Publications by authors named "Nan Yu"

251 Publications

Draft Genome Sequence of EL000614, a Strain Producing Grammicin, a Potent Nematicidal Compound.

Mycobiology 2021 28;49(3):294-296. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Microorganism Resources Division, National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, Korea.

An endolichenic fungus, strain EL000614, showed strong nematicidal effects against plant pathogenic nematode, by producing grammicin. We report genome assembly of EL000614 comprised of 25 scaffolds with a total length of 54.73 Mb, N50 of 4.60 Mb, and 99.8% of BUSCO completeness. GC contents of this genome were 44.02%. Gene families associated with biosynthesis of secondary metabolites or regulatory proteins were identified out of 13,730 gene models predicted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2021.1914360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259839PMC
April 2021

Phosphorylation of MtRopGEF2 by LYK3 mediates MtROP activity to regulate rhizobial infection in Medicago truncatula.

J Integr Plant Biol 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

College of Life and Environment Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, 200234, China.

The formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on legume roots requires the coordination of infection by rhizobia at the root epidermis with the initiation of cell divisions in the root cortex. During infection, rhizobia attach to the tip of elongating root hairs which then curl to entrap the rhizobia. However, the mechanism of root hair deformation and curling in response to symbiotic signals is still elusive. Here, we found that small GTPases (MtRac1/MtROP9 and its homologs) are required for root hair development and rhizobial infection in Medicago truncatula. Our results show that the Nod factor receptor LYK3 phosphorylates the guanine nucleotide exchange factor MtRopGEF2 at S73 which is critical for the polar growth of root hairs. In turn, phosphorylated MtRopGEF2 can activate MtRac1. Activated MtRac1 was found to localize at the tips of root hairs and to strongly interact with LYK3 and NFP. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that MtRac1, LYK3, and NFP form a polarly localized receptor complex that regulates root hair deformation during rhizobial infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jipb.13148DOI Listing
July 2021

A Novel Folic Acid Receptor-Targeted Drug Delivery System Based on Curcumin-Loaded β-Cyclodextrin Nanoparticles for Cancer Treatment.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 30;15:2843-2855. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: A novel folate receptor-targeted β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) drug delivery vehicle was constructed to improve the bioavailability, biosafety, and drug loading capacity of curcumin. Controlled release and targeted delivery was achieved by modifying the nanoparticles with folic acid (FA).

Methods: Folate-conjugated β-CD-polycaprolactone block copolymers were synthesized and characterized. Curcumin-loaded nanoparticles (FA-Cur-NPs) were structured by self-assembly. The physicochemical properties, stability, release behavior and tumor-targeting ability of the fabricated nanoparticles were studied.

Results: The average particle size and drug loading of FA-Cur-NPs was 151.8 nm and 20.27%, respectively. Moreover, the FA-Cur-NPs exhibited good stability in vitro for 72 h. The drug release profiles showed that curcumin from FA-Cur-NPs was released significantly faster in a pH 6.4 phosphate buffered solution (PBS) than in pH 7.4, indicating that curcumin can be enriched around the tumor site compared with normal cells. Additionally, the internalization of FA-Cur-NPs was aided by FA receptor-mediated endocytosis, and its cytotoxicity was proportional to the cellular uptake efficiency. Furthermore, in vivo studies confirmed that FA-Cur-NPs exhibited marked accumulation in the tumor site and excellent antitumor activity.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that FA-Cur-NPs are a promising approach for improving cancer therapy through active targeting and controllable release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S320119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255901PMC
June 2021

Computer-aided quantitative MSCT measurements may be useful for congenital lung malformations surgical approach selection.

Pediatr Surg Int 2021 Sep 2;37(9):1273-1280. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 157 West Five Road, Xi'an, 710004, Shaanxi, China.

Purpose: To examine the association between the MSCT quantitative measurements of congenital lung malformations (CLM) and the selection of surgical approaches (lobectomy vs. lung-sparing surgery).

Methods: This retrospective study evaluated CLM surgical cases at our institution from 2016 to 2018. MSCT quantitative measurements were generated by a semi-automated approach: the volume of the lesion (V), the volume of the lesion-involved lobe (V), the volume of the lesion-involved lung (V) and the volume of the total lung (V). The proportions of V to V (P), V to V (P), and V to V (P) were calculated. We used Logistics regression to examine whether quantitative measurements were associated with the selection of surgical approaches.

Results: 151 patients were included (median age at surgery 6 months). 82 patients underwent lung-sparing surgery, and 69 patients underwent lobectomy. V (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.09-2.07), P (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.16-2.72), P (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.13-2.35), and P (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.12-2.22) were positively associated with the selection of lobectomy.

Conclusion: The application of quantified MSCT analysis may provide insight into the quantitative characteristics of CLM, which could be potentially useful for surgical approach selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00383-021-04949-4DOI Listing
September 2021

Curcumin-Loaded Hybrid Nanoparticles: Microchannel-Based Preparation and Antitumor Activity in a Mouse Model.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 17;16:4147-4159. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To develop microchannel-based preparation of curcumin (Cur)-loaded hybrid nanoparticles using enzyme-targeted peptides and star-shaped polycyclic lipids as carriers, and to accomplish a desirable targeted drug delivery via these nanoparticles, which could improve the bioavailability and antitumor effects of Cur.

Methods: The amphiphilic tri-chaintricarballylic acid-poly (ε-caprolactone)-methoxypolyethylene glycol (Tri-CL-mPEG) and the enzyme-targeted tetra-chain pentaerythritol-poly (ε-caprolactone)-polypeptide (PET-CL-P) were synthesized. The Cur-loaded enzyme-targeted hybrid nano-delivery systems (Cur-P-NPs) were prepared by using the microfluidic continuous granulation technology. The physicochemical properties, release behavior in vitro, and stability of these Cur-P-NPs were investigated. Their cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, anti-proliferative efficacy in vitro, biodistribution, and antitumor effects in vivo were also studied.

