Publications by authors named "Naheed Aryaeian"

30 Publications

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Can vitamin E supplementation affect obesity indices? A systematic review and meta-analysis of twenty-four randomized controlled trials.

Clin Nutr 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Several mechanisms have been proposed for the effect of vitamin E on weight loss. Yet various interventional studies with wide ranges of doses and durations have reported contradictory results.

Methods: Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases were searched up to December 2020. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effect method. Effect size was presented as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was evaluated using the I index. In order to identification of potential sources of heterogeneity, predefined subgroup and meta regression analyses was conducted.

Results: A total of 24 studies with 33 data sets were included. There was no significant effect of vitamin E on weight (WMD: 0.15, 95% CI: -1.35 to 1.65, P = 0.847), body mass index (BMI) (WMD = 0.04, 95% CI: -0.29 to 0.37, P = 0.815), and waist circumference (WC) (WMD = -0.19 kg, 95% CI: -2.06 to 1.68, P = 0.842), respectively. However, subgroup analysis revealed that vitamin E supplementation in studies conducted on participants with normal BMI (18.5-24.9) had increasing impact on BMI (P = 0.047).

Conclusion: There was no significant effect of vitamin E supplementation on weight, BMI and WC. However, vitamin E supplementation might be associated with increasing BMI in people with normal BMI (18.5-24.9).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.02.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of saffron supplementation on oxidative/antioxidant status and severity of disease in ulcerative colitis patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Phytother Res 2021 Feb 4;35(2):946-953. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Student Research Committee, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Supplementation with saffron helps improve antioxidant status. Oxidative stress plays an important role in ulcerative colitis (UC). The present study aimed to investigate the effect of saffron supplementation on disease severity and Oxidative/Antioxidant factors in patients with UC. This randomized double-blinded study was conducted on 80 mild to moderate UC patients. Participants were randomly divided into intervention (100 mg saffron/daily) and placebo (100 mg maltodextrin/daily) groups. Of all the participants, 75 completed the study. After 8 weeks, there were significantly increased in the mean score of simple clinical colitis activity index questionnaire (3.83 ± 1.78 to 3 ± 1.60, p = .004), the serum levels of total antioxidant capacity (2.68 ± 0.90 to 2.79 ± 0.87, p = .016), superoxide dismutase (60.69 ± 9.59 to 66.30 ± 10.79, p = .009) and glutathione peroxidase (22.05 ± 14.27 to 29.67 ± 17.97, p = .011) in patients received saffron compared to the placebo group. Whereas, there was no significant difference in serum levels of malondialdehyde between the two groups. Finally, dietary saffron as an alternative therapy may effective in improving antioxidant factors and reducing the severity of disease in UC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6848DOI Listing
February 2021

The effect of black barberry hydroalcoholic extract on immune mediators in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial.

Phytother Res 2021 Feb 10;35(2):1062-1068. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease associated with inflammation. In this trial, we aimed to investigate the Immunomodulatory effect of hydroalcoholic extract of black barberry on immune mediators in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 80 women with active RA were randomly assigned into two groups of two capsules, each containing 1,000 mg black barberry extract (n = 40) or maltodextrin placebo (n = 40) daily for 12 weeks. Demographic indices, physical activity, dietary intake, and disease activity were investigated using suitable questionnaires. Concentration of cytokines IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17 in blood sample were measured using PBMC method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (version 22). At baseline, there were no differences between the two groups in terms of demographic indices, physical activity, and dietary intake (p > .05). Black barberry supplementation reduced the severity of RA. It showed no significant effect on IL-2 and IL-4 cytokines (p > .05). IL-17 levels decreased significantly after the intervention within the black barberry group, while IL-10 had a significant increase in this group (p < .05). Barberry extract may reduce inflammatory and increase anti-inflammatory cytokines in RA, and stimulates the immune response by increasing Th2 production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6874DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on metabolic parameters, liver aminotransferases, and systemic inflammation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized clinical trial.

J Food Sci 2020 Oct 4;85(10):3611-3617. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Research Center for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on the metabolic parameters, liver enzymes, and inflammation in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, patients with NAFLD were assigned to receive either probiotic capsule + placebo of prebiotic (probiotic group), oligofructose + placebo of probiotic (prebiotic group), or placebo of probiotic + placebo of prebiotic (control group) for 12 weeks. All participants followed a weight loss diet and physical activity recommendation during intervention. Anthropometric measurements decreased in all three groups, but there was no significant difference among groups. Probiotic supplementation was able to decrease triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase compared to control group. The serum levels of triglyceride, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ALT, AST, and GGT differed significantly in prebiotic group in comparison to the placebo. High-sensitive C-reactive protein significantly decreased within all groups; however, there was no significant difference among groups after intervention. Probiotic and prebiotic may be beneficial in improving liver enzymes and lipid profile in patients with NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15367DOI Listing
October 2020

The effect of saffron supplementation on some inflammatory and oxidative markers, leptin, adiponectin, and body composition in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A double-blind randomized clinical trial.

Phytother Res 2020 Dec 15;34(12):3367-3378. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation in the hepatocytes. Saffron and its constituents are reported to have several properties such as anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects.

