary INPP5E levels in Joubert syndrome.

J Med Genet 2016 Jan 21;53(1):62-72. Epub 2015 Oct 21.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: Joubert syndrome (JS) is a recessive ciliopathy characterised by a distinctive brain malformation 'the molar tooth sign'. Mutations in >27 genes cause JS, and mutations in 12 of these genes also cause Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS). The goals of this work are to describe the clinical features of MKS1-related JS and determine whether disease causing MKS1 mutations affect cellular phenotypes such as cilium number, length and protein content as potential mechanisms underlying JS.

Methods: We measured cilium number, length and protein content (ARL13B and INPP5E) by immunofluorescence in fibroblasts from individuals with MKS1-related JS and in a three-dimensional (3D) spheroid rescue assay to test the effects of disease-related MKS1 mutations.

Results: We report MKS1 mutations (eight of them previously unreported) in nine individuals with JS. A minority of the individuals with MKS1-related JS have MKS features. In contrast to the truncating mutations associated with MKS, all of the individuals with MKS1-related JS carry ≥ 1 non-truncating mutation. Fibroblasts from individuals with MKS1-related JS make normal or fewer cilia than control fibroblasts, their cilia are more variable in length than controls, and show decreased ciliary ARL13B and INPP5E. Additionally, MKS1 mutant alleles have similar effects in 3D spheroids.

Conclusions: MKS1 functions in the transition zone at the base of the cilium to regulate ciliary INPP5E content, through an ARL13B-dependent mechanism. Mutations in INPP5E also cause JS, so our findings in patient fibroblasts support the notion that loss of INPP5E function, due to either mutation or mislocalisation, is a key mechanism underlying JS, downstream of MKS1 and ARL13B.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5060087PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103250DOI Listing
January 2016

Identifying the need for a multidisciplinary approach for early recognition of mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI).

Mol Genet Metab 2015 May 26;115(1):41-7. Epub 2015 Mar 26.

Department of Metabolic Medicine, Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, 501 Stanley Street, South Brisbane, QLD 4101, Australia.

Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) is caused by deficient activity of the enzyme, N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase, resulting in impaired degradation of the glycosaminoglycan dermatan sulfate. Patients experience a range of manifestations including joint contractures, short stature, dysostosis multiplex, coarse facial features, decreased pulmonary function, cardiac abnormalities, corneal clouding and shortened life span. Recently, clinicians from institutions in the Asia-Pacific region met to discuss the occurrence and implications of delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis of MPS VI in the patients they have managed. Eighteen patients (44% female) were diagnosed. The most common sign presented by the patients was bone deformities in 11 patients (65%). Delays to diagnosis occurred due to the lack of or distance to diagnostic facilities for four patients (31%), alternative diagnoses for two patients (15%), and misleading symptoms experienced by two patients (15%). Several patients experienced manifestations that were subtler than would be expected and were subsequently overlooked. Several cases highlighted the unique challenges associated with diagnosing MPS VI from the perspective of different specialties and provide insights into how these patients initially present, which may help to elucidate strategies to improve the diagnosis of MPS VI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2015.03.005DOI Listing
May 2015

Overcoming the barriers to diagnosis of Morquio A syndrome.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2014 Nov 30;9:192. Epub 2014 Nov 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Mackay Memorial Hospital, No. 92, Sec. 2, Zhongshan N. Road, Taipei City, 10449, Taiwan.

Background: Morquio A syndrome is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease often resulting in life-threatening complications. Early recognition and proficient diagnosis is imperative to facilitate prompt treatment and prevention of clinical complications.

Methods: Experts in Asia Pacific reviewed medical records focusing on presenting signs and symptoms leading to a diagnosis of Morquio A syndrome.