Results: The particle size of the prepared Cur-P-NPs was 146.1 ± 1.940 nm, polydispersity index was 0.175 ± 0.014, zeta potential was 10.1 ± 0.300 mV, encapsulation rate was 74.66 ± 0.671%, and drug loading capacity was 5.38 ± 0.316%. The stability of Cur-P-NPs was adequate, and the in vitro release rate increased with the decrease of the environmental pH. Seven days post incubation, the cumulative release values of Cur were 52.78%, 67.39%, and 98.12% at pH 7.4, pH 6.8 and pH 5.0, respectively. Cur-P-NPs exhibited better cell entry and antiproliferation efficacy against U251 cells than the Cur-solution and Cur-NPs and were safe for use. Cur-P-NPs specifically targeted tumor tissues and inhibited their growth (78.63% tumor growth inhibition rate) with low toxic effects on normal tissues.

Conclusion: The enzyme-targeted hybrid nanoparticles prepared in the study clearly have the tumor-targeting ability. Cur-P-NPs can effectively improve the bioavailability of Cur and have potential applications in drug delivery and tumor management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S303829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216735PMC
June 2021

Enterovirus D68 in hospitalized children with respiratory symptoms in Guangdong from 2014 to 2018: Molecular epidemiology and clinical characteristics.

J Clin Virol 2021 Aug 4;141:104880. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Innovation Platform for Public Health of Guangdong Province, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510282, China; Department of Medical Laboratory, School of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China. Electronic address:

Background: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging pathogen in humans. EV-D68 causes a wide range of respiratory symptoms in children and has the propensity to cause severe complications. EV-D68 outbreaks are rarely investigated in mainland China. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of EV-D68 in children and to describe the clinical manifestations as well as the phylogeny of EV-D68 in Guangdong Province from 2014 to 2018.

Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from hospitalized children with respiratory symptoms and screened for respiratory pathogens by fluorescence quantitative PCR and culture. The EV-positive samples were subsequently typed by sequencing the 5'-untranslated region and EV-D68-specific VP1 capsid gene. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by the maximum-likelihood method based on the VP1 gene using ClustalW.

Results: A total of 1,498 (59.8%) out of 2,503 children were screened positive for ≥1 virus species. Among the 158 (6.31%) EV-positive samples, 17 (0.68%) were identified as EV-D68. Most EV-D68 cases (n = 14) were diagnosed with pneumonia and bronchial pneumonia. No deaths were found in EV-D68 cases. Wheezing occurred in EV-D68 cases more frequently (70.59% vs. 43.26%, P = 0.040) than that of other EVs. All the EV-D68 were of clade B3, which were highly similar to the strains circulating in China.

Conclusion: EV-D68 was the predominant enterovirus type in hospitalized children with respiratory symptoms in Guangdong Province. All the EV-D68 strains belong to clade B3. The development of diagnostic tools is warranted in order to monitor EV-D68 infections in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2021.104880DOI Listing
August 2021

The Associations of Plasma/Serum Carotenoids with Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

The PLA Rocket Force Characteristic Medical Center, Beijing, China.

Background: Multiple lines of evidence indicate protective effects of carotenoids in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, previous epidemiological studies reported inconsistent results regarding the associations between carotenoids levels and the risk of AD.

Objective: Our study aims to evaluate the associations of six major members of carotenoids with the occurrence of AD by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: Following PRISMA guidelines, a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Ebsco, and PsycINFO databases was conducted, and the quality of each included studies was evaluated by a validated scoring systems. Standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95%confidence intervals (CI) were determined by using a random effects model. Heterogeneity was evaluated by I2 statistics. Publication bias was detected using funnel plots and Egger's test.

Results: Sixteen studies, with 10,633 participants were included. Pooled analysis showed significantly lower plasma/serum levels of lutein (SMD = -0.86, 95%CI: -1.67 to -0.05, p = 0.04) and zeaxanthin (SMD = -0.59; 95%CI: -1.12 to -0.06, p = 0.03) in patients with AD versus cognitively intact controls, while α-carotene (SMD = 0.21, 95%CI: -0.68 to 0.26, p = 0.39), β-carotene (SMD = 0.04, 95%CI: -0.57 to 0.65, p = 0.9), lycopene (SMD = -0.12, 95%CI: -0.96 to 0.72, p = 0.78), and β-cryptoxanthin (SMD = -0.09, 95%CI: -0.83 to 0.65, p = 0.81) did not achieve significant differences.

Conclusion: Of six major members of carotenoids, only lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in plasma/serum were inversely related to the risk of AD. More high-quality longitudinal studies are needed to verify these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210384DOI Listing
June 2021

First Report of Shot-hole on Flowering Cherry Caused by and pv. .

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Chonnam National University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, 98413, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju, Korea (the Republic of), 61186;

The shot-hole disease (SH) is one of the most common and important diseases affecting the flowering cherry (FC; Matsumura; 'Somei-yoshino') trees in South Korea every year, resulting in premature defoliation and reduced flowering in the following year. However, pathogens associated with the disease remain unknown, which has rendered disease management challenging. Here, the pathogens associated with SH, their biochemical characteristics, and their host range were elucidated. Detached leaf and assays revealed that two biofilm-forming bacteria, namely (Bc) and pv. (Pss), caused SH of FC trees. These pathogens were recorded for the first time as the causes of SH of FC trees in South Korea. Additionally, the two pathogens induced similar disease symptoms in several stone fruits belonging to the genus , including peach (), plum (), and apricot (), with peach being the most susceptible. These results indicate that Bc and Pss caused SH on FC trees and presented a broad spectrum of hosts. Furthermore, pv. , the causative agent of leaf spot on stone fruits, incited brown spots and shot holes on FC leaves. Therefore, FC trees are susceptible to infections by various pathogenic bacteria, including Bc, Pss, and Xap. These findings will be of great importance as a reference for effective management of SH in the face of possible cross-infection between species in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-21-0547-SCDOI Listing
June 2021

Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of respiratory viruses in 4403 pediatric patients from multiple hospitals in Guangdong, China.

