Publications by authors named "Nan Xu"

488 Publications

Mechanistic insights into sulfate and phosphate-mediated hexavalent chromium removal by tea polyphenols wrapped nano-zero-valent iron.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Aug 11:157996. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China. Electronic address:

Nano zero-valent iron via green synthesis (g-nZVI) has great potential in removing toxic hexavalent Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater. Sulfate and phosphate in wastewater can influence the Cr(VI) remediation of g-nZVI. In this study, the Cr(VI) removal kinetics by different g-nZVI materials were investigated with the existence of sulfate and/or phosphate, and the corresponding mechanisms were first revealed using multiple characterizations, including X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the dominant Cr(OH) initially formed on the surface of g-nZVI particles before CrO formation during the reaction of g-nZVI with Cr(VI). Sulfate in wastewater can promote the reduction from Cr(VI) to Cr(OH) by g-nZVI, because sulfate triggers the release of Fe(II) and tea polyphenols (from tea extracts) from the g-nZVI surface due to the corrosion of Fe core, which is in line with an obvious increase in pseudo-second-order rate constant (k) and subtle change in Cr(VI) removal capacity (q). However, phosphate impedes the g-nZVI corrosion and inhibits q because of the inner-sphere complexation of phosphate onto g-nZVI decreasing the released Fe(II) for CrO production. When sulfate and phosphate coexisted in contaminated water, the inhibition effect of phosphate in Cr(VI) removal by g-nZVI was stronger than the promotion of sulfate. Accordingly, q value of g-nZVI declined from 93.4 mg g to 77.5 mg g with the k remaining consistent as the molar ratio of phosphate/sulfate increased from 0.1 to 10 in water. This study provides new insights into applying g-nZVI in efficient Cr(VI) removal from contaminated water with enrichment of sulphates and phosphates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157996DOI Listing
August 2022

Biochar colloids facilitate transport and transformation of Cr(VI) in soil: Active site competition coupling with reduction reaction.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Jul 28;440:129691. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China; Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recovery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Biochar has been demonstrated as an efficient amendment for immobilizing contaminants. However, a certain number of micro/nano-scale particles are inevitably present in the fresh or aged biochar, which may facilitate the downward transport of contaminants along the soil profile, posing a detrimental impact on the groundwater. Herein, the effects of biochar colloids derived from wood chip and wheat straw at two temperatures (350 °C and 500 °C) on the transport and transformation of Cr(VI) in soil were investigated. All biochar colloids facilitated the transport of Cr(VI) in a loam clay Ultisol, which was attributed to the competition between biochar colloids and Cr(VI) for the available sorption sites on the soil surface. Wheat straw biochar colloids caused more transport of Cr(VI) than wood chip ones due to the more negative charge and higher polarity, which resulted in stronger electrostatic repulsion and competition with Cr(VI). It is soluble Cr(VI) that dominated the transport of Cr in the effluent solution, however, the particulate Cr(VI) could be reduced into Cr(III) before being carried by biochar colloids for co-transport. The 350 °C biochar colloids had higher electron donating capacities than 500 °C ones, resulting in more reduction of Cr(VI) and more co-transport as biochar colloids-associated Cr(III) in the effluent. Moreover, the more negatively charged 350 °C biochar colloids could also attach more soil Fe oxides, further facilitating the cotransport of Cr via the formation of a binary or ternary complex. Modeling showed the experimental-consistently results that biochar colloids caused 0.5-7.0 times faster transport of Cr(VI) than no biochar colloids in the long-term period. Our findings demonstrate that biochar colloids can enhance transport and transformation of Cr(VI) in soils, which arouse migration risk concern about in-situ remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soils by biochar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129691DOI Listing
July 2022

A Data-Driven Approach to State of Health Estimation and Prediction for a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack of Electric Buses Based on Real-World Data.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Aug 2;22(15). Epub 2022 Aug 2.

State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and Control, Jilin University, Changchun 130025, China.

In the era of big data, using big data to realize the online estimation of battery SOH has become possible. Traditional solutions based on theoretical models cannot take into account driving behavior and complicated environmental factors. In this paper, an approximate SOH degradation model based on real operating data and environmental temperature data of electric vehicles (EVs) collected with a big data platform is proposed. Firstly, the health indicators are extracted from the historical operating data, and the equivalent capacity at 25 °C is obtained based on the capacity-temperature empirical formula and the capacity offset. Then, the attenuation rate during each charging and discharging process is calculated by combining the operating data and the environmental temperature. Finally, the long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network is used to learn the degradation trend of the battery and predict the future decline trend. The test results show that the proposed method has better performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22155762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9370969PMC
August 2022

Low-level green laser promotes wound healing after carbon dioxide fractional laser therapy.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Dermatology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: The carbon dioxide (CO ) fractional laser resurfacing has become one of the hottest therapies for dermatoses. However, complications such as skin swelling, prolonged erythema, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, and scar formation remain. Low-level laser (LLL) therapy is accepted to promote skin wound healing and regeneration, decrease inflammation and pain, and modulate immunoreaction with low-dose laser of different wavelength. 532 nm laser therapy is commonly used to remove pigmented spots and to tender skin, but not utilized in wound care.

Objective: We aimed to determine the efficacy of the low-level 532 nm green laser in wound healing after CO fractional laser.