Results: Eighteen patients (77% female) had a mean (median; min, max) age of 77.1 (42.0; 0.0, 540.0) months at symptom onset, 78.9 (42.0; 4.5, 540.0) months at presentation and 113.8 (60.0; 7.0, 540.0) months at diagnosis. Orthopedic surgeons and pediatricians were most frequently consulted pre-diagnosis while clinical geneticists/metabolic specialists most frequently made the diagnosis. Delayed diagnoses were due to atypical symptoms for 5 patients (28%), while 4 patients (22%) experienced each of subtle symptoms, symptoms commonly associated with other diseases, or false-negative urine glycosaminoglycan analysis. Two patients (11%) each experienced overgrowth within the first year of life. Two patients with Morquio A syndrome (11%) were diagnosed with craniosynostosis and 1 (6%) for each of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, Leri-Weill syndrome, and pseudoachondroplasia. Early radiographic features of Morquio A syndrome led to more efficient diagnosis.

Conclusions: Increased awareness of clinical symptomology overlapping with Morquio A syndrome is essential. Clinicians encountering patients with certain skeletal dysplasia should consider Morquio A syndrome in their differential diagnosis. Atypical or subtle symptoms should not eliminate Morquio A syndrome from the differential diagnosis, especially for patients who may have non-classical phenotype of Morquio A syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-014-0192-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4279997PMC
November 2014

Ocular and histologic findings in a series of children with infantile pompe disease treated with enzyme replacement therapy.

J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2014 Nov-Dec;51(6):355-62. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

Purpose: To report the ophthalmologic and histologic findings in a series of children with infantile Pompe disease treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT).

Methods: Records of children with infantile Pompe disease treated with ERT who had at least one complete ophthalmic examination and the ocular histopathology of children with infantile Pompe disease who were treated with ERT were reviewed. The patients' clinical history, including external ocular examination, ocular alignment and motility, dilated fundus examination, and cycloplegic refraction, was evaluated. A literature review was performed for ophthalmologic findings in infantile Pompe disease using PubMed.

Results: The clinical findings of 13 children were included and the ocular histopathology of 3 children with infantile Pompe disease who were treated with ERT were reviewed. Forty-six percent (6 of 13) had bilateral ptosis, 23% (3 of 13) had strabismus, 62% (8 of 13) had myopia, and 69% (9 of 13) had astigmatism. On histologic examination, there was vacuolar myopathy affecting the extraocular muscles, ciliary body, and iris smooth muscle and glycogen accumulation in corneal endothelial, lens epithelium, and retinal ganglion cells, and within lysosomes of scleral fibroblasts.

Conclusions: It is important that ophthalmic providers are aware of the high prevalence of myopia, astigmatism, and ptosis in children with infantile Pompe disease treated with ERT because they are potentially amblyogenic but treatable factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01913913-20140813-01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4413912PMC
June 2015

An international effort towards developing standards for best practices in analysis, interpretation and reporting of clinical genome sequencing results in the CLARITY Challenge.

Genome Biol 2014 Mar 25;15(3):R53. Epub 2014 Mar 25.

Background: There is tremendous potential for genome sequencing to improve clinical diagnosis and care once it becomes routinely accessible, but this will require formalizing research methods into clinical best practices in the areas of sequence data generation, analysis, interpretation and reporting. The CLARITY Challenge was designed to spur convergence in methods for diagnosing genetic disease starting from clinical case history and genome sequencing data. DNA samples were obtained from three families with heritable genetic disorders and genomic sequence data were donated by sequencing platform vendors. The challenge was to analyze and interpret these data with the goals of identifying disease-causing variants and reporting the findings in a clinically useful format. Participating contestant groups were solicited broadly, and an independent panel of judges evaluated their performance.

Results: A total of 30 international groups were engaged. The entries reveal a general convergence of practices on most elements of the analysis and interpretation process. However, even given this commonality of approach, only two groups identified the consensus candidate variants in all disease cases, demonstrating a need for consistent fine-tuning of the generally accepted methods. There was greater diversity of the final clinical report content and in the patient consenting process, demonstrating that these areas require additional exploration and standardization.