BMC Pediatr 2021 06 17;21(1):284. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children. Unfortunately, there are limited multi-center data on common viral respiratory infections in south China.

Methods: A total of 4403 nasal swabs were collected from children in 10 cities in Guangdong, China in 2019. Seven respiratory viruses, influenza A virus (IFA), influenza B virus (IFB), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenoviruses (ADV) and parainfluenza virus types 1-3 (PIV1, PIV2 and PIV3), were detected by direct immunofluorescence antibody assay. The personal information and clinical characteristics were recorded and analyzed.

Results: The results showed that at least one virus was detected in 1099 (24.96 %) samples. The detection rates of RSV, IFA, ADV, PIV3, PIV1 and PIV2 were 7.13 % (314/4403), 5.31 % (234/4403), 4.02 % (177/4403), 3.04 % (134/4403), 1.70 % (75/4403) and 1.16 % (51/4403), respectively. The detection rate of RSV was highest in 0-6-month-old children at 18.18 % (106/583), while the detection rate of IFA was highest in 12-18-year-old children at 20.48 % (17/83). The total detection rates in winter and spring were 35.67 % (219/614) and 34.56 % (403/1166), higher than those in summer, 17.41 % (284/1631), and autumn, 19.46 % (193/992).

Conclusions: RSV and IFA were the main respiratory viruses in children. With increasing age the detection rate of RSV decreased in children, but the trends for the detection rates of IFA and IFB were the opposite. This study provided the viral etiology and epidemiology of pediatric patients with ARI in Guangdong, China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02759-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212487PMC
June 2021

Emodin inhibits lipid accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed mice by inducing M2 polarization of adipose tissue macrophages.

FASEB J 2021 07;35(7):e21730

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene & Department of Health Education and Health Management, the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) represent the most abundant leukocytes in adipose tissue (AT). An increase in number and a phenotypical switch of ATMs during the development of obesity contribute to chronic inflammation and metabolic disorders, which have been regarded as potential therapeutic targets to restore AT homeostasis. Emodin has been shown to exert strong anti-inflammatory property via acting on macrophages in a range of disease models. However, whether emodin exerts a beneficial effect on obesity via modulating ATMs has not been reported. In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, emodin significantly inhibited the increase of body weight and lipid accumulation in ATs. Emodin apparently reduced glucose and insulin levels and ameliorated serum lipid profiles in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, the local and systemic inflammation was dramatically alleviated by emodin. We next discovered that M2 macrophage percentage was greatly increased by emodin although total ATMs was not altered, which resulted in a net increase of M2 macrophages in AT. In vitro studies confirmed that emodin promoted the polarization of macrophages towards M2. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that myeloid leukocyte differentiation and activation were among the most significant biological processes in emodin-treated ATMs. We further identified that TREM2 was the most dramatically upregulated molecule by emodin and emodin-induced M2 macrophage polarization was dependent on TREM2. Furthermore, silencing TREM2 apparently abrogated the effect of emodin on AT inflammation and adipogenesis. We, for the first time, disclosed that emodin inhibited obesity by promoting M2 macrophage polarization via TREM2, suggesting that emodin may be explored as a clinical and translational candidate in preventing obesity and its related metabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202100157RRDOI Listing
July 2021

Chinese guidelines on the clinical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy in dermatology (2021 edition).

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 May 12;35:102340. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Photomedicine, Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Photodynamic Therapy with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) has been widely applied in the treatment of skin diseases in China. To further standardize, guide, and promote the clinical applications of ALA-PDT in dermatology, the Chinese Society of Dermatology, Chinese Association of Rehabilitation Dermatology, Photomedicine Therapeutic Equipment Group of Committee on Skin Disease, and Cosmetic Dermatology of China Association of Medical Equipment invited relevant experts engaged in ALA-PDT to revise and update the first edition of "Clinical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: an expert consensus statement" and establish a more current edition, to provide an updated reference for Chinese dermatologists in clinical practice. In the guideline, the expert group reached consensus opinions on ALA-PDT with regard to mechanisms of action, therapeutic protocol, clinical applications, adverse reactions and countermeasures, precautions, care, and evaluation of efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2021.102340DOI Listing
May 2021

Glycosylation of Anti-Thyroglobulin IgG1 and IgG4 Subclasses in Thyroid Diseases.

Eur Thyroid J 2021 Apr 27;10(2):114-124. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Endocrinology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: Thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), principally comprising immunoglobulin G (IgG), are frequently found in healthy individuals. Previously, we showed that the glycosylation levels of TgAb IgG differed across various thyroid diseases, suggesting an important role of glycosylation on antibodies in the pathogenesis of thyroid diseases. Since IgG1 and IgG4 are the primary TgAb IgG subclasses, this study aimed to investigate the glycosylation of TgAb IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses in thyroid diseases.

Methods: TgAb IgG was purified by affinity chromatography from the serum of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) ( = 16), Graves' disease (GD) ( = 8), papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) ( = 6), and PTC with histological lymphocytic thyroiditis (PTC-T) ( = 9) as well as healthy donors ( = 10). TgAb IgG1 and IgG4 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a lectin microassay was used to assess TgAb IgG1 and IgG4 glycosylation.