Methods: Six adult male mice (C57BL/6, eight weeks old) were prepared for animal experiments. The dorsum of each mouse was divided into four parts that respectively received designed treatments, as controlled (group Ctrl), 532 nm low-level laser (LLL)-treated (group GL), CO fractional laser-treated (group FL), and CO fractional laser followed by three times 532 nm LLL-treated (group FG). Hematoxylin-eosin staining (H&E), Masson-trichrome staining, CD31 immunohistochemical staining were performed to evaluate the efficacy of wound healing after treated by different irradiations. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of related proteins. Mouse skin fibroblasts (MSFs) were treated with LLL using a wavelength of 532 nm once. Cellular responses were observed and analyzed after 48 hours. Cell viability and migration of different groups were assessed by scratch and the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assays, respectively.

Results: Collagen remodeling and epidermis thickness were significantly enhanced in group FG than that in group FL in morphology. Besides, CD31 immunohistochemical staining indicated prominently increased angiogenesis in both groups FL and FG than non-irradiation group. The expression of extracellular matrix (ECM)-related protein (Col1, Col3 and MMP1) showed a remarkable improvement in wound healing in group FG than that in group FL. Irradiated MSFs showed a better migration ability compared with non-irradiated controls. LLL enhanced the secretion function of MSFs on Collagen I and III.

Conclusions: Low-level green laser promotes wound healing after CO fractional laser by improving the integrity of skin barrier and allowing for scarless healing. Therefore, low-level green laser therapy might serve as a sequential therapy of invasive laser surgery to ensure a better wound care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.15298DOI Listing
August 2022

Exogenous melatonin promotes the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) under NaCl stress through multiple pathways.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Aug 1;242:113938. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

College of Grassland Agriculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Salinity is one of the most common factors affecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and NaCl is one of the main factors of salinity stress which can cause heavy losses in agricultural production in the world. The application of exogenous melatonin (MT) plays a major role in numerous plants against various stress environments. The effects of exogenous MT on the NaCl tolerance of alfalfa treated with the control, 100 µmol L MT, 150 mmol L NaCl, or 150 mmol L NaCl+ 100 µmol L MT were investigated. The results showed that MT increased growth parameters, inhibited chlorophyll degradation and promoted photosynthetic gas exchange parameters (photosynthetic rate, conductance to HO, and transpiration rate) and stomatal opening under NaCl stress. Osmotic regulation substances such as soluble sugar, proline and glycine betaine were the highest in the NaCl treatment and the second in the NaCl+MT treatment. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium were reduced and sodium was increased by NaCl, whereas these levels were reversed by the NaCl+MT treatment. MT inhibited cell membrane imperfection, lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation caused by NaCl stress. MT up-regulated the gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes and increased the content of antioxidant non-enzyme substances to scavenge excessive ROS in NaCl-treated plants. In addition, all indicators interacted with each other to a certain extent and could be grouped according to the relative values. All variables were divided into PC 1 (89.2 %) and PC 2 (4 %). They were clustered into two categories with opposite effects, and most of them were significant variables. Hence, these findings reveal that exogenous MT alleviates the inhibitory effects of NaCl stress on photosynthesis, stomata opening, osmotic adjustment, ion balance and redox homeostasis, enhancing tolerance and growth of alfalfa. Furthermore, it suggests that MT could be implemented to improve the NaCl tolerance of alfalfa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113938DOI Listing
August 2022

Biomechanically-adapted immunohydrogels reconstructing myelin sheath for peripheral nerve regeneration.

Adv Healthc Mater 2022 Aug 3:e2201596. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, P. R. China.

Myelin sheath reconstruction plays an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. But the hindered reconstruction of myelin sheath due to the inadequate repair phenotypes of macrophages and Schwann cells after peripheral nerve injury often causes poor functional nerve recovery. Here, biomechanically-adapted immunohydrogels are prepared as the FK506-loaded platforms and nerve tissue engineering scaffolds to reconstruct myelin sheath for peripheral nerve regeneration. By immunofluorescent staining, an increase in the proportion of F4/80 markers reveals that the biomechanically-adapted scaffolds facilitate recruitment of macrophages. Furthermore, the high IL-10 mRNA expression level suggests the anti-inflammation education effects of FK506 in vitro, which is further confirmed by a high CD206/TNF-α ratio in the FK506 Gel group in vivo. The immune education effects are positively related to the increase in compactness and thickness of myelin sheath, indicating the synergy of structural reconstruction of myelin sheath and M2 phenotype polarization of macrophages. All these data indicated that the biomechanically-adapted immunohydrogels enhance recruitment of macrophages, educate M2 polarization of macrophages and promote a neuroprotective environment, which in consequence reconstructs myelin sheath for peripheral nerve regeneration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202201596DOI Listing
August 2022

Prediction of the Active Components and Mechanism of Leaf against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Based on Network Pharmacology.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 20;2022:5643345. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Shandong Academy of Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Objective: leaf (FSL) has been used as a health tea in China for centuries. Previous experiments have proved that FSL extract has a good effect on the antirespiratory syncytial virus (RSV) , but its exact mechanism is not clear. Therefore, this study aims to determine the active components and targets of FSL and further explore its anti-RSV mechanism.

Methods: UPLC-Q-Exactive-MS was used to analyze the main chemical components of FSL. The compound disease target network, PPI, GO, and KEGG were used to obtain key targets and potential ways. Then, the molecular docking was verified by Schrödinger Maestro software. Next, the cell model of RSV infection was established, and the inhibitory effect of each drug on RSV was detected. Finally, western blotting was used to detect the effect of the active components of FSL on the expression of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway-related protein.