Materials And Methods: In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial with two parallel groups including 76 eligible men and female patients with NAFLD aged 18-65, recruited from Hazrat Rasul Akram Hospital in Tehran, Iran. NAFLD was defined by a Gastroenterologist based on the American Gastrointestinal and Liver Association standards. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups receiving daily supplementation of either one tablet of 100 mg saffron (n = 38) or one placebo (n = 38) for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and secondary outcomes were alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA), total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), leptin, adiponectin, anthropometric, and body composition Both groups were assigned similar diet and physical activity.

Results: In the treatment group, significant decreases in hs-CRP (-1.80 ng/ml, 95% CI = -2.97, -0.63, p = .032), leptin (-0.27 ng/ml, 95% CI = -0.65, -0.10, p = .040), MDA (-1.01 ng/ml, 95% CI = -1.89, -0.14, p = .023) and significant increase in TAC (0.34 μmol/L, 95% CI = 0.08, 0.61, p = .011) were observed compared to the placebo group. However, there were no significant changes in serum alanine aminotransferase, AST, TNF-α, body composition, and anthropometric indexes (p > .05).

Conclusion: In the present study, 12 weeks of 100 mg of saffron supplementation indicated beneficial effects on serum levels of some inflammatory, oxidative stress, and adipokines biomarkers but it had no significant effect on serum concentrations of liver enzymes, anthropometric, and body composition measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6791DOI Listing
December 2020

Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Berberis Integerrima on the anthropometric indices and metabolic profile in active rheumatoid arthritis patients.

Complement Ther Med 2020 May 13;50:102331. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Rheumatology Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: Since, the main cause of death in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is the presence of type 2 diabetes, abnormal increase in blood lipids, blood pressure and obesity, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of Barberry on the anthropometric indices and metabolic profile in patients with RA.

Design: present study was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

Setting: 70 active RA patients were randomly allocated into intervention or placebo group INTERVENTION: Participants received 6 capsules of 500 mg barberry extract or placebo for 3 months.

Main Outcome Measures: Serum levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure and anthropometric factors were assessed at baseline and at the end of the trial.

Results: The results of intervention on 62 patients showed that weight, BMI, and conicity index increased in both groups, but this was significant only in the placebo group (p < 0.001). Waist and hip circumference were decreased in the intervention group and increased significantly in the placebo group (p < 0.001). Body fat percent (p = 0.04), LDL-C (p = 0.05) and SBP (p = 0.02) significantly were decreased in the intervention group. The results showed a significant decrease in body fat percent (p = 0.05), hip circumference (p < 0.001), FBS (p = 0.03) and HDL-C (p = 0.03) in the intervention group compared to the placebo.

Conclusions: Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that the extract of Berberis Integerrima had beneficial effects on metabolic profile and anthropometric indices in RA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102331DOI Listing
May 2020

Effect of evening primrose oil supplementation on lipid profile: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

Phytother Res 2020 Oct 22;34(10):2628-2638. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Studies have shown that evening primrose oil (EPO) supplementation might be effective in improving lipid profile, however, the results are inconsistent. This study was performed to determine the direction and magnitude of the EPO effect on the lipid profile.

Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science databases and Google Scholar were searched up to September-2019. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model. Lipid profile including high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was considered as the primary outcome.

Results: A total of 926 articles were identified through database searching, of which, six RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. There were six studies on HDL, TC, and TG and four studies on LDL. EPO supplementation had no significant effect on TC, TG, LDL, and HDL. However, in subgroup analysis, a significant reduction in TG at a dose of ≤4 g/day (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -37.28 mg/dl; 95% CI: -73.53 to -1.03, p = .044) and a significant increase in HDL in hyperlipidemic subjects (WMD = 5.468 mg/dl; 95% CI: 1.323 to 9.614, p = .010) was found.

Conclusion: Oral intake of EPO at a dose of ≤4 g/day significantly reduces serum TG levels and significantly increases HDL levels in hyperlipidemic subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6716DOI Listing
October 2020

The effect of ginger supplementation on IL2, TNFα, and IL1β cytokines gene expression levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized controlled trial.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2019 27;33:154. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Departments of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune and inflammatory disease that affects the joints and consequently leads to the destruction of cartilage and bone lesions. Traditionally, ginger has been consumed in treatment of osteoarthritis, joint and muscle pain, neurological diseases, and inflammation of gums, tooth pain, asthma, stroke, diabetes, and constipation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ginger on some immunological and inflammatory markers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, which was performed during 2013-2016, 66 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who referred to the rheumatology clinic at Shariati hospital were en-rolled. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: one group consumed 1.5 gr ginger per day, and the other group took roasted wheat flour (placebo), respectively. To determine the effect of confounding factors on the findings of the study, questionnaires for nutrient intake, physical activity, and medication were filled, and BMI was measured. For each participant, at the beginning and end of the study, Serum hs-CRP and mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-2 and TNF-α were determined by ELISA and Quantitative Real Time PCR, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Significance level was set at p<0.05. Results of the study showed ginger powder supplementation caused a significant decline in CRP (p=0.050) and IL-1β mRNA level (p=0.021). TNFα mRNA levels reduced in ginger group compared to placebo groupalthough the difference was not significant between the 2 groups (p=0.093). Ginger had no effects on IL2 gene expression. This study showed that ginger reduces inflammatory factors hs-CRP and IL-1β gene expression in patients with active RA and it seems that ginger can improve the inflam-mation in the patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34171/mjiri.33.154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7137811PMC
December 2019