Results: Significantly elevated mannose, sialic acid, and galactose levels on TgAb IgG1 were found in HT and PTC patients compared to GD patients and healthy controls (all < 0.05). The mannose, sialic acid, and core fucose levels on TgAb IgG1 in PTC-T patients were higher than in healthy controls (all < 0.05). Additionally, TgAb IgG1 from PTC-T patients exhibited lower sialylation than that from patients with PTC and higher fucosylation than that from patients with HT (both < 0.05). However, TgAb IgG4 glycosylation did not differ among the five groups ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Our study describes different distributions of TgAb IgG1 glycosylation in various thyroid diseases. The aberrantly increased glycosylation levels of TgAb IgG1 observed in HT, PTC, and PTC-T might be indicative of immune disorders and participate in the pathogenesis of these diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8077608PMC
April 2021

and Antibacterial Activity of Serratamid, a Novel Peptide-Polyketide Antibiotic Isolated from C1, against Phytopathogenic Bacteria.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 May 29;69(19):5471-5480. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Environmentally Friendly Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea.

A new hybrid non-ribosomal peptide-polyketide antibiotic (serratamid) for phytoprotection was isolated from the ethyl acetate layer of tryptic soy agar culture of the soil bacterium C1 through bioassay-guided fractionation. Its chemical structure was elucidated using instrumental analyses, such as mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Serratamid showed antibacterial activity against 15 phytopathogenic bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.244 to 31.25 μg/mL. , it displayed strong antibacterial activity against and four spp., with MIC values (0.244-0.488 μg/mL) superior to those of streptomycin sulfate, oxolinic acid, and oxytetracycline. Further, serratamid and the ethyl acetate layer of C1 effectively reduced bacterial wilt caused by on tomato seedlings and fire blight caused by on apple fruits in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that serratamid is a promising candidate as a potent bactericide for controlling bacterial diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c01162DOI Listing
May 2021

Deciphering the Relationship Between Cycloheximides Structures and Their Different Biological Activities.

Front Microbiol 2021 7;12:644853. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Institute of Environmentally Friendly Agriculture, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea.

species are the most important sources of antibacterial, antifungal, and phytotoxic metabolites. In this study, cycloheximide (CH) and acetoxycycloheximide (ACH) were isolated from the fermentation broth of sp. JCK-6092. The antifungal and phytotoxic activities of the two compounds (CH and ACH) and a cycloheximide derivative, hydroxycycloheximide (HCH), were compared. CH exhibited the strongest antagonistic activity against all the true fungi tested, followed by ACH and HCH. However, both CH and ACH displayed similar mycelial growth inhibitory activities against several phytopathogenic oomycetes, and both were more active than that of HCH. Disparate to antifungal ability, ACH showed the strongest phytotoxic activity against weeds and crops, followed by HCH and CH. ACH caused chlorophyll content loss, leaf electrolytic leakage, and lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. Its phytotoxicity was stronger than that of glufosinate-ammonium but weaker than that of paraquat in the experiments. CH and its derivatives are well-known protein synthesis inhibitors; however, the precise differences between their mechanism of action remain undiscovered. A computational study revealed effects of CHs on the protein synthesis of (oomycetes), (true fungus), and (plant) and deciphered the differences in their biological activities on different targets. The binding energies and conformation stabilities of each chemical molecule correlated with their biological activities. Thus, molecular docking study supported the experimental results. This is the first comparative study to suggest the ribosomal protein alteration mechanisms of CHs in plants and fungi and to thus show how the protein inhibitory activities of the different derivatives are altered using molecular docking. The correlation of structures features of CHs in respect to bond formation with desired protein was revealed by density functional theory. Overall collective results suggested that CHs can be used as lead molecules in the development of more potent fungicides and herbicides molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.644853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8058199PMC
April 2021

Metabolic syndrome predicts incident disability and functional decline among Chinese older adults: results from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

School of Health Humanities, Peking University, No. 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100191, China.

Aims: To investigate the longitudinal association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with disability outcomes.

Methods: A total of 5875 participants aged 60 and above completed the 2011 and 2015 waves of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). MetS at baseline was measured by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Logistic regressions were conducted to analyze the associations between baseline MetS and incident disability, measured as the onset of limitations regarding instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and activities of daily living (ADL) 4 years later. Linear regression was adopted to analyze the longitudinal impact of baseline MetS on the number of IADL and ADL limitations in 2015. A comprehensive list of baseline covariates was adjusted in all regression analyses.

Results: Baseline MetS was related to increased odds of incident IADL disability (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.55) and incident ADL disability (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.05-1.53) among disability-free participants at baseline. Baseline MetS was also associated with an increase in the number of IADL (beta = 0.15, 95% CI 0.07-0.23) and ADL limitations (beta = 0.10, 95% CI 0.01-0.18), while adjusting for baseline functional performance. Significant MetS component predictors of disability outcomes include abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, and a low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest an increased risk of incident disability and deteriorated functional performance over 4 years, associated with the presence of MetS and its components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-021-01827-wDOI Listing
March 2021

Reducing contrast medium dose with low photon energy images in renal dual-energy spectral CT angiography and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR).

Br J Radiol 2021 Apr 12;94(1120):20200974. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Medical Techniques, Shaanxi University of Chinese medicine, Xianyang, China.

Objective: To evaluate the value of using low energy (keV) images in renal dual-energy spectral CT angiography (CTA) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to reduce contrast medium dose.

Methods: 40 patients with renal CTA on a Discovery CT750HD were randomly divided into two groups: 20 cases (Group A) with 600 mgI kg and 20 cases (Group B) with 300 mgI kg. The scan protocol for both groups was: dual-energy mode with mA selection for noise index of 10 HU, pitch 1.375:1, rotating speed 0.6 s/r. Images were reconstructed at 0.625 mm thickness with 40%ASIR, Group A used the conventional 70keV monochromatic images, and Group B used monochromatic images from 40 to 70 keV at 5 keV interval for analysis. The CT values and standard deviation (SD) values of the renal artery and erector spine in the plain and arterial phases were measured with the erector spine SD value representing image noise. The enhancement degree of the renal artery (ΔCT = CT(arterial) -CT(plain)), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR=CT/SD) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR=(CT-CT)/SD) were calculated. The single factor analysis of variance was used to analyze the difference of ΔCT, SNR and CNR among image groups with < 0.05 being statistically significant. The subjective image scores of the groups were assessed blindly by two experienced physicians using a 5-point system and the score consistency was compared by the κ test.

