Publications by authors named "Nakao Kubo"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Combination of genetic analysis and ancient literature survey reveals the divergence of traditional Brassica rapa varieties from Kyoto, Japan.

Hortic Res 2021 Jun 1;8(1):132. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kamigamo-motoyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto, 603-8555, Japan.

Since ancient times, humans have bred several plants that we rely on today. However, little is known about the divergence of most of these plants. In the present study, we investigated the divergence of Mibuna (Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica L. H. Bailey), a traditional leafy vegetable in Kyoto (Japan), by combining genetic analysis and a survey of ancient literature. Mibuna is considered to have been bred 200 years ago from Mizuna, another traditional leafy vegetable in Kyoto. Mibuna has simple spatulate leaves, whereas Mizuna has characteristic serrated leaves. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) and gene expression analyses suggested that the downregulation of BrTCP15 expression contributed to the change in the leaf shape from serrated to simple spatulate. Interestingly, the SNP analysis indicated that the genomic region containing the BrTCP15 locus was transferred to Mibuna by introgression. Furthermore, we conducted a survey of ancient literature to reveal the divergence of Mibuna and found that hybridization between Mizuna and a simple-leaved turnip might have occurred in the past. Indeed, the genomic analysis of multiple turnip cultivars showed that one of the cultivars, Murasakihime, has almost the same sequence in the BrTCP15 region as Mibuna. These results suggest that the hybridization between Mizuna and turnip has resulted in the establishment of Mibuna.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00569-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167115PMC
June 2021

Morphological and Genetic Diversities of (Orchidaceae) in the Kinki Area, Japan.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 30;22(1). Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan.

Floral organs have evolved from leaves for reproduction, and the morphological analyses help to understand the plant diversity and evolution. (syn. ) is a terrestrial orchid living in wetlands in Japan, Russia, South Korea, and China. The habitats of this plant in Japan have been reduced because of environmental destruction and overexploitation, and thus it is on the Red List of Japan as a Near Threatened species. One of the three petals of the flower is called a lip or labellum, which resembles a flying white bird, egret, or white heron, with its proposed function being to attract pollinators. To understand the diversity of plants in different areas, we examined the lip morphology and phylogeny of populations from eight habitats in the Kinki area, Japan. The complex shapes of the lips were quantified and presented as a radar chart, enabling characterization of the morphological difference among populations. Phylogenetic analysis with microsatellite markers that we generated showed the variation of genetic diversity among populations, suggesting the different degrees of inbreeding, outbreeding, and vegetative propagation. Our approach offers a basic method to characterize the morphological and genetic diversity in natural populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795838PMC
December 2020

Investigation on the Epoxidation of Piperitenone, and Structure-activity Relationships of Piperitenone Oxide for Differentiation-inducing Activity.

J Oleo Sci 2020 Aug 9;69(8):951-958. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Science.

Piperitenone oxide, a major chemical constituent of the essential oil of spearmint, Mentha spicata, induces differentiation in human colon cancer RCM-1 cells. In this study, piperitenone oxide and trans-piperitenone dioxide were prepared as racemic forms by epoxidation of piperitenone. The relative configuration between two epoxides in piperitenone dioxide was determined to be trans by H NMR analysis and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Optical resolution of (±)-piperitenone oxide by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a chiral stationary phase (CSP) afforded both enantiomers with over 98% enantiomeric excess (ee). Evaluation of the differentiation-inducing activity of the synthetic compounds revealed that the epoxide at C-1 and C-6 in piperitenone oxide is important for the activity, and (+)-piperitenone oxide has stronger activity than (-)-piperitenone oxide. The results obtained in this study provide new information on the application of piperitenone oxide and spearmint for differentiation-inducing therapy. Furthermore, natural piperitenone oxide was isolated from M. spicata. The enantiomeric excess of the isolated natural piperitenone oxide was 66% ee. Epoxidation of piperitenone with hydrogen peroxide proceeded in a phosphate buffer under weak basic conditions to give (±)-piperitenone oxide. These results suggest that the nonenzymatic epoxidation of piperitenone, which causes a decrease in the enantiomeric excess of natural piperitenone oxide, is accompanied by an enzymatic epoxidation in the biosynthesis of piperitenone oxide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess19278DOI Listing
August 2020

Classification of "Kintoki ninjin" and other groups of carrot () based on simple sequence repeat markers.

Breed Sci 2019 Dec 5;69(4):688-695. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Biotechnology Research Department, Kyoto Prefectural Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center, 74 Oji, Kitainayazuma, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0244, Japan.

