Publications by authors named "Naila Arebi"

45 Publications

Validation and update of the Lémann index to measure cumulative structural bowel damage in Crohn's disease.

Gastroenterology 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

INSERM U1135 CRESS 'Centre de Recherche Epidémiologie et Statistiques', Equipe ECSTRRA, Université de Paris, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France.

Background: The Lémann index is a tool measuring cumulative structural bowel damage in Crohn's disease (CD). We here report its validation and updating.

Methods: This was an international, multicenter, prospective, cross-sectional observational study. At each center, 10 inclusions, stratified by CD duration and location, were planned. For each patient, the digestive tract was divided into 4 organs, upper tract, small bowel, colon/rectum, anus, and subsequently into segments, explored systematically by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and by endoscopies in relation to disease location. For each segment, investigators retrieved information on previous surgical procedures, identified predefined strictures and penetrating lesions of maximal severity (grades 1-3) at each organ investigational method (gastroenterologist and radiologist for MRI), provided segmental damage evaluation ranging from 0.0 to 10.0 (complete resection). Organ resection-free cumulative damage evaluation was then calculated from the sum of segmental damages. Then, investigators provided a 0-10 global damage evaluation from the 4 organ standardized cumulative damage evaluations. Simple linear regressions of investigator damage evaluations on their corresponding Lémann index were studied, as well as calibration plots. Finally, updated Lémann index was derived through multiple linear mixed models applied to combined development and validation samples.

Results: In 15 centers, 134 patients were included. Correlation coefficients between investigator damage evaluations and Lémann indexes were above 0.80. When analyzing data in 272 patients from both samples and 27 centers, the unbiased correlation estimates were 0.89, 0,97, 0,94, 0.81, 0.91 for the 4 organs and globally, and stable when applied to one sample or the other.

Conclusions: The updated Lémann index is a well-established index to assess cumulative bowel damage in Crohn's disease that can be used in epidemiological studies and disease modification trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.05.049DOI Listing
May 2021

Atherosclerosis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Shared Pathogenesis and Implications for Treatment.

Angiology 2021 04 2;72(4):303-314. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

1st Cardiology Department, 37788AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are often regarded as 2 distinct entities. The commonest manifestation of atherosclerosis is ischemic heart disease (IHD), and an association between IHD and IBD has been reported. Atherosclerosis and IBD share common pathophysiological mechanisms in terms of their genetics, immunology, and contributing environmental factors. Factors associated with atherosclerosis are implicated in the development of IBD and vice versa. Therefore, treatments targeting the common pathophysiology pathways may be effective in both conditions. The current review considers the pathophysiological pathways that are shared between the 2 conditions and discusses the implications for treatment and research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003319720974552DOI Listing
April 2021

The dietary practices and beliefs of British South Asian people living with inflammatory bowel disease: a multicenter study from the United Kingdom.

Intest Res 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Gastroenterology, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Background/aims: Epidemiological associations have implicated factors associated with Westernization, including the Western diet, in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The role of diet in IBD etiopathogenesis, disease control and symptom management remains incompletely understood. Few studies have collected data on the dietary habits of immigrant populations living with IBD. Our aim was to describe the dietary practices and beliefs of British South Asians with IBD.

Methods: A 30-item questionnaire was developed and consecutively administered to 255 British South Asians with IBD attending gastroenterology clinics in the United Kingdom.

Results: Fifty-one percent of participants believed diet was the initiating factor for their IBD and 63% felt diet had previously triggered disease relapse. Eighty-nine percent avoided certain dietary items in the belief that this would prevent relapse. The most commonly avoided foods and drinks were spicy and fatty foods, carbonated drinks, milk products, alcohol, coffee, and red meat. A third of patients had tried a whole food exclusion diet, most commonly lactose- or gluten-free, and this was most frequently reported amongst those with clinically active IBD (P= 0.02). Almost 60% of participants avoided eating the same menu as their family, or eating out, at least sometimes, to prevent IBD relapse.

Conclusions: British South Asians with IBD demonstrate significant dietary beliefs and food avoidance behaviors with increased frequency compared to those reported in Caucasian IBD populations. Studies in immigrant populations may offer valuable insights into the interaction between diet, Westernization and cultural drift in IBD pathogenesis and symptomatology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5217/ir.2020.00079DOI Listing
January 2021

A User's Guide to De-Escalating Immunomodulator and Biologic Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun 26;19(6):1300-1301. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, St Mark's Hospital, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.06.056DOI Listing
June 2021

Immune reconstitution and clinical recovery following anti-CD28 antibody (TGN1412)-induced cytokine storm.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Apr 8;70(4):1127-1142. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Antigen Presentation Research Group, Imperial College London, Northwick Park & St. Mark's Campus, London, UK.

Cytokine storm can result from cancer immunotherapy or certain infections, including COVID-19. Though short-term immune-related adverse events are routinely described, longer-term immune consequences and sequential immune monitoring are not as well defined. In 2006, six healthy volunteers received TGN1412, a CD28 superagonist antibody, in a first-in-man clinical trial and suffered from cytokine storm. After the initial cytokine release, antibody effect-specific immune monitoring started on Day + 10 and consisted mainly of evaluation of dendritic cell and T-cell subsets and 15 serum cytokines at 21 time-points over 2 years. All patients developed problems with concentration and memory; three patients were diagnosed with mild-to-moderate depression. Mild neutropenia and autoantibody production was observed intermittently. One patient suffered from peripheral dry gangrene, required amputations, and had persistent Raynaud's phenomenon. Gastrointestinal irritability was noted in three patients and coincided with elevated γδT-cells. One had pruritus associated with elevated IgE levels, also found in three other asymptomatic patients. Dendritic cells, initially undetectable, rose to normal within a month. Naïve CD8 T-cells were maintained at high levels, whereas naïve CD4 and memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells started high but declined over 2 years. T-regulatory cells cycled circannually and were normal in number. Cytokine dysregulation was especially noted in one patient with systemic symptoms. Over a 2-year follow-up, cognitive deficits were observed in all patients following TGN1412 infusion. Some also had signs or symptoms of psychological, mucosal or immune dysregulation. These observations may discern immunopathology, treatment targets, and long-term monitoring strategies for other patients undergoing immunotherapy or with cytokine storm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-020-02725-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7543968PMC
April 2021

Stage at Diagnosis and Survival of Colorectal Cancer With or Without Underlying Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Population-based Study.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Mar;15(3):375-382

St Mark's Hospital & Academic Institute, London, UK.

