Publications by authors named "Nancy Carlson"

6 Publications

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Disaster behavioral health capacity: Findings from a multistate preparedness assessment.

J Emerg Manag 2016 Jul-Aug;14(4):281-7

School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Purpose: To identify gaps in disaster behavioral health, the Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (PERL) at the University of Minnesota's School of Public Health supported the development and implementation of a multistate disaster behavioral health preparedness assessment. Information was gathered regarding worker knowledge of current disaster behavioral health capacity at the state and local level, and perceived disaster behavioral health training needs and preferences.

Methods: Between May and July 2015, 143 participants completed a 31-item uniform questionnaire over the telephone by a trained interviewer. Trained interviewers were given uniform instructions on administering the questionnaire. Participants included county and city-level public health leaders and directors from Minnesota, Wisconsin, and North Dakota.

Findings: Findings demonstrate that across the three states there is a need for improved disaster behavioral health training and response plans for before, during, and after public health emergencies. This study identified perceived gaps in plans and procedures for meeting the disaster behavioral health needs of different atrisk populations, including children, youth, and those with mental illness. There was consistent agreement among participants about the lack of behavioral health coordination between agencies during emergency events.

Value: Findings can be used to inform policy and the development of trainings for those involved in disaster behavioral health. Effectively attending to interagency coordination and mutual aid agreements, planning for effective response and care for vulnerable populations, and targeted training will contribute to a more successful public health response to emergency events.
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September 2018

Perils of police action: a cautionary tale from US data sets.

Inj Prev 2017 02 25;23(1):27-32. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Calverton, Maryland, USA.

Objective: To count and characterise injuries resulting from legal intervention by US law enforcement personnel and injury ratios per 10 000 arrests or police stops, thus expanding discussion of excessive force by police beyond fatalities.

Design: Ecological.

Population: Those injured during US legal police intervention as recorded in 2012 Vital Statistics mortality census, 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project nationwide inpatient and emergency department samples, and two 2015 newspaper censuses of deaths.

Exposure: 2012 and 2014 arrests from Federal Bureau of Investigation data adjusted for non-reporting jurisdictions; street stops and traffic stops that involved vehicle or occupant searches, without arrest, from the 2011 Police Public Contact Survey (PPCS), with the percentage breakdown by race computed from pooled 2005, 2008 and 2011 PPCS surveys due to small case counts.

Results: US police killed or injured an estimated 55 400 people in 2012 (95% CI 47 050 to 63 740 for cases coded as police involved). Blacks, Native Americans and Hispanics had higher stop/arrest rates per 10 000 population than white non-Hispanics and Asians. On average, an estimated 1 in 291 stops/arrests resulted in hospital-treated injury or death of a suspect or bystander. Ratios of admitted and fatal injury due to legal police intervention per 10 000 stops/arrests did not differ significantly between racial/ethnic groups. Ratios rose with age, and were higher for men than women.

Conclusions: Healthcare administrative data sets can inform public debate about injuries resulting from legal police intervention. Excess per capita death rates among blacks and youth at police hands are reflections of excess exposure. International Classification of Diseases legal intervention coding needs revision.
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February 2017

Reducing auditory hypersensitivities in autistic spectrum disorder: preliminary findings evaluating the listening project protocol.

Front Pediatr 2014 1;2:80. Epub 2014 Aug 1.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill, NC , USA.

Auditory hypersensitivities are a common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the present study, the effectiveness of a novel intervention, the listening project protocol (LPP), was evaluated in two trials conducted with children diagnosed with ASD. LPP was developed to reduce auditory hypersensitivities. LPP is based on a theoretical "neural exercise" model that uses computer altered acoustic stimulation to recruit the neural regulation of middle ear muscles. Features of the intervention stimuli were informed by basic research in speech and hearing sciences that has identified the specific acoustic frequencies necessary to understand speech, which must pass through middle ear structures before being processed by other components of the auditory system. LPP was hypothesized to reduce auditory hypersensitivities by increasing the neural tone to the middle ear muscles to functionally dampen competing sounds in frequencies lower than human speech. The trials demonstrated that LPP, when contrasted to control conditions, selectively reduced auditory hypersensitivities. These findings are consistent with the polyvagal theory, which emphasizes the role of the middle ear muscles in social communication.
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August 2014

A survey of clinical prescribing philosophies for hyperopia.