The effect of saffron supplement on clinical outcomes and metabolic profiles in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Phytother Res 2020 Jul 11;34(7):1650-1658. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune and inflammatory disease. Our study aimed to determine the effect of saffron supplement on clinical outcomes and metabolic profiles in patients with active RA. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 66 women older than 18 years old received 100 mg/day either saffron supplement in the intervention group (n = 33) or matched placebo in the placebo group (n = 33) for a period of 12 weeks. Sixty-one patients (30 in the control and 31 in the saffron group) remained for the final analysis. No adverse effects were reported by the patients. Saffron supplementation significantly decreased the number of tender (-1.38 ± 1.66 vs. 0.10 ± 0.40, p < .001) and swollen (-2.12 ± 2.34 vs. 0.63 ± 2.79, p < .001) joints, pain intensity based on visual analogue scale (-18.36 ± 15.07 vs. -2.33 ± 5.04), p < .001), and disease activity score (DAS28) (-0.75 ± 0.67 vs. 0.26 ± 0.77, p < .001) at the end of intervention between the two groups and in saffron group compared with baseline values. Physician Global Assessment (p = .002) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were significantly improved after intervention (24.06 ± 12.66 vs. 32.00 ± 14.75, p = 0.028). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein reduced at the end of the intervention in the saffron group compared with baseline values (12.00 ± 7.40 vs. 8.82 ± 7.930, p = .004). Tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and malondialdehyde were decreased, and total antioxidant capacity were increased, but their differences between the two groups were not significant (p > .05). According to the results, saffron supplements could positively and significantly improve clinical outcomes in RA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6633DOI Listing
July 2020

Effects Of Saffron Supplementation On Inflammation And Metabolic Responses In Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2019 14;12:2107-2115. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is accompanied by elevated inflammation, oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia which all contribute to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Saffron as a complementary medicine and source of antioxidants could play a role in alleviating diabetes and its complications. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of saffron supplementation as an adjunct therapy in T2D.

Patients And Methods: This randomized controlled trial included 80 T2D patients with a mean age of 54.1 years. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to take either saffron tablets (100 mg/day; n=40) or placebo (n=40) for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and after the intervention period to quantify glycemic factors, lipid profile, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Anthropometric indices and dietary intakes were also measured at baseline and at study end.

Results: Compared with placebo, saffron supplementation resulted in significant decreases in waist circumference (<0.001) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (=0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in other indices, including anthropometric parameters, serum insulin, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity indices, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, total antioxidant capacity, and tumor necrosis factor-α between the study groups (>0.05).

Conclusion: Overall, 12 weeks of saffron supplementation in diabetic patients had beneficial effects on waist circumference and serum MDA levels. However, saffron did not influence other evaluated cardio metabolic risk markers in diabetic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S216666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6798815PMC
October 2019

The effect of Cornus mas fruit extract consumption on lipid profile, glycemic indices, and leptin in postmenopausal women- A randomized clinical trial.

Phytother Res 2019 Nov 16;33(11):2979-2988. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Menopause, which occurs following a declined ovarian activity and reduced estrogen levels, can lead to long-term changes in lipid and glycemic profiles and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) is rich in phytochemicals and antioxidants, which appears to be useful in reducing the postmenopausal complications. This interventional, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial carried out on 84 menopaused women aged 45-60 years old. They were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group received three capsules of 300 mg of Cornus mas extract (CME), and control group received three capsules of 300 mg of starch powder per day for 8 weeks. Then, BMI, waist circumference, glycemic indices, lipid profile, serum apoproteinase, apoprotein B100, fibrinogen, and leptin were measured. The dietary intakes were evaluated using 24-hr dietary recall questionnaire. The consumption of CME in comparison with the control group resulted in a significant reduction in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, LDL to HDL ratio, total cholesterol to HDL ratio, and fibrinogen. There was also a significant increase in HDL and ApoA1 levels in the treatment group. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in BMI, waist circumference, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance index after 8 weeks of using CME. Summing up the results, it can be concluded that CME can have possible effects on decreasing BMI, waist circumference, and improving some aspects of lipid profile and glycemic indices in postmenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6476DOI Listing
November 2019

The Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Serum Leptin Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Horm Metab Res 2019 Aug 13;51(8):503-510. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Department of Community Nutrition, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Recently, obesity has become a common worldwide concern. Leptin, as an adipocytokine, plays a major role in the etiology of obesity. Prior studies have demonstrated that zinc potentially affects serum leptin levels. However, clinical trials carried out in this regard are not consistent. Therefore, current meta-analysis was conducted to ascertain the actual effect of zinc supplementation on serum leptin levels in adults. Databases of PubMed, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar were methodically searched to identify relevant articles up to April 2018. Clinical trials that examined the effect of zinc supplementation on serum leptin concentrations as outcome variables in human adults were included. The mean difference (SD) of leptin changes in the intervention and placebo groups were used to calculate the overall effect size. Totally, 663 articles were identified, of which 6 studies were eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 7 treatment arms. The analysis suggested that zinc supplementation exerts no significant effect on overall serum leptin (WMD: 0.74 ng/ml; 95% CI: -1.39 to 2.87, p=0.49). Nevertheless, sex and duration of intervention seemed to impact the extent of zinc's influence. In trials with female subjects, zinc consumption led to a significant decrease in serum leptin level (WMD: -1.93 ng/ml; 95% CI: -3.72 to -0.14, p=0.03) as well as trials that lasted for more than 6 weeks (WMD: -1.71 ng/ml; 95% CI: -3.07 to -0.35, p=0.01), in comparison to the control group. Zinc supplementation did not significantly improve leptin concentrations, but it may result in a decreased circulating leptin level in studies with a duration of more than 6 weeks especially among females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0955-6662DOI Listing
August 2019

The effect of saffron ( L.) supplementation on blood pressure, and renal and liver function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A double-blinded, randomized clinical trial.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2019 Jul-Aug;9(4):322-333

Department of Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Microalbuminuria and hypertension are the risk factors for diabetic nephropathy, and increased levels of liver enzymes are prevalent among diabetic patients. The aim of this research was to examine the effects of supplementation on nephropathy indices, liver enzymes, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Materials And Methods: This placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was performed among 80 T2D patients. Subjects were randomly assigned to either (n = 40) or placebo (n = 40) groups and treated with and or placebo for 12 weeks, respectively. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum urea, creatinine, 24-hr urine albumin, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), physical activity, and dietary intakes were measured and blood samples were taken at baseline and after the 12‑week intervention to assess the differences between the two groups.

Results: supplementation compared with the placebo resulted in a significant reduction of SBP (P<0.005). However, changes in other indices including liver enzymes, serum creatinine, serum urea, and 24-hr urine albumin, and DBP were not significantly different between the two groups (p>0.05). Also, no significant changes in dietary intakes and physical activity were seen between the two groups.

Conclusion: This report shows that daily supplementation with 100 mg powder improved SBP. However, it did not considerably improve DBP, nephropathy indices and liver functions in T2D patients after 12 weeks of administration.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612249PMC
July 2019

The relationship between anthropometric status and rheumatoid arthritis. Exploring the role of nesfatin and asymmetric dimethylarginine.

Acta Reumatol Port 2019 Apr-Jun;44(2):126-131

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the anthropometric status of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, as well as two controversial adipokines, namely nesfatin-1 and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), to reveal the possible relationships between them and RA.

Methods: This study included RA patients who fulfilled the American college of rheumatology classification criteria. Anthropometric parameters including height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Disease activity was assessed by 28 joints disease activity score (DAS28). Fasting plasma samples were collected and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), nesfatin-1 and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were determined using commercial kits. Statistical analyses were done using the BMI SPSS Statistics.

Results: A total of 77 patients including 63 females, with an average age of 48.45±11.26 and disease duration of 9.99±5.80 years participated the study, 62% of whom were overweight or obese. Disease activity was significantly higher in obese patients. In addition, BMI and WC were correlated with CRP and ESR, indicating higher level of inflammation in obese patients. DAS28 was also found to be correlated with CRP, ESR and ADMA (r=0.38, 0.61, 0.21 respectively). Higher protein intake was accompanied with higher CRP and ESR and higher carbohydrate intake was related to higher CRP and lower nesfatin-1.

Conclusions: Weight, BMI, and WC were correlated with the activity of RA and the concentrations of CRP and ESR went up in tandem with BMI. In addition, ADMA, but not nesfatin-1, was associated with BMI and disease activity in RA patients.
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February 2020

Association between dietary intake of some antioxidant micronutrients with some inflammatory and antioxidant markers in active Rheumatoid Arthritis patients.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2019 Nov 1;89(5-6):238-245. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease. Antioxidants intake and body antioxidants status are important in patients with RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary intake of some antioxidant micronutrients with some inflammatory and antioxidant markers in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and comparison with Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). In this cross-sectional study, eighty-seven patients with active rheumatoid arthritis were included. Dietary antioxidants intake was measured using 24-hour recall questionnaire and food record (3 days). Blood levels of inflammatory and antioxidant markers were determined by laboratory tests. The association between intake of antioxidants with inflammatory and antioxidant markers, and also with RDA were determined using Paired-Samples t-test and Pearson correlation by SPSS software. The findings showed that intakes of vitamin E, zinc, and magnesium in patients were significantly lower and intakes of copper and selenium were significantly higher than RDA (P < 0.05). Significant negative correlations were observed between vitamin A intake with PGE2 [R = -0.31], vitamin C intake with IL-1β [R = -0.25], zinc intake with PGE2 [R = -0.30], IL-2 [R = -0.23], and the activity of glutathione reductase enzyme [R = -0.21], magnesium intake with PGE2 [R = -0.24], IL-1β [R = -0.23] and IL-2 [R = -0.25], and selenium intake with PGE2 [R = -0.21] (P < 0.05). Also, significant positive correlations were observed between intakes of vitamin E and copper with catalase enzyme activity [R = 0.22 and R = 0.21 respectively] (P < 0.05). Some of the antioxidant micronutrients play important roles in the reduction of inflammatory conditions and improve the function of antioxidant enzymes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000255DOI Listing
November 2019

The effect of ginger supplementation on some immunity and inflammation intermediate genes expression in patients with active Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Gene 2019 May 4;698:179-185. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Student Research Committee, Faculty of public health Branch, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ginger supplementation on the expression of some immunity and inflammation intermediate genes in patients who suffer from RA.