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] is a risk factor for colorectal cancer [CRC]. The aim of this study is to determine whether stage at diagnosis and survival differ between sporadic, ulcerative colitis [UC]- and Crohn's disease [CD]-related CRC.

Methods: The English National Cancer Registry [NCIN], Hospital Episode Statistics [HES] and Office for National Statistics [ONS] datasets between 2000 and 2010 were linked, providing data on comorbidities, stage and date of death. A logistic regression model determined whether IBD was associated with an early [I/II] or late [III/IV] cancer. Cox regression analysis was used to examine survival differences between sporadic, UC- and CD-related cancers.

Results: A total of 234 009 patients with CRC were included, of whom 985 [0.4%] and 1922 [0.8%] had CD and UC, respectively. UC, but not CD, was associated with an earlier stage compared with sporadic cancers (odds ratio [OR] 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79 to 0.98, p = 0.02). CD had a significantly worse survival compared with sporadic patients for stage II [HR = 1.71, CI 1.26 to 2.31 p <0.005] and III [1.53, CI 1.20 to 1.96, p <0.005] cancer. UC patients were associated with worse survival compared with the sporadic group for both stage III [1.38, CI 1.17 to 1.63, p <0.0005] and IV [1.13, CI 1.01 to 1.28, p = 0.04] cancer. After excluding sporadic patients, UC was associated with improved survival compared with CD [0.62, CI 0.43 to 0.90, p = 0.01] for stage II cancer.

Conclusions: Patients with IBD are diagnosed at an earlier stage but tend to have a worse survival compared with sporadic cases of CRC, in particular for nodal disease [stage III].Specifically, patients with CD-related CRC appear to fare worst in terms of survival compared with both the sporadic and UC groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa196DOI Listing
March 2021

The use of 5-aminosalicylate for patients with Crohn's disease in a prospective European inception cohort with 5 years follow-up - an Epi-IBD study.

United European Gastroenterol J 2020 10 26;8(8):949-960. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Hull University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Hull, UK.

Background: The lack of scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of 5-aminosalicylate in patients with Crohn's disease is in sharp contrast to its widespread use in clinical practice.

Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the use of 5-aminosalicylate in patients with Crohn's disease as well as the disease course of a subgroup of patients who were treated with 5-aminosalicylate as maintenance monotherapy during the first year of disease.

Methods: In a European community-based inception cohort, 488 patients with Crohn's disease were followed from the time of their diagnosis. Information on clinical data, demographics, disease activity, medical therapy and rates of surgery, cancers and deaths was collected prospectively. Patient management was left to the discretion of the treating gastroenterologists.

Results: Overall, 292 (60%) patients with Crohn's disease received 5-aminosalicylate period during follow-up for a median duration of 28 months (interquartile range 6-60). Of these, 78 (16%) patients received 5-aminosalicylate monotherapy during the first year following diagnosis. Patients who received monotherapy with 5-aminosalicylate experienced a mild disease course with only nine (12%) who required hospitalization, surgery, or developed stricturing or penetrating disease, and most never needed more intensive therapy. The remaining 214 patients were treated with 5-aminosalicylate as the first maintenance drug although most eventually needed to step up to other treatments including immunomodulators (75 (35%)), biological therapy (49 (23%)) or surgery (38 (18%)).

Conclusion: In this European community-based inception cohort of unselected Crohn's disease patients, 5-aminosalicylate was commonly used. A substantial group of these patients experienced a quiescent disease course without need of additional treatment during follow-up. Therefore, despite the controversy regarding the efficacy of 5-aminosalicylate in Crohn's disease, its use seems to result in a satisfying disease course for both patients and physicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050640620945949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707880PMC
October 2020

Surgery versus infliximab for Crohn's disease: should there be a change in clinical practice?

Authors:
Naila Arebi

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 10 30;5(10):877-878. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, St Mark's Hospital, Imperial College, London HA1 3UJ, UK. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30234-XDOI Listing
October 2020

Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron-derived outer membrane vesicles promote regulatory dendritic cell responses in health but not in inflammatory bowel disease.

Microbiome 2020 06 8;8(1):88. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Antigen Presentation Research Group, Imperial College London, Northwick Park & St. Mark's Hospital Campus, Watford Rd, Harrow, Greater London, HA1 3UJ, UK.

Background: Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt) is a prominent member of the human intestinal microbiota that, like all gram-negative bacteria, naturally generates nanosized outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) which bud off from the cell surface. Importantly, OMVs can cross the intestinal epithelial barrier to mediate microbe-host cell crosstalk involving both epithelial and immune cells to help maintain intestinal homeostasis. Here, we have examined the interaction between Bt OMVs and blood or colonic mucosa-derived dendritic cells (DC) from healthy individuals and patients with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC).

Results: In healthy individuals, Bt OMVs stimulated significant (p < 0.05) IL-10 expression by colonic DC, whereas in peripheral blood-derived DC they also stimulated significant (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively) expression of IL-6 and the activation marker CD80. Conversely, in UC Bt OMVs were unable to elicit IL-10 expression by colonic DC. There were also reduced numbers of CD103 DC in the colon of both UC and CD patients compared to controls, supporting a loss of regulatory DC in both diseases. Furthermore, in CD and UC, Bt OMVs elicited a significantly lower proportion of DC which expressed IL-10 (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) in blood compared to controls. These alterations in DC responses to Bt OMVs were seen in patients with inactive disease, and thus are indicative of intrinsic defects in immune responses to this commensal in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Conclusions: Overall, our findings suggest a key role for OMVs generated by the commensal gut bacterium Bt in directing a balanced immune response to constituents of the microbiota locally and systemically during health which is altered in IBD patients. Video Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00868-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282036PMC
June 2020

Evolution of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research From a Bird's-Eye Perspective: A Text-Mining Analysis of Publication Trends and Topics.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 Feb;27(3):434-439

Department of Gastroenterology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Background And Aim: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) research is extensive and increasing, with topics varying and shifting foci over time. A comprehensive analysis of the trends in IBD publications may help us grasp knowledge gaps and map future areas of interest. The aim of our study was to create a map of IBD research for the last 25 years using computational text-mining techniques.