Conclusions: The CLARITY Challenge provides a comprehensive assessment of current practices for using genome sequencing to diagnose and report genetic diseases. There is remarkable convergence in bioinformatic techniques, but medical interpretation and reporting are areas that require further development by many groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/gb-2014-15-3-r53DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4073084PMC
March 2014

Long-term experience with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in MPS II patients with a severe phenotype: an international case series.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2014 Sep 5;37(5):823-9. Epub 2014 Mar 5.

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Villa Metabolica, University Medical Center of Mainz, Mainz, Germany,

Introduction: No published clinical trial data are available to inform the use of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in patients with the severe (neuropathic) phenotype of mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II). Current guidelines recommend ERT administered intravenously be used on a trial basis in this population.

Aims/methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted at five international centers for this case series of 22 patients with neuropathic MPS II who received intravenous idursulfase 0.5 mg/kg weekly for at least 2 consecutive years. We collected data about urinary glycosaminoglycan levels, adverse events, and the following somatic signs/symptoms: skeletal disease, joint range of motion, liver/spleen size, respiratory infections, cardiac disease, diarrhea, skin/hair texture, and hospitalizations.

Results: The age at diagnosis was 2 months to 5 years, and the age at idursulfase initiation was between 18 months and 21 years. One of 22 patients experienced improvements in seven somatic signs/symptoms; 17/22 experienced improvements in five to six somatic signs/symptoms; and 4/22 experienced improvements in four somatic signs/symptoms. None experienced fewer than four improvements. No new safety concerns arose. Infusion-related reactions were experienced by 4/22 patients but were successfully managed using accepted strategies.

Conclusions: Long-term treatment with idursulfase was associated with improvements in somatic manifestations in this case series of patients with neuropathic MPS II. The family and medical team should maintain open lines of communication to make treatment decisions that take into consideration the benefits and limitations of ERT in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-014-9686-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4158409PMC
September 2014

Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Mucopolysaccharidosis II Patients Under 1 Year of Age.

JIMD Rep 2014 11;14:99-113. Epub 2014 Feb 11.

Villa Metabolica, Children's Hospital, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany,

Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) II, or Hunter syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by multi-systemic involvement and a progressive clinical course. Enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase has been approved in more than 50 countries worldwide; however, safety and efficacy data from clinical studies are currently only available for patients 1.4 years of age and older. Sibling case studies of infants with MPS I, II, and VI who initiated ERT in the first weeks or months of life have reported no new safety concerns and a more favorable clinical course for the sibling treated in infancy than for the later-treated sibling. Here we describe our experiences with a case series of eight MPS II patients for whom idursulfase treatment was initiated at under 1 year of age. The majority of the patients were diagnosed because of a family history of disease. All of the infants displayed abnormalities consistent with MPS II at diagnosis. The youngest age at treatment start was 10 days and the oldest was 6.5 months, with duration of treatment varying between 6 weeks and 5.5 years. No new safety concerns were observed, and none of the patients experienced an infusion-related reaction. All of the patients treated for more than 6 weeks showed improvements and/or stabilization of some somatic manifestations while on treatment. In some cases, caregivers made comparisons with other affected family members and reported that the early-treated patients experienced a less severe clinical course, although a lack of medical records for many family members precluded a rigorous comparison.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/8904_2013_289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4213327PMC
October 2014

Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (Morquio A syndrome) and VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome): under-recognized and challenging to diagnose.

Skeletal Radiol 2014 Mar 4;43(3):359-69. Epub 2014 Jan 4.

International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center/University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA,

Objective: Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA, or Morquio A syndrome) and VI (MPS VI, or Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) are autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders. Skeletal abnormalities are common initial presenting symptoms and, when recognized early, may facilitate timely diagnosis and intervention, leading to improved patient outcomes. Patients with slowly progressing disease and nonclassic phenotypes can be particularly challenging to diagnose. The objective was to describe the radiographic features of patients with a delayed diagnosis of MPS IVA or VI.

Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective study. The records of 5 MPS IVA and 3 MPS VI patients with delayed diagnosis were reviewed. Radiographs were evaluated by a radiologist with special expertise in skeletal dysplasias.

Results: An important common theme in these cases was the appearance of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) with epiphyseal changes seemingly confined to the capital (proximal) femoral epiphyses. Very few patients had the skeletal features of classical dysostosis multiplex.

Conclusions: Radiologists should appreciate the wide phenotypic variability of MPS IVA and VI. The cases presented here illustrate the importance of considering MPS in the differential diagnosis of certain skeletal dysplasias/disorders, including MED, some forms of spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia (SED), and bilateral Perthes-like disease. It is important to combine radiographic findings with clinical information to facilitate early testing and accurate diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00256-013-1797-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3901942PMC
March 2014

Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias and bilateral legg-calvé-perthes disease: diagnostic considerations for mucopolysaccharidoses.

JIMD Rep 2013 9;11:125-32. Epub 2013 May 9.

Department of Medical Genetics, Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, 2525 Chicago Avenue S., CSC 560, Minneapolis, MN, 55404, USA,

Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, MIM 253200 ) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by decreased activity of arylsulfatase B (N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase) enzyme resulting in dermatan sulfate accumulation; mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA, Morquio syndrome A, MIM 253000 ) by decreased activity of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfatase enzyme resulting in accumulation of keratan sulfate. Clinical symptoms include coarse facial features, joint stiffness, hepatosplenomegaly, hip osteonecrosis, and dysostosis multiplex. MPS IVA symptoms are similar but with joint hypermobility.With suspicion of MPS disease, clinicians request urine studies for quantitative and qualitative glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Diagnosis is confirmed by decreased enzyme activity in leukocytes or cultured skin fibroblasts. Further confirmation is obtained with identification of two mutations in the ARSB gene for MPS VI or mutations in the GALNS gene for MPS IVA.We report slowly progressing patients, one with MPS VI and two with MPS IVA, who presented with skeletal changes and hip findings resembling Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease or spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and normal/near normal urine GAG levels. The urine analysis data presented suggest that present screening techniques for MPS are inadequate in milder patients and result in delayed or missed diagnoses. The patients presented in this paper emphasize the importance of enzymatic and molecular testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/8904_2013_231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3755551PMC
August 2013

The effect of idursulfase on growth in patients with Hunter syndrome: data from the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS).

Mol Genet Metab 2013 May 14;109(1):41-8. Epub 2013 Mar 14.

Genetic Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, St Mary's Hospital, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL, UK.

Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II) is a rare and life-limiting multisystemic disorder with an X-linked recessive pattern of inheritance. Short stature is a prominent feature of this condition. This analysis aimed to investigate the effects of enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase on growth in patients enrolled in HOS - the Hunter Outcome Survey which is a multinational observational database. As of Jan 2012, height data before treatment were available for 567 of 740 males followed prospectively after HOS entry. Cross-sectional analysis showed that short stature became apparent after approximately 8 years of age; before this, height remained within the normal range. Age-corrected standardized height scores (z-scores) before and after treatment were assessed using piecewise regression model analysis in 133 patients (8-15 years of age at treatment start; data available on ≥ 1 occasion within +/-24 months of treatment start; growth hormone-treated patients excluded). Results showed that the slope after treatment (slope=-0.005) was significantly improved compared with before treatment (slope=-0.043) (difference=0.038, p=0.004). Analysis of covariates (age at treatment start, cognitive involvement, presence of puberty at the start of ERT, mutation type, functional classification), showed a significant influence on growth of mutation type (height deficit in terms of z-scores most pronounced in patients with deletions/large rearrangements/nonsense mutations, p<0.0001) and age (most pronounced in the 12-15-year group, p<0.0001). Cognitive involvement, pubertal status at the start of ERT and functional classification were not related to the growth deficit or response to treatment. In conclusion, the data showed an improvement in growth rate in patients with Hunter syndrome following idursulfase treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2013.03.001DOI Listing
May 2013

Clinical genetics evaluation in identifying the etiology of autism spectrum disorders: 2013 guideline revisions.

