Publications by authors named "Nam-Hoon Kim"

242 Publications

Use of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors and Severe COVID-19 Outcomes in Patients with Hypertension: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

Diabetes Metab J 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 facilitates the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 into the human body. We investigated the association of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor use with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes in hypertensive patients.

Methods: We identified hypertensive patients with confirmed COVID-19 from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service from inception to May 15, 2020. The primary outcome was the composite of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and death from COVID-19. The individual components were evaluated as secondary outcomes.

Results: Of 1,374 hypertensive patients with COVID-19, 1,076 (78.3%) and 298 (21.7%) were users and never-users of RAAS inhibitors, respectively. The RAAS inhibitor users were not associated with the risk of the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 1.10). The risk of ICU admission was significantly lower in the users than the never-users (aOR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.84). The RAAS inhibitors were beneficial only in ICU admissions that did not require IMV (aOR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.58). The risk of death from COVID-19 was comparable between the groups (aOR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.85). We could not evaluate the risks of CRRT and ECMO owing to the small number of events.

Conclusion: RAAS inhibitor use was not associated with the composite of severe outcomes in the hypertensive patients with COVID-19 but significantly lowered the risk of ICU admission, particularly in patients who did not require IMV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0279DOI Listing
February 2021

Association of the triglyceride and glucose index with low muscle mass: KNHANES 2008-2011.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 11;11(1):450. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index is a simple surrogate marker of insulin resistance. We evaluated the association of the TyG index with low muscle mass using a nationwide population-based representative data. This is a cross-sectional study that included 9477 participants aged ≥ 40 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2011. The TyG index was calculated as ln[triglyceride (mg/dL) × fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL)/2]. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure appendicular lean mass (ALM). Low muscle mass was defined an ALM/weight of 2 standard deviations (SD) below of young participants. The overall prevalence of low muscle mass was 4.7%. The prevalence of low muscle mass increased linearly with the quartiles of the TyG index, 2.5%, 4.2%, 5.6%, and 6.7% in Q1-Q4, respectively. The TyG index was negatively associated with ALM/weight both in men (r = - 0.302) and women (r = - 0.230). The odds ratio (OR) for low muscle mass was 2.08 in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile. High TyG index was associated with an increased risk of low muscle mass (OR for 1SD increase: 1.13). Increased TyG index was associated with the risk of low muscle mass independent of confounding factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80305-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801612PMC
January 2021

Effect of Metabolic Health and Obesity Phenotype on the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 Dec 4. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of South Korea.

Background: Recently, a few studies have reported different results regarding the relationship between metabolic health and obesity phenotype and several cancers. We examined the effects of metabolic health and obesity phenotype on pancreatic cancer using a nationwide population-based cohort database.

Methods: Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort, we enrolled 347,434 Korean adults who underwent a health examination between 2009 and 2010 and were followed until 2015. This population was divided into four groups based on metabolically healthy status and body mass index (BMI): metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO).

Results: Over a median follow-up of 6.1 (5.5-6.5) years, 886 individuals were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. The adjusted HRs for incident pancreatic cancer were 1.52 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-1.81] and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.12-1.61) for the MUNW and MUO phenotypes (compared with the MHNW phenotype) after adjusting for various confounding factors. However, compared with the MHNW phenotype, the MHO phenotype did not show an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer. Moreover, the HR for pancreatic cancer gradually increased with an increase in number of metabolically unhealthy components, even after adjusting for BMI ( < 0.001).

Conclusions: Regardless of BMI, metabolically unhealthy phenotype demonstrated significantly increased risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas obese individuals with metabolically healthy phenotype did not.

Impact: These findings suggest that metabolically unhealthy phenotype might represent a potential risk factor for pancreatic cancer occurrence independent of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1262DOI Listing
December 2020

Genome-enabled discovery of anthraquinone biosynthesis in Senna tora.

Nat Commun 2020 11 18;11(1):5875. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Biotechnology, Sun Moon University, Asan, 31460, Republic of Korea.

Senna tora is a widely used medicinal plant. Its health benefits have been attributed to the large quantity of anthraquinones, but how they are made in plants remains a mystery. To identify the genes responsible for plant anthraquinone biosynthesis, we reveal the genome sequence of S. tora at the chromosome level with 526 Mb (96%) assembled into 13 chromosomes. Comparison among related plant species shows that a chalcone synthase-like (CHS-L) gene family has lineage-specifically and rapidly expanded in S. tora. Combining genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and biochemistry, we identify a CHS-L gene contributing to the biosynthesis of anthraquinones. The S. tora reference genome will accelerate the discovery of biologically active anthraquinone biosynthesis pathways in medicinal plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19681-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674472PMC
November 2020

Effects of radioactive iodine treatment on cardiovascular disease in thyroid cancer patients: a nationwide cohort study.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Oct;8(19):1235

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment is a standard treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer (TC). However, its adverse effects on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have not been clearly elucidated.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study based on the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort (2002-2015), we analyzed 4,845 patients with TC with a median follow-up of 66 months. We evaluated and compared the risk of CVD between patients treated with and without RAI therapy. The primary CVD outcome was defined as a composite of ischemic stroke (IS), ischemic heart disease (IHD), hemorrhagic stroke (HS), or heart failure (HF).