Methods: We retrieved all available MEDLINE/PubMed annual datasets between 1992 and 2016. We categorized article characteristics by using word combination and title match techniques. We also assigned country of origin for each article from the first author's affiliation.

Results: During the study period, 18,653 publications that appeared on PubMed were classified as IBD-related. The annual number of publications increased almost 4-fold (354 to 1361) during the study period. The United States had the highest total number of publications (n = 3179/16,358, 19.4%) and Denmark, Sweden, and Israel had the highest rate of publications per capita. There were 7986 articles successfully assigned with a main subject. Therapeutics, surgical treatment, and endoscopy were the 3 leading topics, with n = 2432/7986 (30%), 1707/7986 (21%), and 981/7986 (12%), respectively. When analyzing trends in topics over time, we found an increase in the proportion of articles on imaging (2.2% in 1992-1996 to 8% in 2012-2016) and a decrease in the proportion of articles on surgical treatment (30% in 1992-1996 to 19% in 2012-2016).

Conclusions: There is steady increase in the number of IBD-related publications. Although the United States is a world leader in the number of IBD publications, Denmark, Sweden, and Israel publish the most per population size. Medical therapeutics is the most popular topic, yet there is a steady increase in publications devoted to imaging and monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izaa091DOI Listing
February 2021

Systematic review with meta-analysis: IBD-associated colonic dysplasia prognosis in the videoendoscopic era (1990 to present).

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020 07 20;52(1):5-19. Epub 2020 May 20.

St Mark's Hospital, Harrow, UK.

Introduction: The prognosis of dysplasia in patients with IBD is largely determined from observational studies from the pre-videoendoscopic era (pre-1990s) that does not reflect recent advances in endoscopic imaging and resection.

Aims: To better understand the risk of synchronous colorectal cancer and metachronous advanced neoplasia (ie high-grade dysplasia or cancer) associated with dysplasia diagnosed in the videoendoscopic era, and to stratify risk according to a lesion's morphology, endoscopic resection status or whether it was incidentally detected on biopsy of macroscopically normal colonic mucosa (ie invisible).

Methods: A systematic search of original articles published between 1990 and February 2020 was performed. Eligible studies reported on incidence of advanced neoplasia at follow-up colectomy or colonoscopy for IBD-dysplasia patients. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed.

Results: Thirty-three studies were eligible for qualitative analysis (five for the meta-analysis). Pooled estimated proportions of incidental synchronous cancers found at colectomy performed for a pre-operative diagnosis of visible high-grade dysplasia, invisible high-grade dysplasia, visible low-grade dysplasia and invisible low-grade dysplasia were 13.7% (95% CI 0.0-54.1), 11.4% (95% CI 4.6-20.3), 2.7% (95% CI 0.0-7.1) and 2.4% (95% CI 0.0-8.5) respectively. The lowest incidences of metachronous advanced neoplasia, for dysplasia not managed with immediate colectomy but followed up with surveillance, tended to be reported by the studies where high definition imaging and/or chromoendoscopy was used and endoscopic resection of visible dysplasia was histologically confirmed.

Conclusions: The prognosis of IBD-dysplasia diagnosed in the videoendoscopic era appears to have been improved but the quality of evidence remains low. Larger, prospective studies are needed to guide management. PROSPERO registration no: CRD42019105736.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15778DOI Listing
July 2020

Health-care costs of inflammatory bowel disease in a pan-European, community-based, inception cohort during 5 years of follow-up: a population-based study.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 05 13;5(5):454-464. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Hull University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Hull, UK; Hull York Medical School, Hull, UK.

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) places a significant burden on health-care systems because of its chronicity and need for expensive therapies and surgery. With increasing use of biological therapies, contemporary data on IBD health-care costs are important for those responsible for allocating resources in Europe. To our knowledge, no prospective long-term analysis of the health-care costs of patients with IBD in the era of biologicals has been done in Europe. We aimed to investigate cost profiles of a pan-European, community-based inception cohort during 5 years of follow-up.

Methods: The Epi-IBD cohort is a community-based, prospective inception cohort of unselected patients with IBD diagnosed in 2010 at centres in 20 European countries plus Israel. Incident patients who were diagnosed with IBD according to the Copenhagen Diagnostic Criteria between Jan 1, and Dec 31, 2010, and were aged 15 years or older the time of diagnosis were prospectively included. Data on clinical characteristics and direct costs (investigations and outpatient visits, blood tests, treatments, hospitalisations, and surgeries) were collected prospectively using electronic case-report forms. Patient-level costs incorporated procedures leading to the initial diagnosis of IBD and costs of IBD management during the 5-year follow-up period. Costs incurred by comorbidities and unrelated to IBD were excluded. We grouped direct costs into the following five categories: investigations (including outpatient visits and blood tests), conventional medical treatment, biological therapy, hospitalisation, and surgery.