Carrot () is cultivated in temperate regions for its taproot. Eastern and Western types have been differentiated. In Japan, the former type is categorized into Kintoki, Takinogawa oonaga, and Toso, with a few local cultivars. However, their genetic relationships are unclear because of the paucity of reports. We classified the Japanese Eastern and selected Western types based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Field traits, including root weight, length, diameter, and skin color, were also examined. Our field tests showed clear differences between the Kintoki and Western-type cultivars, confirming their differentiation. A phylogram based on nine SSRs classified 24 cultivars into groups I and II. Group I included all Eastern-type carrots examined (Kintoki and Toso groups, plus two local and two foreign cultivars), with the exception of an Indian cultivar ('Pusa rudhira red'). Among them, red carrots including Kintoki were clustered into two subgroups. Western-type, Eastern-Western hybrid, and 'Pusa rudhira red' were included in group II. A population structure analysis revealed the split between the Eastern and the other types. This study elucidates the genetic characteristics of the Eastern type of carrot, which will be valuable information for carrot breeding, especially when using the Eastern type as a source.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.19093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6977441PMC
December 2019

Classification of "nabana" () cultivars and landraces based on simple sequence repeat markers.

Breed Sci 2019 Mar 26;69(1):179-185. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5 Hangi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan.

or vegetables for eating as young inflorescences and stalks are called "nabana". Japanese nabana includes "flower-bud type" and "stem-and-leaf type". Chinese and European types are also known (cai-xin, zicaitai, and broccoletto). We classified nabana belonging to and other vegetables. In a simple sequence repeat-based phylogram, 49 ingroup samples were classified into four groups (I-IV). Flower-bud and stem-and-leaf types were separated into groups I and III, respectively, with a slight overlap in group II. Cai-xin and non-heading Chinese cabbages were included in group IV. Broccoletto was placed in group III, close to turnips. Zicaitai cultivars were included in group II. We tested for clubroot resistance (CR) and its marker genotypes in nabana because of their agronomical importance. Ten cultivars were resistant to group 4 pathogen but not to group 2. Most of the CR cultivars had heterozygous resistance alleles in the and loci, consistent with inoculation tests. Our results suggest that Japanese nabana lines and foreign types were differentiated according to their consumption parts and cultivar origins, respectively. This study elucidates the relationships and CR properties of nabana and provides valuable information for the breeding of nabana cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.18126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6507715PMC
March 2019

Life Cycle and Genetic Diversity of (Araceae), an Endangered Species in Japan.

Plants (Basel) 2018 Sep 11;7(3). Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Hangi-cho 1-5, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan.

, a member of the Araceae family, is an endangered plant in several prefectures in Japan. For the conservation of this wild species, we investigated the morphology, life cycle, and genetic diversity of three wild populations. By fixed-point observation over several years, we found that it takes at least four years for the plant to set the inflorescences consisting of spadices and spathes, and another two years for it to set mature seeds. To examine the genetic diversity in the wild population, we developed 11 novel microsatellite markers and investigated the genetic variation in three populations in Kyoto Prefecture: Ayabe, Hanase, and Momoi. The Ayabe population carried less genetic variation than the other two areas, suggesting the isolation of the habitat and thus a higher risk of extinction. Our results provide basic knowledge of the ecological aspects of , as well as molecular techniques for the assessment of its genetic diversity, and thus are useful for the conservation of this endangered species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants7030073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6161092PMC
September 2018

A GLABRA1 ortholog on LG A9 controls trichome number in the Japanese leafy vegetables Mizuna and Mibuna (Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica L. H. Bailey): evidence from QTL analysis.

J Plant Res 2017 May 3;130(3):539-550. Epub 2017 Mar 3.

Department of Bioresource and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kamigamo-motoyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto, 603-8555, Japan.

Brassica rapa show a wide range of morphological variations. In particular, the leaf morphologies of the Japanese traditional leafy vegetables Mizuna and Mibuna (Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica L. H. Bailey) are distinctly different, even though they are closely related cultivars that are easy to cross. In addition to the differences in the gross morphology of leaves, some cultivars of Mibuna (Kyo-nishiki) have many trichomes on its leaves, whereas Mizuna (Kyo-mizore) does not. To identify the genes responsible for the different number of trichomes, we performed a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of Mizuna and Mibuna. To construct linkage maps for these cultivars, we used RNA-seq data to develop cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers. We also performed a restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) analysis to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two QTL analyses were performed in different years, and both analyses indicated that the largest effect was found on LG A9. Expression analyses showed that a gene homologous to GLABRA1 (GL1), a transcription factor implicated in trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana, and the sequences 3'-flanking (downstream) of BrGL1, differed considerably between Mizuna (Kyo-mizore) and Mibuna (Kyo-nishiki). These results indicate that BrGL1 on LG A9 is one of the candidate genes responsible for the difference in trichome number between Mizuna and Mibuna. Detecting genes that are responsible for morphological variations allows us to better understand the breeding history of Mizuna and Mibuna.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10265-017-0917-5DOI Listing
May 2017

Construction of a chromosome-assigned, sequence-tagged linkage map for the radish, Raphanus sativus L. and QTL analysis of morphological traits.