Methods: In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, seventy active RA patients were allocated randomly into two groups who either received 1500 mg ginger powder or placebo daily for 12 weeks. Disease activity score and gene expression of NF-κB, PPAR-γ, FoxP3, T-bet, GATA-3, and RORγt as immunity and inflammation intermediate factors were measured using quantitative real-time PCR before and after the intervention.

Results: After the intervention, FoxP3 genes expression increased significantly within ginger group and between the two groups (P-value = 0.02). Besides, T-bet and RORγt genes expression decreased significantly between the two groups (P-value < 0.05). In ginger group, PPAR-γ genes expression increased significantly (P-value = 0.047) but the difference between the two groups wasn't statistically significant (P-value = 0.12). The reduction in disease activity score was statistically significant within ginger group and between the two groups after the intervention.

Conclusion: It seems that ginger can improve RA by decreasing disease manifestations via increasing FoxP3 genes expression and by decreasing RORγt and T-bet genes expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2019.01.048DOI Listing
May 2019

Resveratrol reduces the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and hepatocyte growth factor in stromal cells of women with endometriosis compared with nonendometriotic women.

Phytother Res 2019 Apr 6;33(4):1044-1054. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Resveratrol, a phytoalexin polyphenol, has antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. The present study has assessed the effect of resveratrol treatment on the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) from women with and without endometriosis. Endometrial tissues were obtained from 40 endometriotic patients and 15 nonendometriotic control women. After the enzymatic digestion, 13 eutopic ESCs (EuESCs), 8 ectopic ESCs (EESCs), and 11 control ESCs (CESCs) were treated with resveratrol (100 μM) for 6, 24, and 48 hr. The gene and protein expressions of IGF-1 and HGF were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods, respectively. Results showed that resveratrol treatment decreased significantly the gene expression of IGF-1 and HGF in EuESCs, EESCs, and CESCs (p < 0.05). The effect of resveratrol treatment on the reduction of IGF-1 gene expression was statistically more noticeable in EESCs compared with CESCs (p < 0.05). Also, in the case of HGF gene expression, the reducing effect of resveratrol treatment was statistically more considerable in EESCs compared with EuESCs and CESCs (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The IGF-1 and HGF protein production decreased significantly in EuESCs and EESCs (p < 0.05) but not in CESCs. These findings suggest that resveratrol treatment could reduce the expression of IGF-1 and HGF in ESCs especially in EESCs, which play a pivotal role in disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6298DOI Listing
April 2019

Polyphenols and their effects on diabetes management: A review.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2017 26;31:134. Epub 2017 Dec 26.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Type 2 diabetes is a growing public health problem and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising. Polyphenols, such as flavonoids, phenolic acid, and stilbens, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods. In this review, we aimed at assessing the studies on polyphenols and diabetes management. A literature search in the PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases was conducted to identify relevant studies published from 1986 to Jan 2017. Several animal models and a limited number of human studies have revealed that polyphenols decrease hyperglycemia and improve acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include decrease in glucose absorption in the intestine, inhibition of carbohydrates digestion, stimulation of insulin secretion, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues, modulation of intracellular signaling pathways, and gene expression. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence blood glucose at different levels and may also help control and prevent diabetes complication. However, we still need more clinical trials to determine the effects of polyphenols- rich foods, their effective dose, and mechanisms of their effects in managing diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14196/mjiri.31.134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6014790PMC
December 2017

Effects of Probiotic and Prebiotic Supplementation on Leptin, Adiponectin, and Glycemic Parameters in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Middle East J Dig Dis 2017 Jul;9(3):150-157

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

BACKGROUND According to previous studies, probiotic and prebiotic supplementation have desirable effects on glycemic parameters. Thus far, the effect of supplementation on the glycemic parameters and adipokines in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been assessed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplementation with probiotic and prebiotic on adiokines and glycemic parameters in the patients with NAFLD. METHODS In the present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 89 patients with NAFLD were randomly divided into three groups to receive one probiotic capsule + 16 g/d maltodextrin (probiotic group) or 16 g/d oligofructose powder + one placebo capsule (prebiotic group), and one placebo capsule + 16 g/d maltodextrin (control group) for 12 weeks. All the subjects in the study were advised to follow the weight loss diet and physical activity recommendations during the intervention. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after the intervention to measure leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and fasting blood sugar. RESULTS At the end of the study, serum concentrations of leptin, insulin, and HOMA-IR decreased significantly in the probiotic and prebiotic groups compared with the control group. Despite the changes within the groups, serum concentrations of adiponectin did not change significantly between the three groups. Also, fasting blood sugar did not change between the groups, but decreased in the prebiotic group. Quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI) increased significantly in probiotic and prebiotic groups compared with the control group. CONCLUSION Probiotic and prebiotic supplementation along with lifestyle intervention has a favorable impact on glycemic parameters and leptin levels compared with lifestyle intervention alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/mejdd.2017.66DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5585907PMC
July 2017