Results: Overall, 2,533 patients (52.3%) received RAI treatment with a median cumulative dosage of 103 mCi [interquartile range (IQR), 40-162 mCi]. The incidence of the primary CVD outcome in patients who did not receive RAI therapy and those who did was 17.32 [95% confidence interval (CI), 15.07-19.90] and 13.96 (95% CI, 12.17-16.01) per 1,000 person-years, respectively, indicating an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.71-1.07) after multivariate adjustments for variable confounding factors. The risks of IS (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.51-1.34), IHD (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.71-1.13), HS (HR 1.01; 95% CI, 0.49-2.09), and HF (HR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.49-1.63) were comparable between the patients who received RAI therapy and those who did not. There was no cumulative dose-dependent risk for CVD in TC patients who received RAI treatment.

Conclusions: RAI treatment is a prevalent and crucial treatment for TC, and has been used in more than half of TC patients in Korea from 2004 to 2015. This study found no significant between-group difference for the CVD risk in patients with TC who received RAI treatment and those who did not, giving further evidence to allay concerns related to the adverse effects of RAI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-5222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7607121PMC
October 2020

Hierarchical 3D Oxygenated Cobalt Vanadium Selenide Nanosheets as Advanced Electrode for Flexible Zinc-Cobalt and Zinc-Air Batteries.

Small 2020 Dec 9;16(48):e2004661. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Nano Convergence Engineering, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54896, Republic of Korea.

Highly flexible quasi solid-state batteries are promising in next-generation energy storage sectors due to their high energy density, power density, and low manufacturing cost. However, poor cycle life seriously limits their application in industrial sectors. Herein, a novel strategy is established to design the oxygenated cobalt vanadium selenide (O-Co V Se ) nanostructures for high-performance quasi solid-state (QSS) zinc-cobalt batteries (ZCBs) and zinc-air batteries (ZABs). Density functional theory (DFT) calculation reveals that the doping effect of Co into O-VSe nanostructure could increase the density of states near the edge of the conduction band, demonstrating ultrafast electron transport kinetics. Most interestingly, the optimal O-Co V Se cathode-based QSS-ZCB exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacity of 422.7 mAh g at a current density of 1 A g , excellent energy density of 186.4 Wh kg , tremendous power density of 5.65 kW kg , and ultralong cycle life (86.9% capacity retention after 3000 cycles). Furthermore, O-Co V Se air-cathode based QSS-ZAB delivers a peak power density of 162 mW cm and ultralong cycle life over 100 h. These experimental and theoretical studies indicate that the electrochemically induced, cobalt stabilizes the vanadium is essential to boost the energy storage properties and cycle life of both ZCBs and ZABs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202004661DOI Listing
December 2020

A novel rapid detection for SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 antigens using human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jan 15;171:112715. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Center for Convergent Research of Emerging Virus Infection, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon, 34114, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a newly emerging human infectious disease. Because no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines are available to treat COVID-19, early diagnostics, isolation, and prevention are crucial for containing the outbreak. Molecular diagnostics using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are the current gold standard for detection. However, viral RNAs are much less stable during transport and storage than proteins such as antigens and antibodies. Consequently, false-negative RT-PCR results can occur due to inadequate collection of clinical specimens or poor handling of a specimen during testing. Although antigen immunoassays are stable diagnostics for detection of past infection, infection progress, and transmission dynamics, no matched antibody pair for immunoassay of SARS-CoV-2 antigens has yet been reported. In this study, we designed and developed a novel rapid detection method for SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 (S1) protein using the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2, which can form matched pairs with commercially available antibodies. ACE2 and S1-mAb were paired with each other for capture and detection in a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) that did not cross-react with SARS-CoV Spike 1 or MERS-CoV Spike 1 protein. The SARS-CoV-2 S1 (<5 ng of recombinant proteins/reaction) was detected by the ACE2-based LFIA. The limit of detection of our ACE2-LFIA was 1.86 × 10 copies/mL in the clinical specimen of COVID-19 Patients without no cross-reactivity for nasal swabs from healthy subjects. This is the first study to detect SARS-CoV-2 S1 antigen using an LFIA with matched pair consisting of ACE2 and antibody. Our findings will be helpful to detect the S1 antigen of SARS-CoV-2 from COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2020.112715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7560266PMC
January 2021

Time to Reach Target Glycosylated Hemoglobin Is Associated with Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control and Risk of Diabetic Complications in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 6-Year Observational Study.

Diabetes Metab J 2020 Oct 20. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: To evaluate the association of time to reach the target glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with long-term durable glycemic control and risk of diabetic complications in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: In a longitudinal observational cohort, 194 patients with T2DM newly diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013 were followed up over 6 years. Patients were classified according to the time needed to reach the target HbA1c (<7.0%): <3, 3 to 6 (early achievement group), and ≥6 months (late achievement group). Risks of microvascular complications including diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy as well as macrovascular events including ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis.

Results: During a median follow-up of 6.53 years, 66 microvascular and 14 macrovascular events occurred. Maintenance of durable glycemic control over 6 years was more likely in the early achievement groups than in the late achievement group (34.5%, 30.0%, and 16.1% in <3, 3 to 6, and ≥6 months, respectively, P=0.039). Early target HbA1c achievement was associated with lower risk of composite diabetic complications (adjusted hazard ratio [HR, 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.86 in <3 months group) (adjusted HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.23 to 1.10 in 3 to 6 months group, in reference to ≥6 months group). Similar trends were maintained for risks of microvascular and macrovascular complications, although statistical significance was not reached for macrovascular complications.