Results: UPLC-Q-Exactive-MS analysis showed that there were 67 main chemical constituents in FSL, while network pharmacological analysis showed that there were 169 anti-RSV targets of the active components in FSL, involving 177 signal pathways, among which PI3K/AKT signal pathway played an important role in the anti-RSV process of FSL. The results of molecular docking showed that cryptochlorogenic acid, phillyrin, phillygenin, rutin, and rosmarinic acid had higher binding activities to TP53, STAT3, MAPK1, AKT1, and MAPK3, respectively. experiments showed that phillyrin and rosmarinic acid could effectively improve the survival rate of RSV-infected cells, increase the expression level of PI3K, and decrease the expression level of AKT.

Conclusion: The active ingredients of FSL, phillyrin, and rosmarinic acid can play an anti-RSV role by inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This study provides reliable theoretical and experimental support for the anti-RSV treatment of FSL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/5643345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9328944PMC
July 2022

MTERF3 contributes to MPP+-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder causing severe social and economic burdens. The origin of PD has been usually attributed to mitochondrial dysfunction. To this end, mitochondrial transcription regulators become attractive subjects for understanding PD pathogenesis. Previously, we found that the expression of mitochondrial transcription termination factor 3 (MTERF3) was reduced in MPP+-induced mice model of PD. In the present study, we probe the function of MTERF3 and its role in MPP+-induced cellular model of PD. Initially, we observe that MTERF3 expression is also reduced in MPP+-induced cellular model of PD, which can be mainly attributed to the increase of MTERF3 degradation. Next, we examine the effect of MTERF3 knockdown and overexpression on the replication, transcription, and translation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We show that knockdown and overexpression of MTERF3 have opposite effects on mtDNA transcript level but similar effects on mtDNA expression level, in line with MTERF3's dual roles in mtDNA transcription and translation. In addition, we examine the effect of MTERF3 knockdown and overexpression on mitochondrial function with and without MPP+ treatment, and find that MTERF3 seems to play a generally protective role in MPP+-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Together, this work suggests a regulatory role of MTERF3 in MPP+-induced cellular model of PD and may provide clues in designing novel therapeutics against PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/abbs.2022098DOI Listing
July 2022

Feasibility of in vivo CAR T cells tracking using streptavidin-biotin-paired positron emission tomography.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2022 Jul 29. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

NHC Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214063, China.

Background: A novel reporter system, streptavidin (SA)- [ Ga]Ga-labeled biotin ([ Ga]Ga-DOTA-biotin), was constructed and its ability for PET imaging the behaviors of CAR T cells were also evaluated in this study.

Methods: In vitro activity and cytotoxicity of the SA transduced anti-CD19-CAR T (denoted as SA-CD19-CAR T) cells were determined. The feasibility of monitoring proliferation profiles of SA-CD19-CAR T cells using [ Ga]Ga-DOTA-biotin was firstly investigated in a solid tumor model. Also, the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the CAR T cells in whole-body hematologic neoplasms were evaluated by bioluminescence imaging and [ Ga]Ga-DOTA-biotin PET imaging simultaneously.

Results: After transduction with SA, the activity and cytotoxicity of the modified CAR T cells were not affected. PET images revealed that the uptakes of [ Ga]Ga-DOTA-biotin in CD19 K562 solid tumors were 0.67 ± 0.32 ID%/g and 1.26 ± 0.13 ID%/g at 30 min and 96 h p.i. after administration of SA-CD19-CAR T cells respectively. It confirmed that the SA-CD19-CAR T cells could effectively inhibit the growth of Raji hematologic tumors. However, low radioactivity related to the proliferation of CD19-CAR T cells was detected in the Raji model.

Conclusion: SA-CD19-CAR T cells were constructed successfully without disturbing the antitumor functions of the cells. The proliferation of the CAR T cells in solid tumors could be early detected by [ Ga]Ga-DOTA-biotin PET imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-022-05923-5DOI Listing
July 2022

Supercarriers of antibiotic resistome in a world's large river.

Microbiome 2022 07 28;10(1):111. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University; Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100871, People's Republic of China.

Background: Antibiotic resistome has been found to strongly interact with the core microbiota in the human gut, yet little is known about how antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) correlate with certain microbes in large rivers that are regarded as "terrestrial gut."

Results: By creating the integral pattern for ARGs and antibiotic-resistant microbes in water and sediment along a 4300-km continuum of the Yangtze River, we found that human pathogen bacteria (HPB) share 13.4% and 5.9% of the ARG hosts in water and sediment but contribute 64% and 46% to the total number of planktonic and sedimentary ARGs, respectively. Moreover, the planktonic HPB harbored 79 ARG combinations that are dominated by "natural" supercarriers (e.g., Rheinheimera texasensis and Noviherbaspirillum sp. Root189) in river basins.

Conclusions: We confirmed that terrestrial HPB are the major ARG hosts in the river, rather than conventional supercarriers (e.g., Enterococcus spp. and other fecal indicator bacteria) that prevail in the human gut. The discovery of HPB as natural supercarriers in a world's large river not only interprets the inconsistency between the spatial dissimilarities in ARGs and their hosts, but also highlights the top priority of controlling terrestrial HPB in the future ARG-related risk management of riverine ecosystems globally. Video Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-022-01294-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9331799PMC
July 2022

Aqueous secondary organic aerosol formation attributed to phenols from biomass burning.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 23;847:157582. Epub 2022 Jul 23.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, International Joint Laboratory for Regional Pollution Control, Ministry of Education (IJRC), College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Biomass burning emits large quantities of phenols, which readily partition into the atmospheric aqueous phase and subsequently may react to produce aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA). For the first time, we quantitatively explored the influence of phenols emitted from biomass burning on aqSOA formation in the winter of Beijing. A typical haze episode associated with significant aqSOA formation was captured. During this episode, aqueous-phase processing of biomass burning promoted aqSOA formation was identified. Furthermore, high-resolution mass spectrum analysis provided molecular-level evidence of the phenolic aqSOA tracers. Estimation of aqSOA formation rate (R) with compiled laboratory kinetic data indicated that biomass-burning phenols can efficiently produce aqSOA at midday, with R of 0.42 μg m h accounting for 15 % of total aqSOA formation rate. The results highlight that aqSOA formation of phenols contributes the haze pollution. This implies the importance of regional joint control of biomass burning to mitigate the heavy haze.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157582DOI Listing
July 2022

Low IL7R Expression at Diagnosis Predicted Relapse in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients With t(8;21).