Results: Contrast medium dose in the 300 mgI kg group was reduced by 50% compared with the 600 mgI kg group, while radiation dose was similar between the two groups. The subjective scores were 4.00 ± 0.65, 4.50 ± 0.60 and 3.70 ± 0.80 for images at 70 keV (600 mgI kg group), 40 keV (300 mgI kg group) and 45 keV (300 mgI kg group), respectively with good consistency between the two reviewers ( > 0.05). The 40 keV images in the 300 mgI kg group had similar ΔCT (469.77 ± 86.95 HU 398.54 ± 73.68 HU) and CNR (15.52 ± 3.32 18.78 ± 6.71) values as the 70 keV images in the 600 mgI kg) group but higher SNR values (30.19 ± 4.41 16.91 ± 11.12, < 0,05).

Conclusion: Contrast dose may be reduced by 50% while maintaining image quality by using lower energy images combined with ASIR in renal dual-energy CTA.

Advances In Knowledge: Combined with ASIR and energy spectrum, can reduce the amount of contrast dose in renal CTA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010535PMC
April 2021

Identification of potential crucial genes associated with early-onset preeclampsia via bioinformatic analysis.

Pregnancy Hypertens 2021 Jun 23;24:27-36. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, PR China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Early-onset preeclampsia is a pregnancy complication associated with high maternal and perinatal morbidity, mortality. Intense efforts have been made to elucidate the pathogenesis, but the molecular mechanism is still elusive. This study aimed to identify potential key genes related to early-onset preeclampsia, and to obtain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this disease.

Methods: We performed a multi-step integrative bioinformatics analysis of microarray dataset GSE74341 downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database including 7 early-onset preeclampsia and 5 gestational age matched normotensive controls. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the "limma" package, and their potential functions were predicted by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction network (PPI) was obtained from the STRING database and the PPI network was visualized by Cytoscape software. Then, hub modules and hub genes were screened out from the PPI network, and enrichment analysis was performed for them. Also, validation of hub genes expression in early-onset PE was down by using microarray dataset GSE44711.

Results: A total of 628 DEGs (256 down- and 372 up-regulated) were identified in early-onset PE compared to controls. A total of 4 significant hub modules and 26 significant hub genes were identified.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the DEGs related to cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix interaction (ITGA5, SPP1, LUM, VCAN, APP), placenta metabolic or oxidative stress (CCR7, NT5E, CYBB) were predicted to be newly potential crucial genes that may play significant roles in the pathogenesis of early-onset PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preghy.2021.02.007DOI Listing
June 2021

Integrated analysis of multiple microarray studies to identify novel gene signatures in preeclampsia.

Placenta 2021 02 2;105:104-118. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, PR China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the major causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in pregnancy worldwide. However, the intrinsic molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of PE have not yet been fully elucidated.

Methods: Robust rank aggregation (RRA), weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) and protein-protein interaction (PPI) methods were used to identify robust differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and hub genes in preeclampsia and subgroups based on 10 Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets. Subsequently, enrichment analysis and correlation analysis were performed to explore the potential function of the robust DEGs and hub genes. The diagnostic role of hub genes was further investigated by GSE12767. The miRNA regulators and the effect of hypoxia on hub genes were explored by using GSE84260 and GSE65271, respectively.

Results: Robust DEGs were identified in each subgroup including preeclampsia. Totally, 24 hub genes enriched in inflammatory response, renin-angiotensin system and JAK-STAT pathway, and 24 related miRNA regulators were identified.

Discussion: Our integrated analysis identified novel gene signatures in preeclampsia and subgroups and will contribute to the understanding of comprehensive molecular changes in preeclampsia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.placenta.2021.01.023DOI Listing
February 2021

Sandwich shelled [email protected]@CoO/C hollow spheres as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Feb 21;57(14):1786-1789. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, The Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Clean Energy of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, 241002, China.

A sandwich shelled hollow [email protected]@CoO/C composite is synthesized by consecutive coating of CoO nanosheets and TiO particles on CoO/C hollow spheres. The composite delivers an excellent lithium storage performance, maintaining 1081.78 mA h g after 100 cycles at 0.2 A g and 772.23 mA h g after 300 cycles at 1 A g, due to its superior structure combining the advantages of each component with favorable electron-transfer, Li-diffusion properties, and distinguished stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc07306gDOI Listing
February 2021

First Report of Associated with Leaf Spot on Flowering Cherry in South Korea.

Plant Dis 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Chonnam National University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, 98413, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju, Korea (the Republic of), 61186;