Conclusion: Early target HbA1c achievement was associated with long-term durable glycemic control and reduced risk of diabetic complications in newly diagnosed T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0046DOI Listing
October 2020

One-Pot Hydrothermal Synthesis of La-Doped ZnInS Microspheres with Improved Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Oct 14;10(10). Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Nano Convergence Engineering, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea.

Impurity element doping is extensively taken as one of the most efficient strategies to regulate the electronic structure as well as the rate of photogenerated charge separation of photocatalysts. Herein, a one-pot hydrothermal synthesis process was exploited to obtain La-doped ZnInS microspheres, aiming at gaining insight into the role that doping ions played in the improvement of pollutant photodegradation. Systematical characterization means, comprising of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflection spectroscopy and Raman spectra, combination with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), were employed to in depth reveal the concomitancy of La ions and ZnInS crystal lattice. The results showed that the La-doped ZnInS samples exhibited a slightly wider and stronger spectral absorption than pristine ZnInS; and the specific surface area of doped ZnInS samples was a bit larger. The La-doped ZnInS electrodes showed improved photocurrent response, and the photocurrent density reached a maximum value at La content of 1.5 wt%. As expected, La-doped ZnInS samples exhibited a remarkable enhancement of photocatalytic behaviour toward the photodegradation of tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) and methyl orange (MO). The prominently enhanced photoactivity of doped ZnInS samples was due to the synergistic effect of the elevated visible-light absorption ability and effective photogenerated charge carriers' separation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10102026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7602468PMC
October 2020

Weight-adjusted waist index reflects fat and muscle mass in the opposite direction in older adults.

Age Ageing 2020 Oct 9. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Age-related changes in body composition include decreased muscle mass and preserved or increased fat mass. There is no anthropometric index to assess both muscle and fat mass.

Methods: Using a cross-sectional sample of 602 participants aged ≥65 years from the Ansan Geriatric study, we evaluated the association of weight-adjusted waist index (WWI) with muscle and fat mass and compared these with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). WWI was calculated as WC (cm) divided by the square root of body weight (kg). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography.

Results: WWI positively correlated with total abdominal fat area (TFA) (r = 0.421, P < 0.001), visceral fat area (VFA) (r = 0.264, P < 0.001), and percentage of total tissue fat (r = 0.465, P < 0.001), but negatively correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) (r = -0.511, P < 0.001) and ASM/height2 (r = -0.324, P < 0.001). Mean ASM was highest in the first quartile of WWI (17.85 kg/m2) and showed a decreasing trend, with the lowest value in the fourth WWI quartile (13.21 kg/m2, P for trend <0.001). In contrast, mean TFA was lowest in the first quartile and highest in the fourth WWI quartile (P for trend <0.001). The probability of combined low muscle mass and high fat mass was >3× higher in the fourth WWI quartile than in the lowest quartile (odds ratio 3.22, 95% confidence interval 1.32-7.83).

Conclusions: WWI is an anthropometric index positively associated with fat mass and negatively associated with muscle mass in older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afaa208DOI Listing
October 2020

Worm-like gold nanowires assembled carbon nanofibers-CVD graphene hybrid as sensitive and selective sensor for nitrite detection.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Feb 24;583:425-434. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Nano Convergence Engineering, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896, Republic of Korea; Carbon Composite Research Centre, Department of Polymer-Nano Science and Technology, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The development of a rapid, selective, and sensitive sensor to precisely monitor nitrite oxidation is of growing importance, given the strong interest in the protection of drinking water quality, treatment of wastewater, food production, and control of remediation processes. In this research, we successfully fabricated a hybrid originated from worm-like gold nanowires (Au WNWs) assembled on a high-quality carbon nanofibers-graphene (CNFs-Gr) hybrid network through a facile synthesis method. The hybrid as a binder-free sensor exhibited excellent activity towards nitrite detection in phosphate buffer solution (pH of 7.4) with a wide linear detection range of (1.98 µM - 3.77 mM), excellent sensitivity of 836 μA cm mM, low detection limit of 1.24 µM, and long-term durability. The results were attributed to a special synergistic effect originating from unique hybridization of Au WNWs with large-area CNFs-Gr network to produce more electroactive sites and excellent conductivity, favorably boosting catalytic performance of the sensor. The successful fabrication of Au WNWs/CNFs-Gr suggested an interesting candidate for practically determining low-level nitrite in analytical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.09.068DOI Listing
February 2021

ZnS-NiS Nanosheet Arrays Wrapped with Nanopetals of Ni(OH) as a Novel Core-Shell Electrode Material for Asymmetric Supercapacitors with High Energy Density and Cycling Stability Performance.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Oct 7;12(42):47377-47388. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Nano Convergence Engineering, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896, Republic of Korea.