Front Immunol 2022 7;13:909104. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Institute of Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Disease, Beijing, China.

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;21) needs to be further stratified. In addition to leukemia cells, immune cells in tumor microenvironment participate in tumor initiation, growth and progression. Interleukins (ILs)/interleukin receptors (ILRs) interaction plays important roles in the antitumor immune response. IL7R is reported to be relevant to prognosis in solid tumor and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the prognostic significance of IL7R in t(8;21) AML remains to be clarified.

Methods: Bone marrows collected from 156 newly diagnosed t(8;21) AML patients were used for testing IL7R transcript level by TaqMan-based real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR), and RNAseq were performed in 15 of them. Moreover, IL7R expression at diagnosis were measured by RQ-PCR and flow cytometry (FCM) simultaneously in other 13 t(8;21) AML patients.

Results: t(8;21) AML patients had varied IL7R transcript levels and were categorized into low-expression (IL7R-L) and high-expression (IL7R-H) groups; IL7R-L was significantly associated with a lower relapse-free survival (RFS) rate (=0.0027) and KIT mutation (=0.0010). Furthermore, IL7R-L was associated with a lower RFS rate in KIT group (=0.013) and IL7R-H/KIT patients had similar RFS to KIT patients (=0.35). GO analysis enrichment showed that down-regulated genes were predominantly involved in the regulation of T cell and leukocyte activation, proliferation and differentiation in IL7R-L group. IL7R-L had significantly lower levels of Granzymes A/B, CCR7, CD28 and CD27 than IL7R-H group (all <0.05). FCM analysis showed IL7R protein was primarily expressed in CD4 T and CD8 T cell subset. A significant association was found between the transcript level of IL7R and the percentage of CD8 T cells in nucleated cells (=0.015) but not CD4 T cells (=0.47).

Conclusion: Low IL7R transcript level of bone marrow at diagnosis predicted relapse in t(8;21) AML, which might be caused by the difference in the amount, status and function of T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.909104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9302488PMC
July 2022

Genome-scale metabolic network models: from first-generation to next-generation.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2022 Aug 13;106(13-16):4907-4920. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

College of Bioengineering, Sichuan University of Science & Engineering, Yibin, 644005, China.

Over the last two decades, thousands of genome-scale metabolic network models (GSMMs) have been constructed. These GSMMs have been widely applied in various fields, ranging from network interaction analysis, to cell phenotype prediction. However, due to the lack of constraints, the prediction accuracy of first-generation GSMMs was limited. To overcome these limitations, the next-generation GSMMs were developed by integrating omics data, adding constrain condition, integrating different biological models, and constructing whole-cell models. Here, we review recent advances of GSMMs from the first generation to the next generation. Then, we discuss the major application of GSMMs in industrial biotechnology, such as predicting phenotypes and guiding metabolic engineering. In addition, human health applications, including understanding biological mechanisms, discovering biomarkers and drug targets, are also summarized. Finally, we address the challenges and propose new trend of GSMMs. KEY POINTS: •This mini-review updates the literature on almost all published GSMMs since 1999. •Detailed insights into the development of the first- and next-generation GSMMs. •The application of GSMMs is summarized, and the prospects of integrating machine learning are emphasized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-022-12066-yDOI Listing
August 2022

Exploring Spatial Relationship between Restoration Suitability and Rivers for Sustainable Wetland Utilization.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 07 1;19(13). Epub 2022 Jul 1.

National and Local Joint Laboratory of Wetland and Ecological Conservation, Institute of Natural Resources and Ecology, Heilongjiang Academy of Sciences, Harbin 150040, China.

Wetlands are important ecosystems for biodiversity preservation and environmental regulation. However, the integrity of wetland ecosystems has been seriously compromised and damaged due to the reckless and indiscriminate exploitation of wetland resources during economic development by human society. Hence, wetland restoration has now attracted wide attention. Understanding wetland restoration suitability and its relationship with river grade and river distance is an important step in further implementing wetland restoration and ensuring an orderly wetland development and utilization. In this study, wetland restoration suitability is evaluated combining natural and human factors. Taking its result as an important basis, the spatial distribution characteristics of different levels of wetland restoration suitability are discussed for the studied region; the percentage distribution of different levels of wetland restoration suitability is analyzed for 10 km long buffer zones of rivers of different grades, and the association between the distribution of different levels of wetland restoration suitability and the river distance (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 km) is also analyzed for different buffer zones of rivers in different grades. Our findings show that the spatial distribution of wetland restoration suitability is closely associated with the grade of rivers and the distance of the wetland patches from the river. The higher the river grade, the higher the percentage of the wetland with high restoration suitability within the same river distance. The percentage of wetlands with high restoration suitability has shown a notably decreasing trend as the river distance increases for the areas beside rivers of all grades, while the percentage of a wetland area with relatively high restoration suitability tends to increase as the river distance increases for the areas beside rivers of grade I and II and does not have a noticeable trend to change as the river distance changes for the area beside rivers of other grades. Results of this can provide technical support for wetland restoration suitability evaluation for plain areas, a spatial reference for wetland restoration prioritizing, and an orderly wetland development and utilization in future studies and planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9266254PMC
July 2022

Magnetic resonance imaging can minimize the missed diagnosis of bile duct stones caused by only ultrasound scan before cholecystectomy.

