Publications by authors named "Nami Baskota"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Gut microbiota modulation with long-chain corn bran arabinoxylan in adults with overweight and obesity is linked to an individualized temporal increase in fecal propionate.

Microbiome 2020 08 19;8(1):118. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Agricultural, Food & Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1, Canada.

Background: Variability in the health effects of dietary fiber might arise from inter-individual differences in the gut microbiota's ability to ferment these substrates into beneficial metabolites. Our understanding of what drives this individuality is vastly incomplete and will require an ecological perspective as microbiomes function as complex inter-connected communities. Here, we performed a parallel two-arm, exploratory randomized controlled trial in 31 adults with overweight and class-I obesity to characterize the effects of long-chain, complex arabinoxylan (n = 15) at high supplementation doses (female: 25 g/day; male: 35 g/day) on gut microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid production as compared to microcrystalline cellulose (n = 16, non-fermentable control), and integrated the findings using an ecological framework.

Results: Arabinoxylan resulted in a global shift in fecal bacterial community composition, reduced α-diversity, and the promotion of specific taxa, including operational taxonomic units related to Bifidobacterium longum, Blautia obeum, and Prevotella copri. Arabinoxylan further increased fecal propionate concentrations (p = 0.012, Friedman's test), an effect that showed two distinct groupings of temporal responses in participants. The two groups showed differences in compositional shifts of the microbiota (p ≤ 0.025, PERMANOVA), and multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses revealed that the propionate response was predictable through shifts and, to a lesser degree, baseline composition of the microbiota. Principal components (PCs) derived from community data were better predictors in MLR models as compared to single taxa, indicating that arabinoxylan fermentation is the result of multi-species interactions within microbiomes.

Conclusion: This study showed that long-chain arabinoxylan modulates both microbiota composition and the output of health-relevant SCFAs, providing information for a more targeted application of this fiber. Variation in propionate production was linked to both compositional shifts and baseline composition, with PCs derived from shifts of the global microbial community showing the strongest associations. These findings constitute a proof-of-concept for the merit of an ecological framework that considers features of the wider gut microbial community for the prediction of metabolic outcomes of dietary fiber fermentation. This provides a basis to personalize the use of dietary fiber in nutritional application and to stratify human populations by relevant gut microbiota features to account for the inconsistent health effects in human intervention studies.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02322112 , registered on July 3, 2015. Video Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00887-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7439537PMC
August 2020

Faecal microbiota from patients with cirrhosis has a low capacity to ferment non-digestible carbohydrates into short-chain fatty acids.

Liver Int 2019 08 10;39(8):1437-1447. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Division of Gastroenterology (Liver Unit), University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background And Aims: Cirrhosis is associated with dysbiosis, but its functional consequences are still largely unknown. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) account for physiological interactions between the gut microbiota and host. Our aim was to assess the impact of cirrhotic dysbiosis on the production of SCFAs.

Methods: Seventeen patients with cirrhosis and 17 controls were selected. Microbiota composition in faecal samples was assessed by next-generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing. SCFAs were measured with GC-MS in faecal samples and after in vitro batch fermentations using arabinoxylan, resistant starch, pectin, and lactulose as substrates.

Results: Among the 17 cirrhotic patients (mean age 58, eight males), six, nine and two were, respectively, Child-Pugh class A, B and C. Eleven patients were on oral antibiotics, 11 on lactulose and 13 on proton pump inhibitors. Cirrhotic patients showed marked differences in the composition and diversity of gut microbiome when compared to controls, that were more pronounced with increased severity. Stool samples from cirrhotic patients showed lower SCFAs content and reduced capacity to produce SCFAs in batch fermentations, with butyrate production being the most abnormal. These functional aberrancies were more pronounced with greater liver disease severity. Abundance of Ruminococcus faecis (in family Ruminococcaceae), Faecalicatena fissicatena and Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans (in family Lachnospiraceae) was positively correlated with the SCFAs production.

Conclusion: Cirrhotic dysbiosis is associated with a decreased capacity to ferment non-digestible carbohydrates into SCFAs, especially into butyrate. These functional abnormalities are more pronounced as disease progresses. These results might inform the design of gut-targeted therapies for cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14106DOI Listing
August 2019