Optom Vis Sci 2004 Apr;81(4):233-7

The New England College of Optometry, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Prescribing philosophies for hyperopic refractive error in symptom-free children vary widely because relatively little information is available regarding the natural history of hyperopic refractive error in children and because accommodation and binocular function closely related to hyperopic refractive error vary widely among children. We surveyed pediatric optometrists and ophthalmologists to evaluate typical prescribing philosophies for hyperopia.

Methods: Practitioners were selected from the American Academy of Optometry Binocular Vision, Perception, and Pediatric Optometry Section; the College of Vision Development; the pediatric and binocular vision faculty members of the colleges of optometry; and the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Surveys were mailed to 314 participants: 212 optometrists and 102 ophthalmologists.

Results: A total of 161 (75%) of the optometrists and 59 (57%) of the ophthalmologists responded. About one-third of optometrists surveyed prescribe optical correction for symptom-free 6-month-old infants with +3.00 D to +4.00 D hyperopia, but fewer than 5% of ophthalmologists prescribe at this level. Most eye care practitioners prescribe optical correction for symptom-free 2-year-old children with +5.00 D of hyperopia, and this criterion for hyperopia decreases with age. Most ophthalmologists (71.4%) prescribe the full amount of astigmatism and less than the full amount of cycloplegic spherical component, and most optometrists (71.6%) prescribe less than the full amount of both components. When prescribing less than the full amount of astigmatism, eye care practitioners do not tend to prescribe a specific proportion of the cycloplegic refractive error.

Conclusion: Pediatric eye care providers show a lack of consensus on prescribing philosophies for hyperopic children.
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April 2004

Natural history of twin gestation complicated by in utero fetal demise: associations of chorionicity, prematurity, and maternal morbidity.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2003 Nov-Dec;18(6):442-6

Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Rockford Memorial Hospital, Rockford, IL 61103, USA.

Objectives: To evaluate the pathophysiology by which the in utero death of 1 twin might increase morbidity to its co-twin survivor and its mother. To assess previously reported risks for maternal disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, peripartal hemorrhage, retained placenta and infection, as well as the fetal risk of prematurity.

Material And Methods: A retrospective analysis of the natural history of twin pregnancies from three institutions was performed. A total of 1,989 cases of twin pregnancy were identified, Wayne State University included 1,266 cases from 1984 to 1993; Madigan Army Medical Center 136 cases, 1995-2000, and Rockford Regional Perinatal Center, 587 cases, 1990-2000. The findings were classified by the presence or absence of fetal death in utero (IUFD) as follows: both IUFD (0/0); 1 IUFD (0/+), and both live born (+/+). A case-control study was performed on the subgroup of patients for whom complete records as to chorionicity, etc., were available.

Results: Of the 1,989 cases reviewed there were 49 both IUFD (0/0), 61 complicated by 1 IUFD (0/+), and 1,879 with both live born (+/+). The overall fetal death rate for this twin cohort was 55/1,000. IUFD of 1 or both twins was related to an increased risk of previable delivery 55% in 0/0, and 28% in 0/+ versus 4% for +/+ with p<0.001. IUFD also was associated with early preterm delivery (mean gestational age at delivery of 23 (0/0) and 30 (0/+) versus 35 (+/+) weeks). Chorionicity as well as maternal risks were examined in the case-control study (24 (0/0), 43 (0/+), 134 (+/+)) with the following results: monochorionic placentation was more likely in pregnancies complicated by IUFD (54% (0/0), 51% (0/+) versus 14% (+/+); p<0.001). Retained placenta, requiring dilation and curettage, occurred more frequently when both twins died in utero, but may be related to the earlier gestational age at delivery.

Discussion: Independent of retained placenta, there is no difference in the maternal risks for hemorrhage, abruption, coagulopathy or infection between groups. Immaturity at delivery and monochorionicity are more common in pregnancies complicated by fetal demise. Neonatal morbidity and developmental outcome will be the focus of a longitudinal study comparing cotwin survivors to twins matched for chorionicity and gestational age at delivery.
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June 2004