Genet Med 2013 May 21;15(5):399-407. Epub 2013 Mar 21.

Department of Genetics and Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.

The autism spectrum disorders are a collective of conditions that have in common impaired socialization and communication in association with stereotypic behaviors. The reported incidence of autism spectrum disorders has increased dramatically over the past two decades. In addition, increased attention has been paid to these conditions by both lay and professional groups. These trends have resulted in an increase in the number of referrals to clinical geneticist for the evaluation of persons with autism spectrum disorders. The primary roles of the geneticist in this process are to define etiology when possible, to provide genetic counseling, and to contribute to case management. In deciding on the appropriate evaluation for a particular patient, the geneticist will consider a host of factors: (i) ensuring an accurate diagnosis of autism before proceeding with any investigation; (ii) discussing testing options, diagnostic yields, and family investment before proceeding with an evaluation; (iii) communicating and coordinating with the patient-centered medical home (PCMH); (iv) assessing the continuously expanding and evolving list of available laboratory-testing modalities in light of the published literature; (v) recognizing the expanded phenotypes of well-described syndromic and metabolic conditions that overlap with autism spectrum disorders; and (vi) defining an individualized evaluation plan based on the unique history and clinical features of a given patient. The guidelines in this paper have been developed to assist the clinician in the consideration of these factors. It updates the original publication from 2008.Genet Med 2013:15(5):399-407.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/gim.2013.32DOI Listing
May 2013

WNT1 mutations in families affected by moderately severe and progressive recessive osteogenesis imperfecta.

Am J Hum Genet 2013 Apr 14;92(4):590-7. Epub 2013 Mar 14.

Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7470, USA.

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable disorder that ranges in severity from death in the perinatal period to an increased lifetime risk of fracture. Mutations in COL1A1 and COL1A2, which encode the chains of type I procollagen, result in dominant forms of OI, and mutations in several other genes result in recessive forms of OI. Here, we describe four recessive-OI-affected families in which we identified causative mutations in wingless-type MMTV integration site family 1 (WNT1). In family 1, we identified a homozygous missense mutation by exome sequencing. In family 2, we identified a homozygous nonsense mutation predicted to produce truncated WNT1. In family 3, we found a nonsense mutation and a single-nucleotide duplication on different alleles, and in family 4, we found a homozygous 14 bp deletion. The mutations in families 3 and 4 are predicted to result in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and the absence of WNT1. WNT1 is a secreted signaling protein that binds the frizzled receptor (FZD) and the coreceptor low-density lipoprotein-receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5). Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in LRP5 result in recessive osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome with low bone mass, whereas heterozygous gain-of-function mutations result in van Buchem disease with elevated bone density. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in WNT1 result in a recessive clinical picture that includes bone fragility with a moderately severe and progressive presentation that is not easily distinguished from dominant OI type III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.02.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3617391PMC
April 2013

Genetic testing for dilated cardiomyopathy in clinical practice.

J Card Fail 2012 Apr 15;18(4):296-303. Epub 2012 Feb 15.

Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Familial involvement is common in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and >40 genes have been implicated in causing disease. However, the role of genetic testing in clinical practice is not well defined. We examined the experience of clinical genetic testing in a diverse DCM population to characterize the prevalence and predictors of gene mutations.

Methods And Results: We studied 264 unrelated adult and pediatric DCM index patients referred to 1 reference lab for clinical genetic testing. Up to 10 genes were analyzed (MYH7, TNNT2, TNNI3, TPM1, MYBPC3, ACTC, LMNA, PLN, TAZ, and LDB3), and 70% of patients were tested for all genes. The mean age was 26.6 ± 21.3 years, and 52% had a family history of DCM. Rigorous criteria were used to classify DNA variants as clinically relevant (mutations), variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS), or presumed benign. Mutations were found in 17.4% of patients, commonly involving MYH7, LMNA, or TNNT2 (78%). An additional 10.6% of patients had VUS. Genetic testing was rarely positive in older patients without a family history of DCM. Conversely in pediatric patients, family history did not increase the sensitivity of genetic testing.