Supercapacitors possess minimum energy density, lower rate capability, and inferior long-term cycling stability performance, and these issues have restricted their practical applications. In these circumstances, supercapacitors based on a new class of hybrid nanomaterial are strongly desirable. Herein, for the first time, a complex nanoarchitecture comprised of a ZnS-NiS/Ni(OH) core/shell is constructed via a multistep hydrothermal process. The ZnS-NiS/Ni(OH) core/shell nanoarchitecture illustrates a commendable areal capacitance of 13.55 F cm at a lower current density value of 5 mA cm, respectively. The ZnS-NiS/Ni(OH) core/shell hybrid nanomaterial maintains a high cycling stability performance of 95.12% after a maximum 10 000 number of cycles. Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor device made up of ZnS-NiS/Ni(OH) and nitrogen-sulfur-codoped graphene nanosheets (NSGNs) delivers an ultrahigh energy density value of 68.85 W h kg at a power density of 700.16 W kg. The cycling stability of the ZnS-NiS/Ni(OH)//NSGN asymmetric supercapacitor was performed and was 91.79% after 10 000 GCD cycles. The ZnS-NiS/Ni(OH) core/shell hybrid electrode material has helped in promoting an asymmetric supercapacitor device with an elevated performance and can be considered as a potential electrode material to develop energy storage devices in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c10638DOI Listing
October 2020

Glucose variability and the risks of stroke, myocardial infarction, and all-cause mortality in individuals with diabetes: retrospective cohort study.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2020 09 22;19(1):144. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Previous research regarding long-term glucose variability over several years which is an emerging indicator of glycemic control in diabetes showed several limitations. We investigated whether variability in long-term fasting plasma glucose (FG) can predict the development of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause mortality in patients with diabetes.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study using the data provided by the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation. A total of 624,237 Koreans ≥ 20 years old with diabetes who had undergone health examinations at least twice from 2005 to 2008 and simultaneously more than once from 2009 to 2010 (baseline) without previous histories of stroke or MI. As a parameter of variability of FG, variability independent of mean (VIM) was calculated using FG levels measured at least three times during the 5 years until the baseline. Study endpoints were incident stroke, MI, and all-cause mortality through December 31, 2017.

Results: During follow-up, 25,038 cases of stroke, 15,832 cases of MI, and 44,716 deaths were identified. As the quartile of FG VIM increased, the risk of clinical outcomes serially increased after adjustment for confounding factors including duration and medications of diabetes and the mean FG. Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of FG VIM quartile 4 compared with quartile 1 were 1.20 (1.16-1.24), 1.20 (1.15-1.25), and 1.32 (1.29-1.36) for stroke, MI and all-cause mortality, respectively. The impact of FG variability was higher in the elderly and those with a longer duration of diabetes and lower FG levels.

Conclusions: In diabetes, long-term glucose variability showed a dose-response relationship with the risk of stroke, MI, and all-cause mortality in this nationwide observational study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-020-01134-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7510288PMC
September 2020

Prognostic value of long-term gamma-glutamyl transferase variability in individuals with diabetes: a nationwide population-based study.

Sci Rep 2020 09 21;10(1):15375. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

We examined whether long-term gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) variability can predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in individuals with diabetes. We included 698,937 Koreans diabetes patients older than 40 years without histories of CVD, chronic liver disease, or heavy alcoholics who received health exams supported by the Korean government more than once in 2009-2012 (baseline). We used Cox proportional analyses to estimate the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause mortality until December 31, 2016, according to the quartiles of the average successive variability (ASV) of GGT measured during the five years before the baseline. A total 26,119, 15,103, and 39,982 cases of stroke, MI, and death, respectively, were found. GGT ASV quartile 4 had a significantly higher risk of stroke and all-cause mortality than quartile 1, with adjustment for risk factors, such as baseline glucose and GGT level, and comorbidities. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for GGT ASV quartile 4 were 1.06 (1.03-1.10) and 1.23 (1.20-1.27) for stroke and mortality, respectively. This significant association was shown consistently across the baseline GGT quartiles. GGT variability was related to the risk of stroke and all-cause mortality. The effect was most pronounced in all-cause mortality, irrespective of baseline GGT level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72318-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7506020PMC
September 2020

Age- and Sex-Related Differential Associations between Body Composition and Diabetes Mellitus.

Diabetes Metab J 2020 Jul 16. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: The age- and sex-related differences on the impacts of body composition on diabetes mellitus (DM) remain uncertain.

Methods: The fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey included 15,586 subjects over 30 years of age who completed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate whether muscle mass index (MMI), defined as appendicular skeletal muscle divided by body mass index (BMI), and fat mass index (FMI), defined as trunk fat mass divided by BMI, were differently associated with DM according to age and sex.

Results: In multivariate logistic regression, the risk for DM significantly increased across quartiles of FMI in men aged ≥70. Meanwhile, MMI showed a protective association with DM in men of the same age. The odds ratios (ORs) for the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile of FMI and MMI were 3.116 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.405 to 6.914) and 0.295 (95% CI, 0.157 to 0.554), respectively. In women, the ORs of DM was significantly different across FMI quartiles in those over age 50. The highest quartile of FMI exhibited increased ORs of DM in subjects aged 50 to 69 (OR, 1.891; 95% CI, 1.229 to 2.908) and ≥70 (OR, 2.275; 95% CI, 1.103 to 4.69) compared to lowest quartile. However, MMI was not significantly associated with DM in women of all age groups.

Conclusion: Both FMI and MMI were independent risk factors for DM in men aged 70 years or more. In women over 50 years, FMI was independently associated with DM. There was no significant association between MMI and DM in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0171DOI Listing
July 2020

Gamma-glutamyl transferase variability can predict the development of end-stage of renal disease: a nationwide population-based study.