Breed Sci 2013 Jun 1;63(2):218-26. Epub 2013 Jun 1.

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University , Seika, Kyoto 619-0244, Japan.

The radish displays great morphological variation but the genetic factors underlying this variability are mostly unknown. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling radish morphological traits, we cultivated 94 F4 and F5 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between the rat-tail radish and the Japanese radish cultivar 'Harufuku' inbred lines. Eight morphological traits (ovule and seed numbers per silique, plant shape, pubescence and root formation) were measured for investigation. We constructed a map composed of 322 markers with a total length of 673.6 cM. The linkage groups were assigned to the radish chromosomes using disomic rape-radish chromosome-addition lines. On the map, eight and 10 QTLs were identified in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The chromosome-linkage group correspondence, the sequence-specific markers and the QTLs detected here will provide useful information for further genetic studies and for selection during radish breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.63.218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3688384PMC
June 2013

An SSR-based genetic map of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) serves as an anchor for the alignment of major pepper maps.

Breed Sci 2012 Mar 20;62(1):93-8. Epub 2012 Mar 20.

Agriculture and Forestry Technology Department, Kyoto Prefectural Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Technology Centre , Amarube-cho, Kameoka, Kyoto 621-0806, Japan.

Of the Capsicum peppers (Capsicum spp.), cultivated C. annuum is the most commercially important, but has lacked an intraspecific linkage map based on sequence-specific PCR markers in accord with haploid chromosome numbers. We constructed a linkage map of pepper using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between two C. annuum genotypes, a bell-type cultivar 'California Wonder' and a Malaysian small-fruited cultivar 'LS2341 (JP187992)', which is used as a source of resistance to bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). A set of 253 markers (151 SSRs, 90 AFLPs, 10 CAPSs and 2 sequence-tagged sites) was on the map which we constructed, spanning 1,336 cM. This is the first SSR-based map to consist of 12 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number in an intraspecific cross of C. annuum. As this map has a lot of PCR-based anchor markers, it is easy to compare it to other pepper genetic maps. Therefore, this map and the newly developed markers will be useful for cultivated C. annuum breeding.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405950PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.62.93DOI Listing
March 2012

Development of genomic and EST-SSR markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

Breed Sci 2011 Dec 15;61(4):413-9. Epub 2011 Dec 15.

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University , 74 Oji, Kitainayazuma, Seika, Soraku, Kyoto 619-0244, Japan.

Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) belongs to Brassicaceae family and is a close relative of Brassica. This species shows a wide morphological diversity, and is an important vegetable especially in Asia. However, molecular research of radish is behind compared to that of Brassica. For example, reports on SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers are limited. Here, we designed 417 radish SSR markers from SSR-enriched genomic libraries and the cDNA data. Of the 256 SSR markers succeeded in PCR, 130 showed clear polymorphisms between two radish lines; a rat-tail radish and a Japanese cultivar, 'Harufuku'. As a test case for evaluation of the present SSRs, we conducted two studies. First, we selected 16 SSRs to calculate polymorphism information contents (PICs) using 16 radish cultivars and four other Brassicaceae species. These markers detected 3-15 alleles (average = 9.6). PIC values ranged from 0.54 to 0.92 (average = 0.78). Second, part of the present SSRs were tested for mapping using our previously-examined mapping population. The map spanned 672.7 cM with nine linkage groups (LGs). The 21 radish SSR markers were distributed throughout the LGs. The SSR markers developed here would be informative and useful for genetic analysis in radish and its related species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.61.413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3406777PMC
December 2011

QTL mapping of clubroot resistance in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

Theor Appl Genet 2010 Mar 15;120(5):1021-7. Epub 2009 Dec 15.

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, 74 Oji, Kitainayazuma, Seika, Soraku, Kyoto, 619-0244, Japan.