Histone variants expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Int J Rheum Dis 2018 Oct 21;21(10):1831-1837. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

Rheumatology Research Center (RRC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: The purpose of the present study was to analyze the expression of four histone variants, implicated in the regulation of gene expression, in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy controls.

Method: We analyzed the expression of three genes encoding histone variants H3.3, H2A.Z, macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2 in PBMC samples of 50 patients with RA, diagnosed according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, and 51 matched healthy controls using SYBR green real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman correlation were used for data analysis.

Results: The expression of H2A.Z was increased by 1.51-fold (P < 0.001) and the expression of H3.3 was increased by 1.13-fold (P = 0.048) in PBMCs of patients with RA compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between Disease Activity Score (DAS-28) based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the expression of H2A.Z.

Conclusions: Given the role of H3.3 and H2A.Z in nucleosome positioning, chromatin structure and transcription regulation, we suggest that lymphocytes and monocytes, the main cell subtypes in PBMCs of RA patients, possess a more accessible chromatin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1756-185X.13126DOI Listing
October 2018

The Effect of Quercetin on Inflammatory Factors and Clinical Symptoms in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Am Coll Nutr 2017 01 6;36(1):9-15. Epub 2016 Oct 6.

c Department of Nutrition , School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , IRAN.

Objective: Previous studies have shown that the bioflavonoid quercetin has anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects. We investigated the effect of quercetin supplementation on inflammation, disease severity, and clinical symptoms in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: The present study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 50 women with RA were allocated into a quercetin (500 mg/day) or placebo group for 8 weeks. Plasma levels of high-sensitivity tumor necrosis factor-α (hs-TNFα), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), clinical symptoms including early morning stiffness (EMS), morning and after-activity pain, and tender (TSC) and swollen joint counts (SJC) were determined. Disease activity and functional disability were assessed by Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS-28), physician global assessment (PGA), and a health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) at the beginning and end of the study.

Results: Quercetin supplementation for 8 weeks significantly reduced EMS, morning pain, and after-activity pain (p < 0.05). DAS-28 and HAQ scores decreased in the quercetin group compared to placebo and the number of patients with active disease significantly decreased in the quercetin group. Plasma hs-TNFα level was significantly reduced in the quercetin group compared to placebo (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in TJC and SJC between groups but TJC significantly decreased in the quercetin group after the intervention. Supplementation had an effect on ESR but it was not significant (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Five hundred milligrams per day quercetin supplementation for 8 weeks resulted in significant improvements in clinical symptoms, disease activity, hs-TNFα, and HAQ in women with RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2016.1140093DOI Listing
January 2017

Dairy Foods Intake among Female Iranian Students: A Nutrition Education Intervention Using a Health Promotion Model.

Glob J Health Sci 2016 10 1;8(10):54893. Epub 2016 Oct 1.

School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: This aim of this study was to increase dairy consumption in students following an education intervention based on Pender's Health Promotion Model (Pender's HPM) variables.

Methods: The study was done during September 2014-April 2015 in Savojbolagh, Alborz, Iran. The study sample included 142 middle-school female students who were allocated to either the intervention (n=71) or the comparison group (n=71). Pender's HPM variables and the daily servings of dairy foods consumed were measured in both groups by a self-administered questionnaire and a 3 d record before the intervention and 4 weeks later. The 4-week intervention was conducted for the intervention group. The data was analyzed through analysis of covariance and paired t tests.

Results: Compared to the comparison group, there were significant differences in Pender's HPM variables (except for the negative feelings, perceived barriers and competing demands), the daily servings of dairy foods consumed, and intakes of Calcium, riboflavin, and vitamin A in the intervention participants following the conducted intervention program.

Conclusion: Developing theory-driven nutrition education programs may increase student's dairy foods intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v8n10p192DOI Listing
October 2016

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation has no Impact on Aerobic Capacity of Healthy Young Men.