Findings: The study population consisted of 1289 patients with IBD, with 1073 (83%) patients from western Europe and 216 (17%) from eastern Europe. 488 (38%) patients had Crohn's disease, 717 (56%) had ulcerative colitis, and 84 (6%) had IBD unclassified. The mean cost per patient-year during follow-up for patients with IBD was €2609 (SD 7389; median €446 [IQR 164-1849]). The mean cost per patient-year during follow-up was €3542 (8058; median €717 [214-3512]) for patients with Crohn's disease, €2088 (7058; median €408 [133-1161]) for patients with ulcerative colitis, and €1609 (5010; median €415 [92-1228]) for patients with IBD unclassified (p<0·0001). Costs were highest in the first year and then decreased significantly during follow-up. Hospitalisations and diagnostic procedures accounted for more than 50% of costs during the first year. However, in subsequent years there was a steady increase in expenditure on biologicals, which accounted for 73% of costs in Crohn's disease and 48% in ulcerative colitis, in year 5. The mean annual cost per patient-year for biologicals was €866 (SD 3056). The mean yearly costs of biological therapy were higher in patients with Crohn's disease (€1782 [SD 4370]) than in patients with ulcerative colitis (€286 [1427]) or IBD unclassified (€521 [2807]; p<0·0001).

Interpretation: Overall direct expenditure on health care decreased over a 5-year follow-up period. This period was characterised by increasing expenditure on biologicals and decreasing expenditure on conventional medical treatments, hospitalisations, and surgeries. In light of the expenditures associated with biological therapy, cost-effective treatment strategies are needed to reduce the economic burden of inflammatory bowel disease.

Funding: Kirsten og Freddy Johansens Fond and Nordsjællands Hospital Forskningsråd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30012-1DOI Listing
May 2020

Ethnic differences in inflammatory bowel disease: Results from the United Kingdom inception cohort epidemiology study.

World J Gastroenterol 2019 Oct;25(40):6145-6157

Gastroenterology, St. Mark's Hospital and Academic Institute, London HA1 3UJ, United Kingdom.

Background: The current epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the multi-ethnic United Kingdom is unknown. The last incidence study in the United Kingdom was carried out over 20 years ago.

Aim: To describe the incidence and phenotype of IBD and distribution within ethnic groups.

Methods: Adult patients (> 16 years) with newly diagnosed IBD (fulfilling Copenhagen diagnostic criteria) were prospectively recruited over one year in 5 urban catchment areas with high South Asian population. Patient demographics, ethnic codes, disease phenotype (Montreal classification), disease activity and treatment within 3 months of diagnosis were recorded onto the Epicom database.

Results: Across a population of 2271406 adults, 339 adult patients were diagnosed with IBD over one year: 218 with ulcerative colitis (UC, 64.3%), 115 with Crohn's disease (CD, 33.9%) and 6 with IBD unclassified (1.8%). The crude incidence of IBD, UC and CD was 17.0/100000, 11.3/100000 and 5.3/100000 respectively. The age adjusted incidence of IBD and UC were significantly higher in the Indian group (25.2/100000 and 20.5/100000) compared to White European (14.9/100000, = 0.009 and 8.2/100000, < 0.001) and Pakistani groups (14.9/100000, = 0.001 and 11.2/100000, = 0.007). The Indian group were significantly more likely to have extensive disease than White Europeans (52.7% 41.7%, = 0.031). There was no significant difference in time to diagnosis, disease activity and treatment.

Conclusion: This is the only prospective study to report the incidence of IBD in an ethnically diverse United Kingdom population. The Indian ethnic group showed the highest age-adjusted incidence of UC (20.5/100000). Further studies on dietary, microbial and metabolic factors that might explain these findings in UC are underway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v25.i40.6145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6824277PMC
October 2019

Impact of therapeutic drug level monitoring on outcomes of patients with Crohn's disease treated with Infliximab: real world data from a retrospective single centre cohort study.

Frontline Gastroenterol 2019 Oct 1;10(4):330-336. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

IBD Department, St Mark's Hospital, London, UK.

Background: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) by measuring infliximab (IFX) trough levels and antibodies to infliximab (ATI) is used to optimise treatment in inflammatory bowel disease. We aimed to explore the clinical outcomes of TDM for patients with Crohn's disease on IFX in real life setting.

Methods: This is a retrospective observational study. Primary outcomes were the clinicians' response to each TDM result and the rate of IFX discontinuation due to secondary loss of response or serious adverse event. Secondary outcomes included the intestinal surgery rate after IFX initiation and remission 6 months after TDM. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with IFX discontinuation and abdominal surgery.

Results: 291 patients were included. 238 (81.8%) patients were tested for TDM at least once during their follow-up with 672 TDM results. 95/238 patients (39.9%) had undetectable levels and 76 (31.9%) had positive ATI at least once. The median infliximab trough level was 3.4 µg/mL. IFX was discontinued in 109 patients (37.5%). 526/672 (78.3%) TDMs results were not followed by altered patient management. Treatment was discontinued in 40 (75.5%) patients never tested for TDM compared with 69 (29.0%) of those tested (p<0.01). Fewer TDM tested patients (29; 12.2%) required intestinal surgery post IFX initiation compared with TDM not-tested (15; 28.3%). Not being TDM tested was independently associated with IFX discontinuation and abdominal surgery.

Conclusions: IFX discontinuation and intestinal surgery were significantly less frequent with TDM. TDM requested to investigate loss of response resulted in change in patient management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/flgastro-2018-101024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6788274PMC
October 2019

Deficient Resident Memory T Cell and CD8 T Cell Response to Commensals in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

J Crohns Colitis 2020 May;14(4):525-537

Antigen Presentation Research Group, Imperial College London, Northwick Park and St Mark's Campus, Harrow, London, UK.

Background And Aims: The intestinal microbiota is closely associated with resident memory lymphocytes in mucosal tissue. We sought to understand how acquired cellular and humoral immunity to the microbiota differ in health versus inflammatory bowel disease [IBD].

Methods: Resident memory T cells [Trm] in colonic biopsies and local antibody responses to intraepithelial microbes were analysed. Systemic antigen-specific immune T and B cell memory to a panel of commensal microbes was assessed.

Results: Systemically, healthy blood showed CD4 and occasional CD8 memory T cell responses to selected intestinal bacteria, but few memory B cell responses. In IBD, CD8 memory T cell responses decreased although B cell responses and circulating plasmablasts increased. Possibly secondary to loss of systemic CD8 T cell responses in IBD, dramatically reduced numbers of mucosal CD8+ Trm and γδ T cells were observed. IgA responses to intraepithelial bacteria were increased. Colonic Trm expressed CD39 and CD73 ectonucleotidases, characteristic of regulatory T cells. Cytokines/factors required for Trm differentiation were identified, and in vitro-generated Trm expressed regulatory T cell function via CD39. Cognate interaction between T cells and dendritic cells induced T-bet expression in dendritic cells, a key mechanism in regulating cell-mediated mucosal responses.