Asian J Surg 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Ultrasound, Chengdu First People's Hospital (Chengdu Integrated TCM & Western Medicine Hospital), Chengdu, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2022.06.116DOI Listing
June 2022

Characterization of Chronic Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Immunocompetent Rabbits.

Viruses 2022 06 9;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Division of HIV/AIDS and Sex-Transmitted Virus Vaccines, Institute for Biological Product Control, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC), Beijing 102629, China.

Chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is frequently reported in immunocompromised patients, but has also been increasingly reported in non-immunocompromised individuals. We characterized the course of chronic HEV infection in immunocompetent rabbits. In two independent experiments, 40 specific-pathogen-free rabbits were infected with a rabbit HEV genotype 3 strain in serial diluted titers (10 to 10 copies/mL). Serum and fecal samples were collected weekly and were tested for HEV RNA, antigen, anti-HEV and liver enzymes. Rabbits that spontaneously cleared the infection before 10 weeks post-inoculation (wpi) were kept to the end of the study as recovery control. Liver tissues were collected from HEV-infected rabbits at 5, 10 and 26 wpi for histopathological analysis. Nineteen rabbits (47.5%) developed chronic HEV infection with persistent viraemia and fecal HEV shedding for >6 months. Seroconversion to anti-HEV was observed in 84.2% (16/19) of the chronically infected rabbits. Serum levels of aminotransferase were persistently elevated in most of the rabbits. Characterizations of chronic HEV infection in immunocompetent settings could be recapitulated in rabbits, which can serve as a valuable tool for future studies on pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v14061252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9229306PMC
June 2022

Leaf-Associated Epiphytic Fungi of , and Exhibit Delicate Seasonal Variations.

J Fungi (Basel) 2022 Jun 14;8(6). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Research Center for Eco-Environment Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Plant-leaf surface on Earth harbors complex microbial communities that influence plant productivity and health. To gain a detailed understanding of the assembly and key drivers of leaf microbial communities, especially for leaf-associated fungi, we investigated leaf-associated fungal communities in two seasons for three plant species at two sites by high-throughput sequencing. The results reveal a strong impact of growing season and plant species on fungal community composition, exhibiting clear temporal patterns in abundance and diversity. For the deciduous tree , the number of enriched genera in May was much higher than that in October. The number of enriched genera in the two evergreen trees and was slightly higher in October than in May. Among the genus-level biomarkers, the abundances of , and were significantly higher in October than in May in the three tree species. Additionally, network correlations between the leaf-associated fungi of were more complex in May than those in October, containing extra negative associations, which was more obvious than the network correlation changes of leaf-associated fungi of the two evergreen plant species. Overall, the fungal diversity and community composition varied significantly between different growing seasons and host plant species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof8060631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9225447PMC
June 2022

A multi-scale time-series dataset with benchmark for machine learning in decarbonized energy grids.

Sci Data 2022 Jun 22;9(1):359. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Texas A&M University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College Station, 77840, USA.

The electric grid is a key enabling infrastructure for the ambitious transition towards carbon neutrality as we grapple with climate change. With deepening penetration of renewable resources, the reliable operation of the electric grid becomes increasingly challenging. In this paper, we present PSML, a first-of-its-kind open-access multi-scale time-series dataset, to aid in the development of data-driven machine learning (ML)-based approaches towards reliable operation of future electric grids. The dataset is synthesized from a joint transmission and distribution electric grid to capture the increasingly important interactions and uncertainties of the grid dynamics, containing power, voltage and current measurements over multiple spatio-temporal scales. Using PSML, we provide state-of-the-art ML benchmarks on three challenging use cases of critical importance to achieve: (i) early detection, accurate classification and localization of dynamic disturbances; (ii) robust hierarchical forecasting of load and renewable energy; and (iii) realistic synthetic generation of physical-law-constrained measurements. We envision that this dataset will provide use-inspired ML research in safety-critical systems, while simultaneously enabling ML researchers to contribute towards decarbonization of energy sectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-022-01455-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9214688PMC
June 2022

Low-energy green light alleviates senescence-like phenotypes in a cell model of photoaging.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Dermatology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Ultraviolet B (UVB) affects diverse pathways in skin cells, resulting in skin photoaging. Skin fibroblasts internalize and degrade elastin and collagen, playing prominent roles in photoaging. Green light is used in many fields of dermatology, but few studies have examined its role in photoaging. The present work aimed to assess low-energy green light for its effects in a previously proposed cell model of photoaging and to explore the possible anti-photoaging mechanism.

Methods: The stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) model was constructed via repeated treatment of MDFs with UVB. Senescence-like phenotypes were compared among normal, low-energy green light pretreatment and UVB groups, for example, cell morphological properties, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) amounts, extracellular matrix (ECM) biosynthesis and degradation, and autophagy.

Results: In comparison with the UVB group, the green light pretreatment group showed significantly decreased number of senescent mast cells and markedly declined signal intensity and amounts of SA-β-gal-positive cells. Furthermore, green light pretreatment directly affected ECM by increasing type I and type III collagen production and decreasing MMP-1 amounts. Moreover, changes in autophagy levels induced by green light pretreatment provided a potential mechanism underlying its anti-aging property.