Conclusions: Using rigorous criteria for classifying DNA variants, mutations were identified in 17% of a diverse group of DCM index patients referred for clinical genetic testing. The low sensitivity of genetic testing in DCM reflects limitations in both current methodology and knowledge of DCM-associated genes. However, if mutations are identified, genetic testing can help guide family management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2012.01.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3666099PMC
April 2012

The new era of Pompe disease: advances in the detection, understanding of the phenotypic spectrum, pathophysiology, and management.

Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2012 Feb 17;160C(1):1-7. Epub 2012 Jan 17.

DUMC, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder marked by progressive muscle weakness due to lysosomal buildup of glycogen. Presentation is described as a spectrum, varying by age of onset, organ involvement, and degree of myopathy. Given the phenotypic variability, Pompe disease is broadly classified into an infantile form and a late onset (juvenile, childhood, adult onset) form. Prior to the advent of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alfa and approval for human use in 2006, the natural history was limited due to death before age 2 years for infantile onset cases and significant morbidity and early mortality for late onset Pompe disease (LOPD). ERT with alglucosidase alfa redefined the once fatal outcome in infantile Pompe, establishing an emergent phenotype. Treatment in late onset patients resulted in improved outcomes, enhancing understanding of the phenotype, presentation, and extent of organ involvement. This Issue of the Seminars seeks to enumerate the recent advancements in the field of Pompe disease, including newborn screening, novel therapeutic targets, new insights in the pathophysiology including role of autophagy, and impacts of long-term disease burden and CNS glycogen accumulation on cognition in infantile survivors. It also addresses immunological challenges and the critical role of immunomodulation in ERT treatment outcome. Other topics discussed include the role of biomarkers in monitoring disease progression and treatment responses, the role of genotype in defining phenotype and treatment response, better insights into the clinical presentations in LOPD and finally the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to care with the role of physical therapy as an example. Many gaps in our scientific understanding of this disease still remain; however, we hope the next decade will bring new knowledge and therapies to the horizon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.c.31324DOI Listing
February 2012

Successful immune tolerance induction to enzyme replacement therapy in CRIM-negative infantile Pompe disease.

Genet Med 2012 Jan;14(1):135-42

Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Purpose: Infantile Pompe disease resulting from a deficiency of lysosomal acid α-glucosidase (GAA) requires enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human GAA (rhGAA). Cross-reactive immunologic material negative (CRIM-negative) Pompe patients develop high-titer antibody to the rhGAA and do poorly. We describe successful tolerance induction in CRIM-negative patients.

Methods: Two CRIM-negative patients with preexisting anti-GAA antibodies were treated therapeutically with rituximab, methotrexate, and gammaglobulins. Two additional CRIM-negative patients were treated prophylactically with a short course of rituximab and methotrexate, in parallel with initiating rhGAA.

Results: In both patients treated therapeutically, anti-rhGAA was eliminated after 3 and 19 months. All four patients are immune tolerant to rhGAA, off immune therapy, showing B-cell recovery while continuing to receive ERT at ages 36 and 56 months (therapeutic) and 18 and 35 months (prophylactic). All patients show clinical response to ERT, in stark contrast to the rapid deterioration of their nontolerized CRIM-negative counterparts.

Conclusion: The combination of rituximab with methotrexate ± intravenous gammaglobulins (IVIG) is an option for tolerance induction of CRIM-negative Pompe to ERT when instituted in the naïve setting or following antibody development. It should be considered in other conditions in which antibody response to the therapeutic protein elicits robust antibody response that interferes with product efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/gim.2011.4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3711224PMC
January 2012
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