Conclusions: A previously unrecognised imbalance exists between cellular and humoral immunity to the microbiota in IBD, with loss of mucosal T cell-mediated barrier immunity and uncontrolled antibody responses. Regulatory function of Trm may explain their association with intestinal health. Promoting Trm and their interaction with dendritic cells, rather than immunosuppression, may reinforce tissue immunity, improve barrier function, and prevent B cell dysfunction in microbiota-associated disease and IBD aetiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjz175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242004PMC
May 2020

Stratification of inflammatory bowel disease outpatients by disease activity and risk of complications to guide out-of-hospital monitoring: a patient-centred quality improvement project.

BMJ Open Qual 2019 1;8(3):e000546. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

St Mark's Hospital, London, UK.

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing-remitting condition affecting 600 000 people in the UK. Traditionally, patients attend outpatient clinics for monitoring regardless of their symptoms or risk of developing complications. This can lead to a mismatch between need and access: patients in remission given elective appointments displace those in need of urgent specialist attention. Novel initiatives implemented in the UK to improve outpatient monitoring have often required a well-maintained patient registry, empowered patients and significant information technology support.

Design And Strategy: In this large-scale quality improvement project at St Mark's Hospital, a tertiary centre for IBD, we stratified over 1000 patients attending three non-complex IBD clinics over 12 months according to disease activity and risk profile. The aim was to offer a choice and subsequently transfer 50% of eligible patients to specialist nurse-led telephone clinics and demonstrate non-inferior satisfaction levels to existing outpatient follow-up. We also sought to ensure there was timely access to a newly established rapid access clinic for patients requiring urgent specialist attention.A core project team consisting of healthcare professionals, patients and quality improvement scientists met regularly. The team tested and scaled up interventions using 'Plan-Do-Study-Act' cycles within the 'Model for Improvement' framework and analysed data continuously using statistical process charts.

Results: Over 12 months, the average number of eligible patients transferred to telephone clinics rose from 17.6% (42/239) using a questionnaire method to 59.3% (73/123) using active discussion in clinic. Patient satisfaction scores remained high and non-inferior to baseline scores in face-to-face clinics. The median waiting time to be seen in the rapid access clinic was 6.5 days.

Conclusion: This is the first published study to report on the successful stratification of patients with IBD based on disease activity and risk of complications to create a more responsive, sustainable and patient-centred model for IBD monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjoq-2018-000546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6683110PMC
August 2019

Transitions of care across hospital settings in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

World J Gastroenterol 2019 May;25(17):2122-2132

Patient Safety Translational Research Centre, Imperial College London, London W2 1NY, United Kingdom.

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, inflammatory disorder characterised by both intestinal and extra-intestinal pathology. Patients may receive both emergency and elective care from several providers, often in different hospital settings. Poorly managed transitions of care between providers can lead to inefficiencies in care and patient safety issues. To ensure that the sharing of patient information between providers is appropriate, timely, accurate and secure, effective data-sharing infrastructure needs to be developed. To optimise inter-hospital data-sharing for IBD patients, we need to better understand patterns of hospital encounters in this group.

Aim: To determine the type and location of hospital services accessed by IBD patients in England.

Methods: This was a retrospective observational study using Hospital Episode Statistics, a large administrative patient data set from the National Health Service in England. Adult patients with a diagnosis of IBD following admission to hospital were followed over a 2-year period to determine the proportion of care accessed at the same hospital providing their outpatient IBD care, defined as their 'home provider'. Secondary outcome measures included the geographic distribution of patient-sharing, regional and age-related differences in accessing services, and type and frequency of outpatient encounters.

Results: 95055 patients accessed hospital services on 1760156 occasions over a 2-year follow-up period. The proportion of these encounters with their identified IBD 'home provider' was 73.3%, 87.8% and 83.1% for accident and emergency, inpatient and outpatient encounters respectively. Patients living in metropolitan centres and younger patients were less likely to attend their 'home provider' for hospital services. The most commonly attended specialty services were gastroenterology, general surgery and ophthalmology.

Conclusion: Transitions of care between secondary care settings are common for patients with IBD. Effective systems of data-sharing and care integration are essential to providing safe and effective care for patients. Geographic and age-related patterns of care transitions identified in this study may be used to guide interventions aimed at improving continuity of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v25.i17.2122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6506584PMC
May 2019

Disease course of inflammatory bowel disease unclassified in a European population-based inception cohort: An Epi-IBD study.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Jun 21;34(6):996-1003. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.

Background And Aim: A definitive diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) is not always possible, and a proportion of patients will be diagnosed as inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBDU). The aim of the study was to investigate the prognosis of patients initially diagnosed with IBDU and the disease course during the following 5 years.

Methods: The Epi-IBD study is a prospective population-based cohort of 1289 IBD patients diagnosed in centers across Europe. Clinical data were captured prospectively throughout the follow-up period.

Results: Overall, 476 (37%) patients were initially diagnosed with CD, 701 (54%) with UC, and 112 (9%) with IBDU. During follow-up, 28 (25%) IBDU patients were changed diagnoses to either UC (n = 20, 71%) or CD (n = 8, 29%) after a median of 6 months (interquartile range: 4-12), while 84 (7% of the total cohort) remained IBDU. A total of 17 (15%) IBDU patients were hospitalized for their IBD during follow-up, while 8 (7%) patients underwent surgery. Most surgeries (n = 6, 75%) were performed on patients whose diagnosis was later changed to UC; three of these colectomies led to a definitive diagnosis of UC. Most patients (n = 107, 96%) received 5-aminosalicylic acid, while 11 (10%) patients received biologicals, of whom five remained classified as IBDU.