Conclusions: Low-energy green light pretreatment improves senescence-like phenotypes in vitro, indicating a possible application for anti-aging in clinic after future research has uncovered the potential mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.15175DOI Listing
June 2022

Spontaneously Restoring Specific Bioaffinity of RGD in Linear RGD-containing Peptides by Conjugation with Zwitterionic Dendrimers.

Acta Biomater 2022 08 18;148:61-72. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education and Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Smart Biomaterials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China; Institute of Zhejiang University-Quzhou, Quzhou, 324000 China. Electronic address:

Peptides are more versatile than small molecule drugs, but their specific bioaffinities are usually lower than their original native proteins because of the loss of preferred conformations. To overcome this key obstacle, we demonstrated a hydrogen bond-induced conformational constraint method to enhance the specific bioaffinities of peptides to achieve a high success rate by using linear RGD-containing peptides as a model of bioactive peptides. By performing molecular simulation, we found that the chemically immobilized linear CRGDS via cysteine (C) at the N-terminus on zwitterionic PAMAM G-5 can not only spontaneously restore the natural conformation of the RGD segment through the assistance of the dynamic hydrogen bond from serine (S) at the C-terminus of the peptide, but it can also narrow the distribution of all possible conformations. Consequently, the conjugates showed comparable or even better high affinity than native proteins without the use of conventional, labor-intensive, synthesis-based structure search methods to construct a binding conformation. In addition, the conjugates showed globular protein-like characteristics chemically, physically, and physiologically. They exhibited not only high efficacy and biosafety both in vitro and in vivo, but they also showed extremely high thermostability even upon boiling in a solution. This approach offers great design flexibility for reviving functional peptides without impairing their high specific affinity for their targets. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In this work, we developed a swift approach to spontaneously restore the natural conformation of a linear peptide from a nature protein and thus enhance its specific bioaffinity instead of constructing a binding conformation by the labor-intensive, synthesis-based structure search method. In details, our new approach involves dynamically constraining the linear peptide on a zwitterionic PAMAM G-5 surface by a combination of chemical bonding at one terminus and dynamic hydrogen bonding at the other terminus of the linear peptide. The zwitterionic background offers abundant interaction sites for hydrogen bonding as well as resistance to nonspecific interactions. This approach fully restores the specific bioaffinity of RGD segments on a zwitterionic PAMAM G-5 through only one conjugation point at the C-terminus of the peptide. Moreover, the bioaffinity of all three types of RGD-containing peptides is successfully restored, which indicates the high rate of success of this approach in affinity restoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2022.06.025DOI Listing
August 2022

THE APPLICATION OF STEM CELLS IN TISSUE ENGINEERING FOR THE REGENERATION OF PERIODONTAL DEFECTS IN RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS.

J Evid Based Dent Pract 2022 06 6;22(2):101713. Epub 2022 Mar 6.

Department of Stomatology, The First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming, Yunnan, China; The Affiliated Hospital of Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To systematically evaluate the application of stem cells in tissue engineering for regeneration of periodontal defects and to provide a basis for clinical application.

Methods: PubMed, The Cochrane Library, EMbase, SinoMed, CNKI and Wanfang database were searched for randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies on periodontal defect regeneration using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, adipose tissue-derived stem cells, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), gingival mesenchymal stem cells, stem cells from apical papilla and other odontogenic stem cells. Chinese and English literature as of May 9, 2021 (without limitation on retrieve starting date) were searched, and included RCT studies were followed for at least 3 months. Two reviewers independently screened the literature, extracted basic research information, the situation of the research object and outcome measures including probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bone defect depth (BDD) and gingival recession (GR). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (Version 5.1.0) was used to evaluate bias risk in included studies and Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.4 software.

Results: A total of 182 teeth were included in 7 RCT studies. The experimental group was treated with stem cell tissue engineering technology (87 cases), and the control group was treated with conventional periodontal regeneration therapy without stem cell (95 cases). In the meta-analysis, a significant difference between experimental and control groups was found for PD [mean difference (MD) = -0.66, 95% CI (-1.11, -0.22), P = .004], CAL [MD = -1.11, 95% CI (-1.45, -0.77), P < .00001], BDD [MD = -0.99, 95% CI (-1.42, -0.57), P < .00001] and GR [MD = -0.35, 95% CI (-0.62, -0.07), P = .01]. By observing the 4 outcome indicators of periodontal tissue regeneration, the improvement of CAL was the best, while the improvement of GR was poor. In the subgroup analysis of follow-up time, PD improved best at 6 months compared with other follow-up times [MD = -1.07, 95% CI (-1.58, -0.55), P < .0001]. However, in the subgroup analysis of CAL, BDD and GR, there was no statistical significance among follow-up time.

Conclusions: Compared with conventional periodontal regeneration therapy, the application of stem cells in tissue engineering exhibits a significant advantage in promoting periodontal defect regeneration and allows for complete periodontal regeneration possibly. Due to limitations related to the number and quality of the included studies, additional large-sample and high-quality clinical studies are needed to support future meta-analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebdp.2022.101713DOI Listing
June 2022

CD20-specific chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cells as salvage therapy in rituximab-refractory/relapsed B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Cytotherapy 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Hematology, Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Background Aims: The infusion of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells that target specific tumor-associated antigens is a promising strategy that has exhibited encouraging results in clinical trials. However, few studies have focused on the effectiveness and safety of CD20 CAR T cells in rituximab-refractory/relapsed (R/R) B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) patients, particularly those treated with rituximab for a short time. This prospective study aimed to assess the effectiveness and toxicity of CD20 CAR T cells in R/R B-NHL patients previously treated with rituximab.