Flowering cherry (FC, Matsumura; Somei-yoshino cherry) is an ornamental tree, planted across South Korea and producing stunning flowers in spring. The seasonal blooms are annually celebrated during cherry blossom festivals in many locations across the country. The leaf spot disease is among the most common and important diseases affecting FC trees every year, resulting in premature defoliation and reduced flowering of cherry blossoms in the following year. In May 2018, brown spots (2 to 5 mm), circular to irregular and with dark borders were observed on FC leaves in Hadong, Gyeongsangnamdo, South Korea (35°07'48.9"N, 127°46'53.8"E), with a disease incidence of 55%. Single lesions often coalesced and were sometimes perforated, leaving shot holes. Sampled leaves were surface sterilized with 1% NaOCl for 1 min and 70% ethanol for 30 s, and then rinsed twice with sterile distilled water. About 2-mm-long infected leaf pieces from the margins of lesions were put onto water agar (WA, 1.5% agar) plates and incubated at 25oC for 72 h. Mycelia grown from symptomatic tissue were transferred to PDA plates, and five similar fungal isolates were obtained from hyphal tips. They produced a strong reddish-orange diffusible pigment on PDA after 5 d and exudates after 8 d. Conidia were globular to pear-shaped, dark, verrucose, multicellular, and 14.8 to 23.5 μm in diameter (av. = 18.7 μm, = 30) for isolate JCK-CSHF10. These morphological characteristics were consistent with the genus. Three loci, ITS, , and , from three isolates JCK-CSHF8, JCK-CSHF9, and JCK-CSHF10 were amplified using the primer pairs ITS1F/LR5 (Gardes and Bruns 1993; Vilgalys and Hester 1990), Btub2Fd/Btub4Rd (Woudenberg et al. 2009), and RPB2-5F2/RPB2-7cR (Liu et al. 1999; Sung et al. 2007), respectively. The ITS, , and sequences of the three isolates were deposited in Genbank (MW368668-MW368670, MW392083-MW392085, and MW392086-MW392088, respectively), showing 99.6 to 100% identity to (E33), a later synonym for (Hou et al. 2020). The phylogenetic tree using concatenated sequences of the three loci placed the three isolates in a cluster of (CBS 232.59, CGMCC 3.18362, and CBS 384.36; Hou et al. 2020). Taken together, the three isolates were identified as . The pathogenicity of JCK-CSHF10 was tested on 15 healthy leaves on three FC trees (cv. Somei-yoshino, 1.2 m in height) kept in a greenhouse. Five-mm-diameter plugs from 7-d-old fungal cultures grown on PDA or mycelia-free PDA plugs as controls were placed on the abaxial side of a leaf at three points, previously wounded by a sterile needle (Zlatković et al. 2016). Inoculation sites were covered with moist cotton plugs. Trees were then covered with a clear plastic bag and maintained in high humidity at 25oC in darkness for 24 h, followed by a 12-h photoperiod. Brown spots appeared on inoculated leaves after 7 d, identical to those observed in the field, while control leaves remained symptomless. This experiment was repeated three times. A fungus with the same morphology as JCK-CSHF10 was recovered from lesions, thus confirming Koch's postulates. (syn. ) has been reported as a leaf spot-causing agent on sp. (Chen et al. 2017) and (Chen et al. 2020). To date, there is no report on the occurrence of from leaf spots on FC. To our knowledge, this is the first report of causing leaf spot on FC in South Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-20-2711-PDNDOI Listing
January 2021

Histone Deacetylase 3-Mediated Inhibition of microRNA-19a-3p Facilitates the Development of Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease.

Front Physiol 2020 4;11:549656. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Rheumatic Nephropathy, Affiliated Hospital of Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xianyang, China.

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) has been implicated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) progression. We investigated the roles of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) involved in RA-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) fibrosis. Firstly, we measured the expression of HDAC3 and interleukin 17 receptor A (IL17RA) in lung tissue samples from normal controls, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients, and RA-ILD patients. Next, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and dual luciferase reporter assay were employed to detect the interaction between HDAC3 and microRNA-19a-3p (miR-19a-3p) and between miR-19a-3p and IL17RA. Further, immunohistochemistry was used to localize HDAC3 and IL17RA expression in lung tissues. Additionally, functional assays were conducted followed by expression determination of HDAC3, miR-19a-3p, and IL17RA with reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blot analysis. The effect of HDAC3 on RA-ILD in the constructed RA-ILD mouse model was also studied based on arthritis assessment. We found overexpressed HDAC3 and IL17RA as well as silenced miR-19a-3p in RA-ILD mouse model and RA-ILD patients. In the mouse model, HDAC3 downregulated miR-19a-3p in lung fibroblasts to promote the progression of RA-ILD fibrosis. In lung fibroblasts of RA-ILD mice, IL17RA was a target gene of miR-19a-3p. miR-19a-3p negatively regulated IL17RA, thereby increasing the expression of fibrosis markers, COL1A1, COL3A1, and FN, in lung fibroblasts of mice. Taken together, HDAC3 upregulated IL17RA expression by targeting miR-19a-3p to facilitate the RA-ILD fibrosis development, which sheds light on a new HDAC3/miR-19a-3p/IL17RA axis functioning in RA-ILD fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.549656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746846PMC
December 2020

Mycorrhizal symbiosis modulates the rhizosphere microbiota to promote rhizobia-legume symbiosis.

Mol Plant 2021 03 9;14(3):503-516. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Chinese Academy of Sciences Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address:

Plants establish symbioses with mutualistic fungi, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and bacteria, such as rhizobia, to exchange key nutrients and thrive. Plants and symbionts have coevolved and represent vital components of terrestrial ecosystems. Plants employ an ancestral AM signaling pathway to establish intracellular symbioses, including the legume-rhizobia symbiosis, in their roots. Nevertheless, the relationship between the AM and rhizobial symbioses in native soil is poorly understood. Here, we examined how these distinct symbioses affect root-associated bacterial communities in Medicago truncatula by performing quantitative microbiota profiling (QMP) of 16S rRNA genes. We found that M. truncatula mutants that cannot establish AM or rhizobia symbiosis have an altered microbial load (quantitative abundance) in the rhizosphere and roots, and in particular that AM symbiosis is required to assemble a normal quantitative root-associated microbiota in native soil. Moreover, quantitative microbial co-abundance network analyses revealed that AM symbiosis affects Rhizobiales hubs among plant microbiota and benefits the plant holobiont. Through QMP of rhizobial rpoB and AM fungal SSU rRNA genes, we revealed a new layer of interaction whereby AM symbiosis promotes rhizobia accumulation in the rhizosphere of M. truncatula. We further showed that AM symbiosis-conditioned microbial communities within the M. truncatula rhizosphere could promote nodulation in different legume plants in native soil. Given that the AM and rhizobial symbioses are critical for crop growth, our findings might inform strategies to improve agricultural management. Moreover, our work sheds light on the co-evolution of these intracellular symbioses during plant adaptation to native soil conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2020.12.002DOI Listing
March 2021

IgG4 immunohistochemistry in Riedel's thyroiditis and the recommended criteria for diagnosis: A case series and literature review.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 May 21;94(5):851-857. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Endocrinology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a very rare chronic fibrosing thyroiditis that is often associated with multifocal fibrosclerosis. Although the relationship of RT and IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) has been suggested, the expression of IgG and IgG4 in thyroid tissues of patients with RT has seldom been studied.