Conclusions: In a population-based inception cohort, 7% of IBD patients were not given a definitive diagnosis of IBD after 5 years of follow-up. One in four patients with IBDU eventually was classified as CD or UC. Overall, the disease course and medication burden in IBDU patients were mild.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.14563DOI Listing
June 2019

UK clinical experience up to 52 weeks with linaclotide for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2018 3;11:1756284818798791. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

University College Hospital, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase C agonist, has been shown in clinical trials to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Here we report data from a real-world study of linaclotide in the UK.

Methods: This 1-year, multicentre, prospective, observational study in the UK enrolled patients aged 18 years and over initiating linaclotide for IBS-C. The primary assessment was change from baseline in IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS) score at 12 weeks, assessed in patients with paired baseline and 12-week data. Change from baseline in IBS-SSS score at 52 weeks was a secondary assessment. Adverse events were recorded.

Results: In total, 202 patients were enrolled: 185 (91.6%) were female, median age was 44.9 years (range 18.1-77.2) and 84 (41.6%) reported baseline laxative use. Mean (standard deviation) baseline IBS-SSS score was 339 (92), with most patients ( = 129; 66.8%) classified as having severe disease (score ⩾300). In patients with paired data, there was a significant mean (95% confidence interval) decrease in IBS-SSS score from baseline to 12 weeks [-77.0 (-96.3, -57.7); < 0.001; = 124] and baseline to 52 weeks [-70.7 (-95.0, -46.5); < 0.001; = 76]. Overall, 174 adverse events were reported in 77 (38.1%) patients, most commonly diarrhoea ( = 54; 26.7%), abdominal pain ( = 21; 10.4%) and abdominal distension ( = 13; 6.4%).

Conclusion: Linaclotide significantly improved IBS-SSS score at 12 and 52 weeks. These results provide insights into outcomes with linaclotide treatment over 1 year in patients with IBS-C in real-world clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756284818798791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6170957PMC
October 2018

Natural Disease Course of Ulcerative Colitis During the First Five Years of Follow-up in a European Population-based Inception Cohort-An Epi-IBD Study.

J Crohns Colitis 2019 Feb;13(2):198-208

IBD Clinical and Research Centre, ISCARE, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background And Aims: Few population-based cohort studies have assessed the disease course of ulcerative colitis [UC] in the era of biological therapy and widespread use of immunomodulators. The aim of this study was to assess the 5-year outcome and disease course of patients with UC in the Epi-IBD cohort.

Methods: In a prospective, population-based inception cohort of unselected patients with UC, patients were followed up from the time of their diagnosis, which included the collection of their clinical data, demographics, disease activity, medical therapy, and rates of surgery, cancers, and deaths. Associations between outcomes and multiple covariates were analysed by Cox regression analysis.

Results: A total of 717 patients were included in the study. During follow-up, 43 [6%] patients underwent a colectomy and 163 [23%] patients were hospitalised. Of patients with limited colitis [distal to the left flexure], 90 [21%] progressed to extensive colitis. In addition, 92 [27%] patients with extensive colitis experienced a regression in disease extent, which was associated with a reduced risk of hospitalisation (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.5 95% CI: 0.3-0.8]. Overall, patients were treated similarly in both geographical regions; 80 [11%] patients needed biological therapy and 210 [29%] patients received immunomodulators. Treatment with immunomodulators was found to reduce the risk of hospitalisation [HR: 0.5 95% CI: 0.3-0.8].

Conclusions: Although patients in this population-based cohort were treated more aggressively with immunomodulators and biological therapy than in cohorts from the previous two decades, their disease outcomes, including colectomy rates, were no different. However, treatment with immunomodulators was found to reduce the risk of hospitalisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjy154DOI Listing
February 2019

Vitamin D deficiency in a European inflammatory bowel disease inception cohort: an Epi-IBD study.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 11;30(11):1297-1303

Pekka Collin Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Serum vitamin D level is commonly low in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although there is a growing body of evidence that links low vitamin D level to certain aspects of IBD such as disease activity and quality of life, data on its prevalence and how it varies across disease phenotype, smoking status and treatment groups are still missing.

Materials And Methods: Patients diagnosed with IBD between 2010 and 2011 were recruited. Demographic data and serum vitamin D levels were collected. Variance of vitamin D level was then assessed across different treatment groups, disease phenotype, disease activity and quality of life scores.

Results: A total of 238 (55.9% male) patients were included. Overall, 79% of the patients had either insufficient or deficient levels of vitamin D at diagnosis. Patients needing corticosteroid treatment at 1 year had significantly lower vitamin D levels at diagnosis (median 36.0 nmol/l) (P=0.035). Harvey-Bradshaw Index (P=0.0001) and Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index scores (P=0.0001) were significantly lower in patients with higher vitamin D level. Serum vitamin D level correlated significantly with SIBQ score (P=0.0001) and with multiple components of SF12. Smokers at diagnosis had the lowest vitamin D levels (vitamin D: 34 nmol/l; P=0.053).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates the high prevalence of low vitamin D levels in treatment-naive European IBD populations. Furthermore, it demonstrates the presence of low vitamin D levels in patients with IBD who smoke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001238DOI Listing
November 2018

Effectiveness and Safety of Vedolizumab in Anti-TNF-Naïve Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease-A Multicenter Retrospective European Study.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 10;24(11):2442-2451

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Charité Medical School, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Vedolizumab (VDZ) is effective for treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). In GEMINI trials, anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF)-naïve patients had a superior response compared with anti-TNF-exposed patients. In real-world experience (RWE), the number of included anti-TNF-naïve patients was low. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of VDZ in anti-TNF-naïve patients in an RWE setting.

Methods: This retrospective multicenter European pooled cohort study included consecutive active anti-TNF-naïve IBD patients treated with VDZ. The primary end point was clinical response at week 14. Patients with follow-up beyond week 14 and those discontinuing VDZ at any time were included for maintenance outcomes analysis.