Methods: The authors conducted a prospective, single-center phase I study on the effectiveness and toxicity of CD20 CAR T cells in rituximab-treated R/R B-NHL patients (no. ChiCTR2000036350). A total of 15 patients with R/R B-NHL were enrolled between November 21, 2017, and December 1, 2021.

Results: An overall response rate of 100% was shown in enrolled patients, with 12 (80%) achieving complete remission and three (20%) achieving partial remission for the best response. The median follow-up time was 12.4 months. Progression-free survival and overall survival were not yet reached by the data cutoff day. No patient developed grade 4 cytokine release syndrome, and only one patient had immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome.

Conclusions: All enrolled B-NHL patients who were previously R/R to rituximab achieved different degrees of clinical response with tolerable toxicities. Notably, patients who had received rituximab within 3 months had a poorer prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2022.05.001DOI Listing
June 2022

Secondary metabolite pathway of SDG (secoisolariciresinol) was observed to trigger ROS scavenging system in response to Ca stress in cotton.

Genomics 2022 Jun 5;114(4):110398. Epub 2022 Jun 5.

Institute of Cotton Research of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Zhengzhou Research Base, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, School of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Anyang, Henan 455000, China. Electronic address:

Ca is an essential nutrient for plants and animals which plays an important role in plant signal transduction. Although the function and regulation of mechanism of Ca in alleviating various biotic and abiotic stresses in plants have been studied deeply, the molecular mechanism to adapt high Ca stress is still unclear in cotton. In this study, 103 cotton accessions were germinated under 200 mM CaCl stress, and two extremely Ca-resistant (Zhong 9807, R) and Ca-sensitive (CRI 50, S) genotypes were selected from 103 cotton accessions. The two accessions were then germinated for 5 days in 0 mM CaCl and 200 mM CaCl respectively, after which they were sampled for transcriptome sequencing. Morphological and physiological analyses suggested that PLR2 specifically expressed in R may enhance the ability of cotton to scavenge ROS by promoting the synthesis of SDG. In conclusion, this study proposed the adaptation mechanisms to response to the high Ca stress in cotton which can contribute to improve the stress resistance of cotton.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2022.110398DOI Listing
June 2022

A novel pathogenic mutation of identified in an Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis case.

Chin Med Sci J 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China.

Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is characterized by being born as collodion babies, hyperkeratosis and skin scaling. Here, we described a patient born as a collodion baby with mild ectropion, eclabium and syndactyly. Whole exome sequencing showed a compound heterozygous variation c.[56C>A], p.(Ser19X) and c.[100G>A], p.(Ala34Thr) in [NM_001145717; exon 1]. The protein encoded by acts as a unique transacylase that specifically transfers linoleic acid from triglyceride to ω-hydroxy fatty acid in ceramide, thus giving rise to ω-O-acylceramide, a particular class of sphingolipids that is essential for skin barrier function. The variant was located in the patatin core domain of and resulted in a truncated protein which could disrupt its function. This report highlights a novel compound heterozygous mutation in identified in a Chinese child.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24920/004009DOI Listing
May 2022

Echocardiography in the diagnosis of Shone's complex and analysis of the causes for missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis.

World J Clin Cases 2022 Apr;10(11):3369-3378

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Fuwai Hospital, Beijing 100037, China.

Background: Shone's complex is a rare syndrome characterized by congenital left heart defects that can differ among the patients.

Aim: To use echocardiography in the diagnosis of Shone's complex and analyze the causes of missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent echocardiography and repair surgery from February 14, 2008, to November 22, 2019. The patients were followed once a year at the outpatient clinic after surgery.

Results: Sixty-six patients were included. The patients were 2.7 (0.8-5.6) years of age, and 54.5% were male. Ten (15.2%) had a history of heart surgery. The most common heart defect was the Annulo-Leaflet mitral ring (ALMR) (50/66, 75.8%), followed by coarctation of the aorta (CoA) (43/66, 65.2%). The patients had a variety of combinations of defects. Only two (3.0%) patients had all four defects. None of the patients had a family history of congenital heart disease. The preoperative echocardiographic findings were examined against the intraoperative findings. Echocardiography missed an ALMR in 31 patients (47.0%), a parachute mitral valve (PMV) in one patient (1.5%), subaortic stenosis in one patient (1.5%), and CoA in two patients (3.0%).

Conclusion: Echocardiography is an effective method to diagnose the Shone's complex. Due to this disease's complexity and interindividual variability, Improving the understanding of the disease can reduce misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v10.i11.3369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9048561PMC
April 2022

Sophoridine inhibits endotoxin-induced acute lung injury by enhancing autophagy of macrophage and reducing inflammation.

J Leukoc Biol 2022 07 23;112(1):115-125. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology,School of Basic Medical Sciences, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, 750004, China.

Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by uncontrolled inflammation, which can lead to respiratory distress syndrome and cause patient death. In this study, we sought to determine the role of sophoridine, a compound purified from sophora, in ALI. A mouse model of ALI was established by treating mice with LPS through nonexposed tracheal instillation. After LPS-induced mice were treated with sophoridine, LPS-induced alveolar wall thickening, alveolar interstitial inflammatory exudation and thickening, and the degree of pulmonary edema were found to be inhibited. Macrophages play an important role in inflammation, and in vitro experiments have demonstrated that sophoridine reduces the LPS-induced expression of inflammatory factors by macrophages, suggesting that sophoridine may inhibit lung inflammation in LPS-treated mice through reduces the secretion of inflammatory factors. Further, treatment with sophoridine up-regulated autophagy in macrophage cells in vitro and mouse lung tissues in vivo. LPS can bind to TLRs and activate the MyD88/NF-κB pathways, leading to increased inflammation in the pathogenesis of ALI. Our findings revealed that sophoridine down-regulated the expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and mTOR mRNA and protein in mouse pulmonary tissue. Collectively, these findings indicate that sophoridine may inhibit LPS-induced ALI by enhancing autophagy of macrophages and reducing inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.3MA0322-428RDOI Listing
July 2022

Research on thermoeconomic fault diagnosis for marine low speed two stroke diesel engine.