Lipids 2015 Aug 24;50(8):805-9. Epub 2015 May 24.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study investigated the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the aerobic capacity and anthropometric measurements of humans. Although this effect has been shown in animal studies, human studies have reported controversial results. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, 80 non-trained healthy young men received a 50:50 mixture of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10 cis-12 CLA (CLA 4 × 0.8 g day(-1)) ora placebo (PLA; soybean oil) in an 8-week intervention. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), time to exhaustion, weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured. CLA had no effect on VO2 max (p = 0.5) also no change was seen in time to exhaustion (p = 0.51), weight (p = 0.7), BMI (p = 0.7) and WC (p = 0.8) vs PLA. Our results suggest that CLA has no significant effect on VO2 max, time to exhaustion and anthropometric measurements in untrained healthy young male students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-015-4031-yDOI Listing
August 2015

Effect of conjugated linoleic Acid, vitamin e, alone or combined on immunity and inflammatory parameters in adults with active rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

Int J Prev Med 2014 Dec;5(12):1567-77

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Little information about the effects of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) on inflammation and immune function in humans is available. This study investigated the effects of CLAs, with and without Vitamin E on immunity and inflammatory parameters in adults with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 78 patients were randomly divided into four groups, each group receiving one of the following daily supplement for 3 months; group C: 2.5 g CLAs, group E: 400 mg Vitamin E, group CE: CLAs plus Vitamin E, group P: Placebo. Cytokines, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) and citrullinated antibody (CCP-A) were measured by ELISA method and Vitamin E by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results: Consider statistical methods there were no significant differences between groups in cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-2/IL-4, CCP-A white blood cells and neutrophils, lymphocyte, monocytes, and eosinophils numbers. TNF-α decreased in all groups, but its reduction was significant in group CE. IL-1β increased in groups P (P = 0.004) and E (P = 0.041) but the difference between group P and CE was significant. IL-4 decreased in groups C, CE and E (P = 0.03, P = 0.03, P = 0.07 respectively). IL2 did not change significantly within groups. CCP-A increased in groups P (P = 0.035) and E (P = 0.05), while it decreased in groups CE (P = 0.034). CCP-A and MMP-3 decrease were significant between groups P and CE. MMP-3 reduction was significant in group CE.

Conclusions: Co-supplementation CLAs and Vitamin E may be effective in the level of inflammatory markers in RA patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4336987PMC
December 2014

The effect of quercetin on plasma oxidative status, C-reactive protein and blood pressure in women with rheumatoid arthritis.

Int J Prev Med 2014 Mar;5(3):293-301

Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Background: Considering the increased production of free radicals and inflammatory factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the effects of bioflavonoid quercetin on reducing oxidative stress, inflammation and blood pressure, the present study examined the effects of bioflavonoid quercetin on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of plasma, lipid peroxidation and blood pressure in women with RA.

Methods: The current study was a randomized double-blind clinical trial in which 51 women with RA aged 19-70 years, were participated. Patients were assigned into quercetin (500 mg/day) or placebo groups for 8 weeks. Dietary intake was recorded using 24-h dietary recall questionnaire and the physical activity was assessed through an international short questionnaire of physical activity at the beginning and end of the study. Plasma TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA) using colorimetric method, oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and also blood pressure were measured at the beginning and end of intervention.

Results: After 8 weeks there were no significant differences in TAC of plasma, ox-LDL, MDA, hs-CRP, systolic and diastolic blood pressure between quercetin and placebo groups and in each group comparing before and after.

Conclusions: In this study, quercetin had no effect on oxidative and inflammatory status of plasma and blood pressure in patients with RA. Further studies are needed to ensure the effect of quercetin on oxidative stress and inflammation in human.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4018638PMC
March 2014

Developing and testing a measurement tool for assessing predictors of breakfast consumption based on a health promotion model.

J Nutr Educ Behav 2014 Jul-Aug;46(4):250-258. Epub 2014 Mar 15.

Department of Nutrition, School of Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

Objective: To develop an instrument for measuring Health Promotion Model constructs in terms of breakfast consumption, and to identify the constructs that were predictors of breakfast consumption among Iranian female students.

Design: A questionnaire on Health Promotion Model variables was developed and potential predictors of breakfast consumption were assessed using this tool.

Participants: One hundred female students, mean age 13 years (SD ± 1.2 years).

Settings: Two middle schools from moderate-income areas in Qom, Iran.

Variables Measured: Health Promotion Model variables were assessed using a 58-item questionnaire. Breakfast consumption was also measured.

Analysis: Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), content validity index, content validity ratio, multiple linear regression using stepwise method, and Pearson correlation.

Results: Content validity index and content validity ratio scores of the developed scale items were 0.89 and 0.93, respectively. Internal consistencies (range, .74-.91) of subscales were acceptable. Prior related behaviors, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and competing demand and preferences were 4 constructs that could predict 63% variance of breakfast frequency per week among subjects.

Conclusions And Implications: The instrument developed in this study may be a useful tool for researchers to explore factors affecting breakfast consumption among students. Students with a high level of self-efficacy, more prior related behavior, fewer perceived barriers, and fewer competing demands were most likely to regularly consume breakfast.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2013.12.007DOI Listing
April 2015

The effect of ginger consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and some inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2014 Jun 4;65(4):515-20. Epub 2014 Feb 4.

Department of Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran .

Objective: To assess the effect of ginger consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and some inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 70 type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled. They allocated randomly into ginger group and control group. They consumed 1600 mg ginger versus 1600 mg wheat flour placebo daily for 12 weeks. Serum sugar, lipids, CRP, PGE2 and TNFα were measured before and after intervention.