A QTL analysis for clubroot resistance (CR) of radish was performed using an F(2) population derived from a crossing of a CR Japanese radish and a clubroot-susceptible (CS) Chinese radish. F(3) plants obtained by selfing of F(2) plants were used for the CR tests. The potted seedlings were inoculated and the symptom was evaluated 6 weeks thereafter. The mean disease indexes of the F(3) plants were used for the phenotype of the F(2). The results of two CR tests were analyzed for the presence of QTL. A linkage map was constructed using AFLP and SSR markers; it spanned 554 cM and contained 18 linkage groups. A CR locus was observed in the top region of linkage group 1 in two tests. Therefore, the present results suggest that a large part of radish CR is controlled by a single gene or closely linked genes in this radish population, although minor effects of other genomic areas cannot be ruled out. The CR locus was named Crs1. Markers linked to Crs1 showed sequence homology to the genomic region of the top of chromosome 3 of Arabidopsis, as in the case of Crr3, a CR locus in Brassica rapa. These markers should be useful for breeding CR cultivars of radish. As Japanese radishes are known to be highly resistant or immune to clubroot, these markers may also be useful in the introgression of this CR gene to Brassica crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-009-1230-zDOI Listing
March 2010

Discovery of the rpl10 gene in diverse plant mitochondrial genomes and its probable replacement by the nuclear gene for chloroplast RPL10 in two lineages of angiosperms.

DNA Res 2010 Feb 24;17(1):1-9. Epub 2009 Nov 24.

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Seika, Kyoto, Japan.

Mitochondrial genomes of plants are much larger than those of mammals and often contain conserved open reading frames (ORFs) of unknown function. Here, we show that one of these conserved ORFs is actually the gene for ribosomal protein L10 (rpl10) in plant. No rpl10 gene has heretofore been reported in any mitochondrial genome other than the exceptionally gene-rich genome of the protist Reclinomonas americana. Conserved ORFs corresponding to rpl10 are present in a wide diversity of land plant and green algal mitochondrial genomes. The mitochondrial rpl10 genes are transcribed in all nine land plants examined, with five seed plant genes subject to RNA editing. In addition, mitochondrial-rpl10-like cDNAs were identified in EST libraries from numerous land plants. In three lineages of angiosperms, rpl10 is either lost from the mitochondrial genome or a pseudogene. In two of them (Brassicaceae and monocots), no nuclear copy of mitochondrial rpl10 is identifiably present, and instead a second copy of nuclear-encoded chloroplast rpl10 is present. Transient assays using green fluorescent protein indicate that this duplicate gene is dual targeted to mitochondria and chloroplasts. We infer that mitochondrial rpl10 has been functionally replaced by duplicated chloroplast counterparts in Brassicaceae and monocots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/dnares/dsp024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2818186PMC
February 2010

Transfer of rice mitochondrial ribosomal protein L6 gene to the nucleus: acquisition of the 5'-untranslated region via a transposable element.

BMC Evol Biol 2008 Nov 14;8:314. Epub 2008 Nov 14.

Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto Prefectural University, Seika, Kyoto 619-0244, Japan.

Background: The mitochondria of contemporary organisms contain fewer genes than the ancestral bacteria are predicted to have contained. Because most of the mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus, the genes would have been transferred from the mitochondrion to the nucleus at some stage of evolution and they must have acquired cis-regulatory elements compatible with eukaryotic gene expression. However, most of such processes remain unknown.

Results: The ribosomal protein L6 gene (rpl6) has been lost in presently-known angiosperm mitochondrial genomes. We found that each of the two rice rpl6 genes (OsRpl6-1 and OsRpl6-2) has an intron in an identical position within the 5'-untranslated region (UTR), which suggests a duplication of the rpl6 gene after its transfer to the nucleus. Each of the predicted RPL6 proteins lacks an N-terminal extension as a mitochondrial targeting signal. Transient assays using green fluorescent protein indicated that their mature N-terminal coding regions contain the mitochondrial targeting information. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that OsRpl6-2 expresses considerably fewer transcripts than OsRpl6-1. This might be the result of differences in promoter regions because the 5'-noncoding regions of the two rpl6 genes differ at a point close to the center of the intron. There are several sequences homologous to the region around the 5'-UTR of OsRpl6-1 in the rice genome. These sequences have characteristics similar to those of the transposable elements (TE) belonging to the PIF/Harbinger superfamily.

Conclusion: The above evidences suggest a novel mechanism in which the 5'-UTR of the transferred mitochondrial gene was acquired via a TE. Since the 5'-UTRs and introns within the 5'-UTRs often contain transcriptional and posttranscriptional cis-elements, the transferred rice mitochondrial rpl6 gene may have acquired its cis-element from a TE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-8-314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2631504PMC
November 2008

An integrated high-density linkage map of soybean with RFLP, SSR, STS, and AFLP markers using A single F2 population.