Math Biosci Eng 2022 03;19(6):5393-5408

Dalian marine diesel CO., Ltd, Dalian 116083, China.

To satisfy the requirements of low fuel consumption, low emission, and high efficiency of the shipping industry, marine diesel engines are developing in the direction of automation and energy-saving, which increases the possibility and complexity of marine diesel engine failures. A one-dimension thermodynamic model for the marine diesel engine is built with AVL Boost software. The model is applied to a low-speed two-stroke 6S50MC diesel engine, and the error between the main performance parameters obtained by simulation and the test bench data is less than 3% under 100% and 75% load. Based on the model, 6 typical single faults and many typical double faults concomitant phenomena of diesel are reproduced. Based on the second law of thermodynamics, the exergy flow among the components and the external environment is analyzed. The thermoeconomic model of a marine diesel engine is established where the "fuel" and "product" of the components are defined according to their function. The fault diagnosis results show that the effects of faults generally propagate through the diesel engine system and affect the behavior of several components, resulting in induced malfunction in normal components. Therefore the malfunction MFi of each component is the superposition of the intrinsic malfunction and the induced malfunction according to the malfunction and dysfunction analysis. The thermoeconomic fault diagnosis method can be used to narrow the search range of abnormal components though it cannot accurately locate the fault.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2022253DOI Listing
March 2022

Correlation between perioperative parecoxib use and postoperative acute kidney injury in patients undergoing radical mastectomy: a retrospective cohort analysis.

BMC Anesthesiol 2022 05 20;22(1):155. Epub 2022 May 20.

The Department of Pain, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 37 Yiyuan Street, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most widely prescribed drugs worldwide. However, the effect of NSAIDS on postoperative renal function is still unclear. Few studies have assessed the effects of parecoxib on renal function. Our aim is to investigate a correlation between parecoxib and the presence or absence of AKI postoperatively after a breast cancer surgery operation.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study that we performed on our hospitalized database. From January 2012 to August 2021, 3542 female patients undergoing radical mastectomy were enrolled, all data including the patients' information and laboratory results were obtained from electronic medical system. The main outcome was the incidence of AKI postoperatively. AKI was defined in accordance with the KDIGO criteria. Study groups were treated with or without parecoxib. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed.

Results: In our study, about 5.76% experienced AKI. The incidence rate of postoperative AKI (3.49%) within 7 days in the parecoxib group was lower than that in the control group (6.00%, P = 0.05). Compared to the control group, the AKI's incidence was reduced by 49% (OR = 0.46; 95%CI 0.27-0.97) in parecoxib group in multivariable logistic regression analysis. There was a reduction in the incidence of postoperative AKI in other three subgroups: preoperative eGFR < 90 mL/min·1.73/m2 (OR = 0.52; 95%CI 0.27-0.97), blood loss < 1000 ml (OR = 0.48; 95%CI 0.24-0.96) and non-diabetes (OR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.26-0.98).

Conclusions: Parecoxib was associated with incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12871-022-01688-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9121548PMC
May 2022

Cranial irradiation-induced impairment of axonal transport and sexual function in male rats and imaging of the olfactory pathway by MRI.

Neurotoxicology 2022 07 14;91:119-127. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Radiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Yunnan Cancer Hospital/Center, No. 519 Kunzhou Road, Xishan District, Kunming 650118, Yunnan, PR China. Electronic address:

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI) on axonal transport (AT) and sexual function.

Methods And Materials: Adult male rats received whole-brain radiation with a total dose of 30 Gy (15 Gy with 2 fractions) to build a RIBI model. Foraging behavior and sexual function were assessed, and MRI was performed 8 weeks after brain irradiation. MRI was performed in the early and delayed phases after perfusion of MnCl into the rat nostril. The levels of motor proteins and proteins involved in energy metabolism and AT were determined by Western blotting. The levels of sex hormones in the blood were measured by ELISA. Ultrastructural analysis was performed with a transmission electron microscope.

Results: The foraging ability of rats was reduced after brain irradiation, and the foraging time of the radiation group was longer than that of the control group (P < 0.05). The sexual function of rats in the radiation group was markedly decreased. Compared with control rats, radiation-treated rats showed significant decreases in serum testosterone, FSH, LH, and GnRH levels (P < 0.001). Mn uptake in the olfactory bulb (OB) in the early phase and delayed phase was lower in the radiation group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The AT rate in the lateral olfactory tracts (LOT) and the transsynaptic AT rate were significantly lower in the irradiated rats than in the control rats (P < 0.05). The levels of the motor proteins kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein were significantly decreased in the irradiation group (P < 0.05). The expression of the energy metabolism-related proteins ATPB and COX IV was significantly lower in the irradiated rats than in the control rats (P < 0.05). Apoptosis and synaptic damage were observed after irradiation.

Conclusion: MRI of the olfactory pathway can be used to assess AT impairment in RIBI models. AT deficits secondary to radiation damage are the result of multiple factors, including declines in motor protein levels, neuronal apoptosis, synaptic damage and energy metabolism dysfunction. Cranial irradiation-induced sexual dysfunction was associated with decreased sex hormone levels secondary to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2022.05.005DOI Listing
July 2022
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