Sci Rep 2020 07 15;10(1):11668. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The aim of this study is to investigate whether GGT variability is able to predict the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The study subjects were Koreans who conducted health exams supported by the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation during 2009-2012 (baseline). After excluding individuals aged < 40 years, heavy alcoholics, or those with histories of chronic liver disease or ESRD, we followed 6,058,995 individuals. We calculated the average successive variability (ASV) of GGT values during the 5 years before the baseline as a parameter of variability. Using Cox proportional analyses, we evaluated the risk of ESRD according to GGT ASV quartiles, defined as the initiation of renal replacement therapy or kidney transplantation, or December 31, 2016. During 38,663,279.3 person-years of follow-up, 12,057 cases of ESRD were identified. Compared with GGT ASV quartile 1, the risk of ESRD was higher in ASV quartiles 3-4 and increased serially, even after adjustment for several metabolic parameters, baseline renal function, presence of comorbidities, low income, and baseline GGT and hemoglobin level. The fully adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of GGT ASV quartiles 3 and 4 were 1.06 (1.01-1.12) and 1.12 (1.06-1.18), respectively. In conclusion, GGT variability is a putative risk factor for ESRD in Koreans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68603-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7363906PMC
July 2020

Genetic diversity among cultivated and wild populations revealed by high-resolution microsatellite markers.

J Ginseng Res 2020 Jul 24;44(4):637-643. Epub 2019 May 24.

Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Ginseng ( Meyer) is one of the world's most valuable medicinal plants with numerous pharmacological effects. Ginseng has been cultivated from wild mountain ginseng collections for a few hundred years. However, the genetic diversity of cultivated and wild ginseng populations is not fully understood.

Methods: We developed 92 polymorphic microsatellite markers based on whole-genome sequence data. We selected five markers that represent clear allele diversity for each of their corresponding loci to elucidate genetic diversity. These markers were applied to 147 individual plants, including cultivars, breeding lines, and wild populations in Korea and neighboring countries.

Results: Most of the 92 markers displayed multiple-band patterns, resulting from genome duplication, which causes confusion in interpretation of their target locus. The five high-resolution markers revealed 3 to 8 alleles from each single locus. The proportion of heterozygosity (H) ranged from 0.027 to 0.190, with an average of 0.132, which is notably lower than that of previous studies. Polymorphism information content of the markers ranged from 0.199 to 0.701, with an average of 0.454. There was no statistically significant difference in genetic diversity between cultivated and wild ginseng groups, and they showed intermingled positioning in the phylogenetic relationship.

Conclusion: Ginseng has a relatively high level of genetic diversity, and cultivated and wild groups have similar levels of genetic diversity. Collectively, our data demonstrate that current breeding populations have abundant genetic diversity for breeding of elite ginseng cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2019.05.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322750PMC
July 2020

Prevalence of osteoporosis among North Korean women refugees living in South Korea: a comparative cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2020 06 11;10(6):e036230. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, The Republic of Korea

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis among North Korean women refugees when compared with South Korean women, who have identical genetic backgrounds but experience different environments.

Design: Comparative cross-sectional study.

Setting: North Korean Refugee Health in South Korea (NORNS) study in South Korea.

Participants: We evaluated 122 North Korean women who participated in NORNS study and 366 age-matched/menopausal status-matched South Korean women from the Korea University Medical Center (KUMC) health examination cohort. The median age of the NORNS participants was 46 years (IQR, 40-60 years) with 52 women (42.6%) being postmenopausal.

Results: Among the postmenopausal women, NORNS participants had a higher body mass index and number of pregnancies and lower physical activity than the KUMC participants. The overall prevalence of osteoporosis was 48% (25/52) and 17% (27/156) in NORNS and KUMC participants, respectively. The bone mineral density (BMD) values at the lumbar spine, femur neck and total hip were significantly lower in postmenopausal NORNS women than in the postmenopausal KUMC women. Old age, low body weight and late age of menarche were associated with low BMD among the postmenopausal North Korean refugees. In premenopausal participants, the NORNS women had lower body weight and physical activity than the KUMC women at baseline. All the NORNS women had normal Z-scores, although the BMD at the lumbar spine was significantly lower in NORNS women than in the KUMC women (0.952 vs 1.002 g/cm, p<0.001).

Conclusions: Osteoporosis is a prevalent health problem in postmenopausal North Korean women refugees living in South Korea. It is conceivable to prepare vigilant countermeasures for bone health deterioration in this growing population, especially for postmenopausal women. Further research is warranted to determine the cause of the differences between participants of the same ethnic group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295412PMC
June 2020

Genome Assembly and Annotation of Soft-Shelled Adlay ( Variety ), a Cereal and Medicinal Crop in the Poaceae Family.

Front Plant Sci 2020 18;11:630. Epub 2020 May 18.

Genomics Division, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Jeonju, South Korea.

, also called adlay or Job's tears, is an annual herbal plant belonging to the Poaceae family that has been cultivated as a cereal and medicinal crop in Asia. Despite its importance, however, genomic resources for better understanding this plant species at the molecular level and informing improved breeding strategies remain limited. To address this, we generated a draft genome of the variety (soft-shelled adlay) Korean cultivar, Johyun, by assembly, using PacBio and Illumina sequencing data. A total of 3,362 scaffold sequences, 1.28 Gb in length, were assembled, representing 82.1% of the estimated genome size (1.56 Gb). Genome completeness was confirmed by the presence of 91.4% of the BUSCO angiosperm genes and mapping ratio of 98.3% of Illumina paired-end reads. We found that approximately 77.0% of the genome is occupied by repeat sequences, most of which are and -type retrotransposons, and evidence-based genome annotation predicts 39,574 protein-coding genes, 85.5% of which were functionally annotated. We further predict that soft-shelled adlay diverged from a common ancestor with sorghum 9.0-11.2 MYA. Transcriptome profiling revealed 3,988 genes that are differentially expressed in seeds relative to other tissues, of which 1,470 genes were strongly up-regulated in seeds and the most enriched Gene Ontology terms were assigned to carbohydrate and protein metabolism. In addition, we identified 76 storage protein genes including 18 seed-specific coixin genes and 13 candidate genes involved in biosynthesis of benzoxazinoids (BXs) including coixol, a unique BX compound found in species. The characterization of those genes can further our understanding of unique traits of soft-shelled adlay, such as high seed protein content and medicinal compound biosynthesis. Taken together, our genome sequence data will provide a valuable resource for molecular breeding and pharmacological study of this plant species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247446PMC
May 2020