DNA Res 2007 Dec 11;14(6):257-69. Epub 2008 Jan 11.

Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, 648 Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510, Japan.

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is the most important leguminous crop in the world due to its high contents of high-quality protein and oil for human and animal consumption as well as for industrial uses. An accurate and saturated genetic linkage map of soybean is an essential tool for studies on modern soybean genomics. In order to update the linkage map of a F2 population derived from a cross between Misuzudaizu and Moshidou Gong 503 and to make it more informative and useful to the soybean genome research community, a total of 318 AFLP, 121 SSR, 108 RFLP, and 126 STS markers were newly developed and integrated into the framework of the previously described linkage map. The updated genetic map is composed of 509 RFLP, 318 SSR, 318 AFLP, 97 AFLP-derived STS, 29 BAC-end or EST-derived STS, 1 RAPD, and five morphological markers, covering a map distance of 3080 cM (Kosambi function) in 20 linkage groups (LGs). To our knowledge, this is presently the densest linkage map developed from a single F2 population in soybean. The average intermarker distance was reduced to 2.41 from 5.78 cM in the earlier version of the linkage map. Most SSR and RFLP markers were relatively evenly distributed among different LGs in contrast to the moderately clustered AFLP markers. The number of gaps of more than 25 cM was reduced to 6 from 19 in the earlier version of the linkage map. The coverage of the linkage map was extended since 17 markers were mapped beyond the distal ends of the previous linkage map. In particular, 17 markers were tagged in a 5.7 cM interval between CE47M5a and Satt100 on LG C2, where several important QTLs were clustered. This newly updated soybean linkage map will enable to streamline positional cloning of agronomically important trait locus genes, and promote the development of physical maps, genome sequencing, and other genomic research activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/dnares/dsm027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779910PMC
December 2007

Isolation and characterization of the pea cytochrome c oxidase Vb gene.

Genome 2006 Nov;49(11):1481-9

Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, 74 Oji, Kitainayazuma, Seika, Soraku, Kyoto 619-0244, Japan.

Three copies of the gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb were isolated from the pea (PscoxVb-1, PscoxVb-2, and PscoxVb-3). Northern Blot and reverse transcriptase-PCR analyses suggest that all 3 genes are transcribed in the pea. Each pea coxVb gene has an N-terminal extended sequence that can encode a mitochondrial targeting signal, called a presequence. The localization of green fluorescent proteins fused with the presequence strongly suggests the targeting of pea COXVb proteins to mitochondria. Each pea coxVb gene has 5 intron sites within the coding region. These are similar to Arabidopsis and rice, although the intron lengths vary greatly. A phylogenetic analysis of coxVb suggests the occurrence of gene duplication events during angiosperm evolution. In particular, 2 duplication events might have occurred in legumes, grasses, and Solanaceae. A comparison of amino acid sequences in COXVb or its counterpart shows the conservation of several amino acids within a zinc finger motif. Interestingly, a homology search analysis showed that bacterial protein COG4391 and a mitochondrial complex I 13 kDa subunit also have similar amino acid compositions around this motif. Such similarity might reflect evolutionary relationships among the 3 proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/g06-105DOI Listing
November 2006

Rpp16 and Rpp17, from a common origin, have different protein characteristics but both genes are predominantly expressed in rice phloem tissues.

Plant Cell Physiol 2002 Jun;43(6):668-74

Genetic Diversity Department, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Kannondai 2-1-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8602 Japan Department of Biological Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Yamazaki 2641, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 Japan.

The genes for two types of rice phloem protein (RPP16 and RPP17) were isolated and characterized. Conservation of five exon sizes as well as splicing positions between the two genes suggest that either RPP16 or RPP17 is a resultant of gene duplication. By protein blot analysis, RPP16 and RPP17 proteins were specifically detected in soluble and insoluble fractions of a crude extract of rice plants, respectively, suggesting that these proteins play different roles in individual cells. The expression of Rpp16 and Rpp17 was monitored by the beta-glucuronidase (gusA) reporter-gene method. Rpp16-gusA and Rpp17-gusA were expressed preferentially in the phloem tissues from different parts of the plant, but almost no GUS staining was observed in the rest of the tissues. In roots of both constructs, interestingly, stronger GUS-accumulation was detected in younger vascular tissues than in aged vascular tissues. In situ hybridization also showed that Rpp17 was more strongly expressed in vascular tissues of tiller buds. These results suggest that transcript of these genes was more abundant in young tissues. The presence of two copies of the gene in higher plants, from a common origin, which have different protein characteristics, indicates that evolutionary diversification might have occurred in the gene function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcf083DOI Listing
June 2002
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