Design: A case series and literature review.

Patients And Measurements: We searched our hospital's pathology database and identified five cases of RT between 2000 and 2019. The expression levels of IgG4 and IgG in thyroid tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. We also performed a literature search of the electronic databases PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI). Eight papers were included in this study.

Results: According to immunohistochemistry, the numbers of IgG4+ plasma cells per high-power field (HPF) of the five RT patients at our hospital were 80, 8, 50, 10 and 22, and the respective IgG4+/IgG+ ratios were 76%, 80%, 43%, 19% and 28%. In the literature, 15 RT patients with confirmed IgG4 and IgG immunohistochemical findings were identified. Only seven of them fulfilled the IgG4-RD diagnostic criteria in terms of immunohistochemistry (IgG4+ > 10/HPF, IgG4+/IgG+ > 40%). In order to ensure that most RT cases can meet the IgG4 immunohistochemical criteria, an organ-specific cut-off value (≥10 IgG4+ plasma cells/HPF and ≥ an IgG4+/IgG ratio of 20%) was finally selected in our study.

Conclusion: Our findings of IgG4 expression in patients with RT suggest that a cut-off of 10 IgG4+ plasma cells/HPF and an IgG4+/IgG ratio of 20% are more suitable diagnostic criteria for RT in IgG4-RD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.14390DOI Listing
May 2021

An SHR-SCR module specifies legume cortical cell fate to enable nodulation.

Nature 2021 01 9;589(7843):586-590. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, SIBS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Legumes, unlike other plants, have the ability to establish symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. It has been theorized that a unique property of legume root cortical cells enabled the initial establishment of rhizobial symbiosis. Here we show that a SHORTROOT-SCARECROW (SHR-SCR) stem cell program in cortical cells of the legume Medicago truncatula specifies their distinct fate. Regulatory elements drive the cortical expression of SCR, and stele-expressed SHR protein accumulates in cortical cells of M. truncatula but not Arabidopsis thaliana. The cortical SHR-SCR network is conserved across legume species, responds to rhizobial signals, and initiates legume-specific cortical cell division for de novo nodule organogenesis and accommodation of rhizobia. Ectopic activation of SHR and SCR in legumes is sufficient to induce root cortical cell division. Our work suggests that acquisition of the cortical SHR-SCR module enabled cell division coupled to rhizobial infection in legumes. We propose that this event was central to the evolution of rhizobial endosymbiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-3016-zDOI Listing
January 2021

Clinical characteristics and survival of patients with normal-sized ovarian carcinoma syndrome: Retrospective analysis of a single institution 10-year experiment.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Nov;8(21):5116-5127

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei Province, China.

Background: Normal size ovarian cancer syndrome (NOCS) is a challenge for clinicians regarding timely diagnosis and management due to atypical clinical and imaging features. It is extremely rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. More data are needed to clarify its biological behavior and compare the differences with abnormal size ovarian cancer.

Aim: To assess the clinical and pathological features of NOCS patients treated in our institution in the last 10 years and to explore risk factors for relapse and survival.

Methods: Patients who were pathologically diagnosed with NOCS between 2008 and 2018 were included. Papillary serous ovarian carcinoma (PSOC) patients were initially randomly recruited as the control group. Demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment procedures, and clinical follow-up were retrospectively collected. Risk factors for progression-free survival and overall survival were assessed.

Results: A total of 110 NOCS patients were included; 80 (72.7%) had primary adnexal carcinoma, two (1.8%) had mesotheliomas, 18 (16.4%) had extraovarian peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma, and eight (7.3%) had metastatic tumors. Carbohydrate antigen (CA)125 and ascites quantity were lower in the NOCS cohort than in the PSOC group. The only statistically significant risk factors for worse overall survival ( < 0.05) were the levels of CA199 and having fewer than six chemotherapy cycles. The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates were 75.5%, 27.7%, and 13.8%, respectively.

Conclusion: The clinical symptoms of the NOCS group are atypical, and the misdiagnosis rate is high. Ascites cytology and laparoscopic exploration are valuable in the early diagnosis to avoid a misdiagnosis. The level of CA199 is the most important predictor of overall survival, and more than six cycles of chemotherapy contributes to the increased survival rates of NOCS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i21.5116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674751PMC
November 2020

Exploring the Role of Media Sources on COVID-19-Related Discrimination Experiences and Concerns Among Asian People in the United States: Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

J Med Internet Res 2020 11 6;22(11):e21684. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

School of Communication, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, United States.

Background: Media coverage and scholarly research have reported that Asian people who reside in the United States have been the targets of racially motivated incidents during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Objective: This study aimed to examine the types of discrimination and worries experienced by Asians and Asian Americans living in the United States during the pandemic, as well as factors that were associated with everyday discrimination experience and concerns about future discrimination that the Asian community may face.

Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted. A total of 235 people who identified themselves as Asian or Asian American and resided in the United States completed the questionnaire.

Results: Our study suggested that up to a third of Asians surveyed had experienced some type of discrimination. Pooling the responses "very often," "often," and "sometimes," the percentages for each experienced discrimination type ranged between 14%-34%. In total, 49%-58% of respondents expressed concerns about discrimination in the future. The most frequently experienced discrimination types, as indicated by responses "very often" and "often," were "people act as if they think you are dangerous" (25/235, 11%) and "being treated with less courtesy or respect" (24/235, 10%). About 14% (32/235) of individuals reported very often, often, or sometimes being threatened or harassed. In addition, social media use was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of experiencing discrimination (β=.18, P=.01) and having concerns about future episodes of discrimination the community may face (β=.20, P=.005). Use of print media was also positively associated with experiencing discrimination (β=.31, P<.001).