Results: Since January 2015, 184 anti-TNF-naïve patients from 23 centers initiated VDZ treatment (Crohn's disease [CD], 50; ulcerative colitis [UC], 134). In CD, 42/50 (82%) patients responded by week 14 and 32 (64%) were in clinical remission; 26/50 (52%) achieved corticosteroid-free remission (CSFR). At last follow-up (44 weeks; interquartile range [IQR], 30-52 weeks), 27/35 (77.1%) patients with available data responded to treatment; 24/35 (68.6%) were in clinical remission, 21/35 (60%) were in CSFR. For UC, 116/134 (79.1%) responded to treatment by week 14, including 53 (39.5%) in clinical remission; 49/134 (36.6%) achieved CSFR. At last follow-up (42.5 weeks; IQR, 30-52 weeks), 79/103 (76.7%) patients responded to treatment, 69/103 (67.0%) were in remission, and 61/103 (59.2%) were in CSFR. Adverse effects were reported in 20 (11%) of the patients, leading to treatment discontinuation in 6 (3.3%).

Conclusions: VDZ is similarly effective in ant-TNF-naïve CD and UC patients. The efficacy is higher than reported in anti-TNF-experienced patients and is comparable to that of anti-TNF biologics in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izy155DOI Listing
October 2018

Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in racial and ethnic migrant groups.

World J Gastroenterol 2018 Jan;24(3):424-437

Department of Gastroenterology, St. Marks Academic Institute, London HA1 3UJ, United Kingdom.

Aim: To summarise the current literature and define patterns of disease in migrant and racial groups.

Methods: A structured key word search in Ovid Medline and EMBASE was undertaken in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Studies on incidence, prevalence and disease phenotype of migrants and races compared with indigenous groups were eligible for inclusion.

Results: Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Individual studies showed significant differences in incidence, prevalence and disease phenotype between migrants or race and indigenous groups. Pooled analysis could only be undertaken for incidence studies on South Asians where there was significant heterogeneity between the studies [95% for ulcerative colitis (UC), 83% for Crohn's disease (CD)]. The difference between incidence rates was not significant with a rate ratio South Asian: Caucasian of 0.78 (95%CI: 0.22-2.78) for CD and 1.39 (95%CI: 0.84-2.32) for UC. South Asians showed consistently higher incidence and more extensive UC than the indigenous population in five countries. A similar pattern was observed for Hispanics in the United States. Bangladeshis and African Americans showed an increased risk of CD with perianal disease.

Conclusion: This review suggests that migration and race influence the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease. This may be due to different inherent responses upon exposure to an environmental trigger in the adopted country. Further prospective studies on homogenous migrant populations are needed to validate these observations, with a parallel arm for in-depth investigation of putative drivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v24.i3.424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5776404PMC
January 2018

Natural disease course of Crohn's disease during the first 5 years after diagnosis in a European population-based inception cohort: an Epi-IBD study.

Gut 2019 03 23;68(3):423-433. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

IBD Clinical and Research Centre, ISCARE, Prague, Czech Republic.

Objective: The Epi-IBD cohort is a prospective population-based inception cohort of unselected patients with inflammatory bowel disease from 29 European centres covering a background population of almost 10 million people. The aim of this study was to assess the 5-year outcome and disease course of patients with Crohn's disease (CD).

Design: Patients were followed up prospectively from the time of diagnosis, including collection of their clinical data, demographics, disease activity, medical therapy, surgery, cancers and deaths. Associations between outcomes and multiple covariates were analysed by Cox regression analysis.

Results: In total, 488 patients were included in the study. During follow-up, 107 (22%) patients received surgery, while 176 (36%) patients were hospitalised because of CD. A total of 49 (14%) patients diagnosed with non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease progressed to either stricturing and/or penetrating disease. These rates did not differ between patients from Western and Eastern Europe. However, significant geographic differences were noted regarding treatment: more patients in Western Europe received biological therapy (33%) and immunomodulators (66%) than did those in Eastern Europe (14% and 54%, respectively, P<0.01), while more Eastern European patients received 5-aminosalicylates (90% vs 56%, P<0.05). Treatment with immunomodulators reduced the risk of surgery (HR: 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.6) and hospitalisation (HR: 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.5).

Conclusion: Despite patients being treated early and frequently with immunomodulators and biological therapy in Western Europe, 5-year outcomes including surgery and phenotype progression in this cohort were comparable across Western and Eastern Europe. Differences in treatment strategies between Western and Eastern European centres did not affect the disease course. Treatment with immunomodulators reduced the risk of surgery and hospitalisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2017-315568DOI Listing
March 2019

Occurrence of Anaemia in the First Year of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a European Population-based Inception Cohort-An ECCO-EpiCom Study.

J Crohns Colitis 2017 Oct;11(10):1213-1222

Institute for Digestive Research, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Background And Aims: Anaemia is an important complication of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the practice of anaemia screening during the first year following diagnosis, in a European prospective population-based inception cohort.

Methods: Newly diagnosed IBD patients were included and followed prospectively for 1 year in 29 European and one Australian centre. Clinical data including demographics, medical therapy, surgery and blood samples were collected. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria.

Results: A total of 1871 patients (Crohn's disease [CD]: 686, 88%; ulcerative colitis [UC]: 1,021, 87%; IBD unclassified [IBDU] 164. 81%) were included in the study. The prevalence of anaemia was higher in CD than in UC patients and, overall, 49% of CD and 39% of UC patients experienced at least one instance of anaemia during the first 12 months after diagnosis. UC patients with more extensive disease and those from Eastern European countries, and CD patients with penetrating disease or colonic disease location, had higher risks of anaemia. CD and UC patients in need of none or only mild anti-inflammatory treatment had a lower risk of anaemia. In a significant proportion of patients, anaemia was not assessed until several months after diagnosis, and in almost half of all cases of anaemia a thorough work-up was not performed.

Conclusions: Overall, 42% of patients had at least one instance of anaemia during the first year following diagnosis. Most patients were assessed for anaemia regularly; however, a full anaemia work-up was frequently neglected in this community setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjx077DOI Listing
October 2017

Mercaptopurine versus placebo to prevent recurrence of Crohn's disease after surgical resection (TOPPIC): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 12 30;1(4):273-282. Epub 2016 Aug 30.