Body Weight Variability Increases Dementia Risk Among Older Adults: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 12;11:291. Epub 2020 May 12.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Recent growing evidences suggest that body weight (Bwt) variability, a repeated loss and regain of weight within a specific period, causes metabolic disturbances and can be a marker for poor homeostasis. Although there have been many studies about the association between Bwt variability and various health status, its association with the incidence of dementia among elderly people has not been examined. We performed a retrospective elderly cohort study from 19,987 participants with mean age 73 years old in the Korean National Health Insurance Service. We examined the risk of incident dementia, including Alzheimer's dementia and vascular dementia, according to the quartile of Bwt variability, represented as coefficient of variation (Bwt-CV), SD (Bwt-SD), and variability independent of the mean (Bwt-VIM). In fully adjusted model, the group with the highest Bwt variability (Bwt-VIM Q4) showed an increased risk of all-cause dementia (hazard ratio [HR] 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.206-1.603) and Alzheimer's dementia (HR 1.46, CI 1.240-1.724) compared to the lowest quartile (Bwt-VIM Q1). We also found that subjects with the highest Bwt variability (Q4) and underweight BMI had a significantly increased risk of developing dementia (HR 1.994, 95% CI 1.302-3.054), while subjects with low Bwt variability (Q1 and Q2) and obese BMI had decreased risk of dementia (HR 0.664, 95% CI 0.505-0.872 and HR 0.648, 95% CI 0.493-0.852, respectively) compared to reference group (lowest Bwt variability (Q1) with normal baseline BMI). The effect of Bwt variability on the incidence of dementia was more prominent in subjects <75 years old and abnormal BMI groups (P for interaction < 0.05). The present study revealed that high Bwt variability was associated with an increased risk of dementia in the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247844PMC
May 2020

Gastric crystal-storing histiocytosis with concomitant mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

J Pathol Transl Med 2020 Jul 22;54(4):332-335. Epub 2020 May 22.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang.

Crystal-storing histiocytosis (CSH) is a rare entity that is characterized by intrahistiocytic accumulation of crystallized immunoglobulins. CSH is not a malignant process per se, but the majority of CSH cases are associated with underlying lymphoproliferative disorder. Although CSH can occur in a variety of organs, gastric CSH is very rare. We present a localized gastric CSH with concomitant mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, manifesting as an ulcer bleeding in a 56-year-old man. Histologically, the biopsied gastric mucosa demonstrated expansion of the lamina propria by prominent collections of large eosinophilic mononuclear cells containing fibrillary crystalloid inclusions. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the crystal-storing cells were histiocytes harboring kappa light chain-restricted immunoglobulin crystals. Within the lesion, atypical centrocyte-like cells forming lymphoepithelial lesions were seen, consistent with MALT lymphoma. Since this entity is rare and unfamiliar, difficulties in diagnosis may arise. Particularly, in this case, the lymphomatous area was obscured by florid CSH, making the diagnosis more challenging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.04.20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7385266PMC
July 2020

Freestanding 1T-Mn Mo S Se and MoFe S Se Ultrathin Nanosheet-Structured Electrodes for Highly Efficient Flexible Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

Small 2020 Jun 6;16(23):e2001691. Epub 2020 May 6.

Advanced Materials Institute of BIN Convergence Technology and Department of BIN Convergence Technology, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54896, Republic of Korea.

Fabrication of hierarchical nanosheet arrays of 1T phase of transition-metal dichalcogenides is indeed a critical task, but it holds immense potential for energy storage. A single-step strategy is employed for the fabrication of stable 1T-Mn Mo S Se and MoFe S Se hierarchical nanosheet arrays on carbon cloth as positive and negative electrodes, respectively. The flexible asymmetric supercapacitor constructed with these two electrodes exhibits an excellent electrochemical performance (energy density of ≈69 Wh kg  at a power density of 0.985 kW kg ) with ultralong cyclic stability of ≈83.5% capacity retention, after 10 000 consecutive cycles. Co-doping of the metal and nonmetal boosts the charge storage ability of the transition-metal chalcogenides following enrichment in the metallic 1T phase, improvement in the surface area, and expansion in the interlayer spacing in tandem, which is the key focus of the present study. This study explicitly demonstrates the exponential enhancement of specific capacity of MoS following intercalation and doping of Mn and Se, and Fe S following doping of Mo and Se could be an ideal direction for the fabrication of novel energy-storage materials with high-energy storage ability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202001691DOI Listing
June 2020

Fibrates Revisited: Potential Role in Cardiovascular Risk Reduction.