Conclusions: Our study provided important empirical evidence regarding the various types of discrimination Asians residing in the United States experienced or worried about during the COVID-19 pandemic. The relationship between media sources and the perception of racial biases in this group was also identified. We noted the role of social media in reinforcing the perception of discrimination experience and concerns about future discrimination among Asians during this outbreak. Our results indicate several practical implications for public health agencies. To reduce discrimination against Asians during the pandemic, official sources and public health professionals should be cognizant of the possible impacts of stigmatizing cues in media reports on activating racial biases. Furthermore, Asians or Asian Americans could also be informed that using social media to obtain COVID-19 information is associated with an increase in concerns about future discrimination, and thus they may consider approaching this media source with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/21684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652591PMC
November 2020

Are you passing along something true or false? Dissemination of social media messages about genetically modified organisms.

Public Underst Sci 2021 Apr 24;30(3):285-301. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA.

Using network analysis, this study investigates how information veracity and account verification influence the dissemination of information in the context of discourse about genetically modified organisms on social media. We discovered that misinformation and true information about genetically modified organisms demonstrated different dissemination patterns on social media. In general, the dissemination networks of misinformation about genetically modified organisms were found to have higher structural stability than those of true information about genetically modified organisms, as shown by the denser network structure with fewer distinct subgroups residing within the dissemination networks. More importantly, unverified account status significantly boosted the dissemination of misinformation by increasing network density. In addition, we found that the posts about genetically modified organisms from unverified accounts received more reposts and had more layers of information relay than those from the verified accounts. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings on combating misinformation are discussed in the article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0963662520966745DOI Listing
April 2021

Amino Acid Cross-Linked Graphene Oxide Membranes for Metal Ions Permeation, Insertion and Antibacterial Properties.

Membranes (Basel) 2020 Oct 21;10(10). Epub 2020 Oct 21.

School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Graphene oxide (GO) and its composite membranes have exhibited great potential for application in water purification and desalination. This article reports that a novel graphene oxide membrane (GOM) of ~5 µm thickness was fabricated onto a nylon membrane by vacuum filtration and cross-linked by amino acids (L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, and serine). The GOM cross-linked by amino acids (GOM-A) exhibits excellent stability, high water flux, and high rejection to metal ions. The rejection coefficients to alkali and alkaline earth metal ions through GOM-A were over 94% and 96%, respectively. The rejection coefficients decreased with an increasing H concentration. Metal ions (K, Ca, and Fe) can be inserted into GOM-A layers, which enlarges the interlayer spacing of GOM-A and neutralizes the electronegativity of the membrane, resulting in the decease in the rejection coefficients to metal ions. Meanwhile, GOM-A showed quite high antibacterial efficiency against E. coli. With the excellent performance as described above, GOM-A could be used to purify and desalt water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes10100296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7589175PMC
October 2020

Aetiology of superficial fungal infections of the foot in urban outpatients in mainland China: A multicentre, prospective case study.

Mycoses 2020 Nov 9;63(11):1235-1243. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: In China, the prevalence of superficial fungal infections of the foot is high and recurrence is common. However, a prospective, large-scale and multicentre study on the aetiology of superficial fungal infections of the foot is still lacking.

Objectives: To study the epidemiology of aetiological agents of superficial fungal infections of the foot in urban outpatients in mainland China, as well as to understand the aetiology features of the pathogenic agent.

Methods: The study was designed as a multicentre, prospective epidemiological survey. A total of 1704 subjects were enrolled from seven geographical areas in mainland China. For each subject, one mycological sample and one bacterial sample were collected. KOH wet mount examination and culture were performed at local laboratories. The bacterial results were only reported in those with positive mycology. Further morphological identification and, if necessary, molecular biological identification were conducted in a central laboratory.

Results: Of 1704 enrolled subjects, 1327 (77.9%) subjects had positive fungal culture results. The incidence of dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds was 90.1%, 8.1% and 1.1%, respectively. The most frequently isolated aetiological agent (fungus) was Trichophyton rubrum. Moccasin form was the most commonly reported clinical diagnosis of superficial fungal infections. The most frequently isolated bacterial genus in patients was Staphylococcus.

Conclusion: This study prospectively investigated the clinical and mycological features of human dermatophytosis in mainland China. T rubrum was the most frequently isolated fungus, and moccasin form was the most commonly reported clinical diagnosis of superficial fungal infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.13168DOI Listing
November 2020

Exogenous testosterone decreases men's sensitivity to vocal cues of male dominance.

Horm Behav 2021 01 16;127:104871. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Affective and Social Cognitive Science, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China; School of Psychology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

Assessing dominance is important for effective social interactions, and prior research suggests that testosterone is associated with men's dominance perceptions. The present study tested for a causal effect of exogenous testosterone on men's sensitivity to vocal cues of other men's dominance, an important parameter in male-male competition across species. One hundred and thirty-nine Chinese men received a single dose (150 mg) of testosterone or placebo gel in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-participant design. Participants reported their own dominance and judged other men's dominance from voices. Men's dominance sensitivity was significantly weaker in the testosterone group compared to those in the placebo group. Moreover, men's dominance sensitivity was negatively associated with their self-reported dominance in our Chinese sample, consistent with findings from Western populations. These results indicate that exogenous testosterone has a causal effect in decreasing men's dominance sensitivity, consistent with the Challenge Hypothesis, suggesting that the fluctuation of testosterone concentration mediates individuals' behaviors. Additionally, the present study could motivate further work on vocal assessment in the context of competition in humans and other species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2020.104871DOI Listing
January 2021
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