Gastrointestinal Unit, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, UK.

Background: Up to 60% of patients with Crohn's disease need intestinal resection within the first 10 years of diagnosis, and postoperative recurrence is common. We investigated whether mercaptopurine can prevent or delay postoperative clinical recurrence of Crohn's disease.

Methods: We did a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial at 29 UK secondary and tertiary hospitals of patients (aged >16 years in Scotland or >18 years in England and Wales) who had a confirmed diagnosis of Crohn's disease and had undergone intestinal resection. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by a computer-generated web-based randomisation system to oral daily mercaptopurine at a dose of 1 mg/kg bodyweight rounded to the nearest 25 mg or placebo; patients with low thiopurine methyltransferase activity received half the normal dose. Patients and their carers and physicians were masked to the treatment allocation. Patients were followed up for 3 years. The primary endpoint was clinical recurrence of Crohn's disease (Crohn's Disease Activity Index >150 plus 100-point increase in score) and the need for anti-inflammatory rescue treatment or primary surgical intervention. Primary and safety analyses were by intention to treat. Subgroup analyses by smoking status, previous thiopurines, previous infliximab or methotrexate, previous surgery, duration of disease, or age at diagnosis were also done. This trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Register (ISRCTN89489788) and the European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT number 2006-005800-15).

Findings: Between June 6, 2008, and April 23, 2012, 240 patients with Crohn's disease were randomly assigned: 128 to mercaptopurine and 112 to placebo. All patients received at least one dose of study drug, and no randomly assigned patients were excluded from the analysis. 16 (13%) of patients in the mercaptopurine group versus 26 (23%) patients in the placebo group had a clinical recurrence of Crohn's disease and needed anti-inflammatory rescue treatment or primary surgical intervention (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·54, 95% CI 0·27-1·06; p=0·07; unadjusted HR 0·53, 95% CI 0·28-0·99; p=0·046). In a subgroup analysis, three (10%) of 29 smokers in the mercaptopurine group and 12 (46%) of 26 in the placebo group had a clinical recurrence that needed treatment (HR 0·13, 95% CI 0·04-0·46), compared with 13 (13%) of 99 non-smokers in the mercaptopurine group and 14 (16%) of 86 in the placebo group (0·90, 0·42-1·94; p=0·018). The effect of mercaptopurine did not significantly differ from placebo for any of the other planned subgroup analyses (previous thiopurines, previous infliximab or methotrexate, previous surgery, duration of disease, or age at diagnosis). The incidence and types of adverse events were similar in the mercaptopurine and placebo groups. One patient on placebo died of ischaemic heart disease. Adverse events caused discontinuation of treatment in 39 (30%) of 128 patients in the mercaptopurine group versus 41 (37%) of 112 in the placebo group.

Interpretation: Mercaptopurine is effective in preventing postoperative clinical recurrence of Crohn's disease, but only in patients who are smokers. Thus, in smokers, thiopurine treatment seems to be justified in the postoperative period, although smoking cessation should be strongly encouraged given that smoking increases the risk of recurrence.

Funding: Medical Research Council.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(16)30078-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358144PMC
December 2016

Colectomy Rates for Ulcerative Colitis Differ between Ethnic Groups: Results from a 15-Year Nationwide Cohort Study.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 15;2016:8723949. Epub 2016 Dec 15.

St. Mark's Hospital & Academic Institute, Harrow, London HA1 3UJ, UK.

. Previous epidemiological studies suggest a higher rate of pancolonic disease in South Asians (SA) compared with White Europeans (WE). The aim of the study was to compare colectomy rates for ulcerative colitis (UC) in SA to those of WE. . Patients with UC were identified from a national administrative dataset (Hospital Episode Statistics, HES) between 1997 and 2012 according to ICD-10 diagnosis code K51 for UC. The colectomy rate for each ethnic group was calculated as the proportion of patients who underwent colectomy from the total UC cases for that group. . Of 212,430 UC cases, 73,318 (35.3%) were coded for ethnicity. There was no significant difference in the colectomy rate between SA and WE (6.93% versus 6.90%). Indians had a significantly higher colectomy rate than WE (9.8% versus 6.9%, < 0.001). Indian patients were 21% more likely to require colectomy for UC compared with WE group (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.04-1.42, and = 0.001). . Given the limitations in coding, the colectomy rate in this cohort was higher in Indians compared to WE. A prospectively recruited ethnic cohort study will decipher whether this reflects a more aggressive phenotype or is due to other confounding factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8723949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5198146PMC
July 2017

A review of endoscopic balloon dilatation techniques for treating Crohn's strictures: time to standardise therapy.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 Oct 27;10(10):1101-1107. Epub 2016 Jul 27.

a Department of Gastroenterology , St. Mark's Hospital , London , UK.

Introduction: Endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) is a recognised treatment for symptomatic Crohn's disease strictures. Over 3000 procedure are reported in the literature and yet the long term benefits are unclear. This is largely because of different populations, study designs, techniques, types of strictures, the outcome measures used and follow-up periods. Areas covered: We summarised the techniques reported in the literature based on a systematic review and key factors that may influence outcome: pre-intervention imaging, stricture length and type, balloon size in relation to intestinal lumen diameter, duration of dilatation, frequency of repeat dilatation and instructions on follow-up. Expert commentary: We noted that shorter, non-ulcerated and anastomotic strictures fare better and 2 mins dilatation duration was the commonest technique used without an increased risk of complications. The findings were translated into a standardised protocol and a management pathway to guide clinicians on the therapeutic strategy for Crohn's strictures. To resolve the uncertainty about long-term benefits, future studies should adopt a replicable standardised EBD technique, define degree of fibrosis to decide therapy accordingly, compare it to alternative interventions (strictureplasty or stents) within a randomised controlled trial and apply a validated outcome measure to include intestinal damage and quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2016.1212656DOI Listing
October 2016