Diabetes Metab J 2020 04;44(2):213-221

Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Fibrates, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonists, are potent lipid-modifying drugs. Their main effects are reduction of triglycerides and increase in high-density lipoprotein levels. Several randomized controlled trials have not demonstrated their benefits on cardiovascular risk reduction, especially as an "add on" to statin therapy. However, subsequent analyses by major clinical trials, meta-analyses, and real-world evidence have proposed their potential in specific patient populations with atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Here, we have reviewed and discussed the accumulated data on fibrates to understand their current status in cardiovascular risk management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188966PMC
April 2020

Hierarchical Manganese-Nickel Sulfide Nanosheet Arrays as an Advanced Electrode for All-Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 May 1;12(19):21505-21514. Epub 2020 May 1.

Advanced Materials Institute for BIN Convergence Technology (BK21 Plus Global Program), Department of BIN Convergence Technology, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896, Republic of Korea.

In this work, hierarchical manganese-nickel sulfide nanosheet arrays (Mn-Ni-S NAs) were designed through a cost-effective hydrothermal method, followed by an ion-exchange technique. Among the various electrode samples prepared, Mn-Ni-S NAs with a Mn/Ni feeding ratio of 1:2 (denoted Mn-Ni-S NAs (1:2)) were found to possess outstanding electrochemical properties, including a superb areal capacity of 0.687 mAh cm (286.3 mAh g specific capacity) and a splendid cycling stability. Furthermore, Mn-Ni-S NAs (1:2) can be coupled with iron oxide embedded in reduced graphene oxides (FeO@rGO) to assemble all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor devices. The resultant device demonstrated superior volumetric capacity and a superb energy density of 76.6 W h kg with a prominent cycling stability. The current synthesis protocol provides a meritorious reference for the synthesis of other kinds of transition-metal sulfide electrode materials for energy storage applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b23346DOI Listing
May 2020

Hierarchical 3D Oxygenated Cobalt Molybdenum Selenide Nanosheets as Robust Trifunctional Catalyst for Water Splitting and Zinc-Air Batteries.

Small 2020 May 20;16(19):e2000797. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Advanced Materials Institute of BIN Convergence Technology (BK21 Plus Global) & Dept. of BIN Convergence Technology, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54896, Republic of Korea.

The development of hierarchical nanostructures with highly active and durable multifunctional catalysts has a new significance in the context of new energy technologies of water splitting and metal-air batteries. Herein, a strategy is demonstrated to construct a 3D hierarchical oxygenated cobalt molybdenum selenide (O-Co Mo Se ) series with attractive nanoarchitectures, which are fabricated by a simple and cost-effective hydrothermal process followed by an exclusive ion-exchange process. Owing to its highly electroactive sites with numerous nanoporous networks and plentiful oxygen vacancies, the optimal O-Co Mo Se could catalyze the hydrogen evolution reaction and oxygen evolution reaction effectively with a low overpotential of ≈102 and 189 mV, at a current density of 10 mA cm , respectively, and exceptional durability. Most importantly, the O-Co Mo Se ||O-Co Mo Se water splitting device only entails a voltage of ≈1.53 V at a current density of 10 mA cm , which is much better than benchmark Pt/C||RuO (≈1.56 V). Furthermore, O-Co Mo Se air cathode-based zinc-air batteries exhibit an excellent power density of 120.28 mW cm and exceptional cycling stability for 60 h, superior to those of state-of-art Pt/C+RuO pair-based zinc-air batteries. The present study provides a strategy to design hierarchical 3D oxygenated bimetallic selenide-based multifunctional catalysts for energy conversion and storage systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202000797DOI Listing
May 2020

Gamma-glutamyl transferase variability and the risk of hospitalisation for heart failure.

Heart 2020 Jul 17;106(14):1080-1086. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea

Objective: Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Variability in metabolic parameters has recently emerged as an indicator of adverse health outcomes, including heart failure (HF).

Methods: We investigated whether GGT variability was associated with the incidence of hospitalisation for heart failure (HHF) in a Korean population without previous HF, ischaemic heart disease or liver disease. This longitudinal cohort study analysed 119 201 individuals from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort. GGT variability was calculated as the coefficient of variation (CV), SD and variability independent of the mean (VIM).

Results: During the 8.4 years of follow-up, 1387 cases of HHF (1.16%) developed. In the multivariable-adjusted model, the HR of HHF was 1.22 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.42) in the highest quartile of GGT variability compared with the lowest quartile, as assessed by CV after adjusting for confounding factors, including alcohol consumption and mean GGT levels. Consistent results were obtained using other indices of GGT variability such as SD (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.62) and VIM (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.50). In a subgroup analysis stratified by risk factor variables, although a similar relationship was observed, it was more prominent in individuals with dyslipidaemia.

Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrated that variability in GGT was independently associated with the incidence of HHF. These findings suggest that higher GGT variability may be useful as an indicator of future risk of HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2019-316271DOI Listing
July 2020

Optimal Design of Water Quality Monitoring Networks in Semi-Enclosed Estuaries.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Mar 9;20(5). Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Institute of Construction and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

The semi-enclosed estuary is very susceptible to changes in the physical and environmental characteristics of the inflow from the land. Therefore, continuous and comprehensive monitoring of such changes is necessary for managing the estuary. Nevertheless, the procedure or framework has not been proposed appropriately to determine how many instruments are necessary and where they need to be monitored and standardized to detect critical changes. The present work proposes a systematical strategy for the deployments of the monitoring array by using the combination of graphical optimization with the objective mapping technique. In order to reflect the spatiotemporal characteristics of the bay, the representative variables and eigenvectors were determined by the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF), and the cosine angle among them calculated and used as a design index of optimization. At the recommended locations, the sampled representative variables were interpolated to reconstruct their spatiotemporal distribution and compared with the true distribution. The analysis confirmed that the selected locations, even with a minimal number of points, can be used for on-site monitoring. In addition, the present framework suggests how to determine installable regions for real-time monitoring stations, which reflect the global and local characteristics of the semi-enclosed estuary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20051498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085742PMC
March 2020

Discrimination between target and non-target interactions on the viral surface by merging fluorescence emission into Rayleigh scattering.

Nanoscale 2020 Apr 13;12(14):7563-7571. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Laboratory for Advanced Molecular Probing (LAMP), Bio Platform Technology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34114, South Korea.

Direct and quantitative determination of antibodies or cellular receptors dynamically binding to the surface of viral particles is the key issue for predicting the efficacy of therapeutic materials or host susceptibility to a new emerging pathogen. However, targeted visualization of infectious viruses is still highly challenging owing to their nanoscopic sizes and uncontrollable nonspecific interactions with loading molecules responsible for false signals. Here we present a multimodal single-molecule and single-particle (SMSP) visualization capable of simultaneously yet independently tracking Rayleigh scattering and fluorescence that, respectively, are generated from viruses (approximately 100 nm) and labeled interacting molecules. By analyzing real-time trajectories of fluorescent antibodies against a virus surface protein with reference to single virus-derived Rayleigh scattering, we determined heterogeneous binding stoichiometry of virus-antibody couplings irrespective of the nonspecific binder population. Therefore, our multimodal (or multi-level) SMSP assay visually identifies and selectively quantifies specific interactions between them with single binding event accuracy. As a 'specific-binding quantifier' to assess variable host susceptibility to a virus, it was further applied for distinguishing ratiometric bindings and spontaneous dissociation kinetics of synthesized isomeric receptors to influenza virus. The present framework could offer a solid analytical foundation for the development of a direct-acting antiviral agent inhibiting an integral viral enveloped protein and for nanobiological investigation for dissecting spatiotemporal nanoparticle-molecule interactions, which have been scarcely explored compared to those among plasmonic nanoparticles or among molecules only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr07415eDOI Listing
April 2020

Comprehensive comparative analysis of chloroplast genomes from seven species and development of an authentication system based on species-unique single nucleotide polymorphism markers.

J Ginseng Res 2020 Jan 22;44(1):135-144. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: species are important herbal medicinal plants in the Araliaceae family. Recently, we reported the complete chloroplast genomes and 45S nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from seven species, two ( and ) from North America and five (, , , , and ) from Asia.

Methods: We conducted phylogenetic analysis of these chloroplast sequences with 12 other Araliaceae species and comprehensive comparative analysis among the seven whole chloroplast genomes.

Results: We identified 1,128 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in coding gene sequences, distributed among 72 of the 79 protein-coding genes in the chloroplast genomes of the seven species. The other seven genes (including , , , , , , and ) were identical among the species. We also discovered that 12 large chloroplast genome fragments were transferred into the mitochondrial genome based on sharing of more than 90% sequence similarity. The total size of transferred fragments was 60,331 bp, corresponding to approximately 38.6% of chloroplast genome. We developed 18 SNP markers from the chloroplast genic coding sequence regions that were not similar to regions in the mitochondrial genome. These markers included two or three species-specific markers for each species and can be used to authenticate all the seven species from the others.

Conclusion: The comparative analysis of chloroplast genomes from seven species elucidated their genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships, and 18 species-specific markers were able to discriminate among these species, thereby furthering efforts to protect the ginseng industry from economically motivated adulteration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2018.06.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7033337PMC
January 2020

Discordance in prediction for prognosis of type 2 diabetes after metabolic surgery: comparison of the ABCD, DiaRem, and individualized metabolic surgery models.

Ann Surg Treat Res 2019 Dec 2;97(6):309-318. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Bariatric and Metabolic Institute, Section of Minimally Invasive Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Florida, Weston, FL, USA.

Purpose: Metabolic surgery has been performed as a treatment option for uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2D), and several scoring systems for predicting postoperative T2D remission have been proposed. This study was designed to assess consistency of 3 existing scoring systems in patients with T2D duration <1 year.

Methods: This study included 186 patients with T2D enrolled in a university hospital prospective database between 2011 and 2013. Externally validated scoring systems for predicting T2D prognosis after metabolic surgery were identified and selected through systematic literature search. We assessed concordance between ABCD, DiaRem, and individualized metabolic surgery (IMS) scores in participants using kappa statistical analysis and 1-way analysis of variance.

Results: Of the participants, 52 and 82 patients were expected to have favorable T2D remission after metabolic surgery with ABCD score of 10-5 and DiaRem score of 0-7, respectively, and a slight-to-fair concordance was shown between the 2 scoring systems (kappa measure, 0.07; standard error [SE], 0.05 and kappa measure, 0.25; SE, 0.19, respectively). The DiaRem score increased with T2D severity determined by IMS score (P < 0.001), while the ABCD score showed no significant association with IMS score.

Conclusion: ABCD and DiaRem scores showed significant discordance when applied to potential metabolic surgery candidates in whom postoperative T2D remission rate was highly expected. The IMS score showed a dose-response association with DiaRem score but had no significant association with the ABCD score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4174/astr.2019.97.6.309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6893221PMC
December 2019