Results: Ginger reduced fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, insulin, HOMA, triglyceride, total cholesterol, CRP and PGE₂ significantly compared with placebo group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in HDL, LDL and TNFα between two groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Ginger improved insulin sensitivity and some fractions of lipid profile, and reduced CRP and PGE₂ in type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore ginger can be considered as an effective treatment for prevention of diabetes complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2014.880671DOI Listing
June 2014

Effect of nutrition education intervention based on Pender's Health Promotion Model in improving the frequency and nutrient intake of breakfast consumption among female Iranian students.

Public Health Nutr 2014 Mar 30;17(3):657-66. Epub 2013 Jan 30.

3 Department of Mathematics & Statistics, Hospital Management Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of nutrition education intervention based on Pender's Health Promotion Model in improving the frequency and nutrient intake of breakfast consumption among female Iranian students.

Design: The quasi-experimental study based on Pender's Health Promotion Model was conducted during April-June 2011. Information (data) was collected by self-administered questionnaire. In addition, a 3 d breakfast record was analysed. P < 0·05 was considered significant.

Setting: Two middle schools in average-income areas of Qom, Iran.

Subjects: One hundred female middle-school students.

Results: There was a significant reduction in immediate competing demands and preferences, perceived barriers and negative activity-related affect constructs in the experimental group after education compared with the control group. In addition, perceived benefit, perceived self-efficacy, positive activity-related affect, interpersonal influences, situational influences, commitment to a plan of action, frequency and intakes of macronutrients and most micronutrients of breakfast consumption were also significantly higher in the experimental group compared with the control group after the nutrition education intervention.

Conclusions: Constructs of Pender's Health Promotion Model provide a suitable source for designing strategies and content of a nutrition education intervention for improving the frequency and nutrient intake of breakfast consumption among female students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980013000049DOI Listing
March 2014

Effect of conjugated linoleic acids, vitamin E and their combination on the clinical outcome of Iranian adults with active rheumatoid arthritis.

Int J Rheum Dis 2009 Apr;12(1):20-8

Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, School of Public Health Research and Institute of Public Health, Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Despite beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) in animal studies, there is little information on their effects on human inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

Aim: To investigate the effects of CLAs as an adjuvant therapy on the clinical manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in adults with an active disease.

Methods: In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 87 patients with active RA were divided into four groups receiving one of the following daily supplements for 3 months: group C: CLAs 2.5 g equivalent to 2 g mixture of cis 9-trans 11 and trans 10-cis12 CLAs at a rate of 50/50; group E: vitamin E: 400 mg; group CE: CLAs and vitamin E at above doses; group P: placebo. Serum alpha-tocopherol was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Clinical data was determined by physician examination and filling the questionnaire by interview. Complete blood count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-Reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) were measured in each patient. DAS28 (diseases activity score) was also determined.

Results: A 3-month supplementation resulted significant reduction in DAS28, pain and morning stiffness in the groups C and CE compared with group P (P < 0.05). Compared with the baseline, ESR levels decreased significantly in the groups C (P < or = 0.05), E (P < or = 0.05) and CE (P < or = 0.001). Group CE had significantly lower ESR levels than group P (P v 0.05). CRP dropped non-significantly in all four groups (P > 0.1). The reduction of white blood cell count was significant in group CE compared with other groups (P < 0.05). Decrease in platelet count was non-significant in groups CE, C, and E. Changes in RF, body mass index, red blood cell count and hemoglobin were not significant in four groups, while RF decreased non-significantly in groups CE and E. In comparison with the baseline, alpha-tocopherol increased significantly in groups C (P < or = 0.05), E (P < or = 0.01) and CE (P < or = 0.001) and in groups E and CE compared with group P.

Conclusion: CLA supplementation resulted in significant improvement in clinical manifestation among RA patients and may be useful in their treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-185X.2009.01374.xDOI Listing
April 2009

Effect of conjugated linoleic acid, vitamin E and their combination on lipid profiles and blood pressure of Iranian adults with active rheumatoid arthritis.

Vasc Health Risk Manag 2008 ;4(6):1423-32

Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), vitamin E, and combination of these nutrients on serum lipid profiles and blood pressure (BP) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 87 patients with active RA were divided into four groups receiving one of the following daily supplements for three months: Group C: CLAs 2.5 g equivalent to 2 g mixture of cis 9-trans 11 and trans 10-cis12 CLAs in a rate of 50/50; Group E: vitamin E: 400 mg; Group CE: CLAs and vitamin E at above doses: Group P: placebo. After supplementation, SBP levels decreased significantly in the group C in comparison with groups E and P and mean arterial pressure reduced significantly in groups C and CE. There weren't significant differences in the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL/HDL, cholesterol/HDL, fasting blood sugar, C-reactive protein (CRP), arylestrase activity, platelet count and body mass index between groups. CRP dropped nonsignificantly in groups P, C, E and CE (19%, 24%, 55%, and 39%, respectively). Erythrocytes sedimentation rate levels decreased in groups C, E and CE (P < or = 0.05, P < or = 0.05, P < or = 0.001, respectively). It is concluded that supplementation of CLAs decreased BP and vitamin E decreased CRP. Therefore co-supplementation of CLAs and vitamin E might be profitable for heart disease prevention in RA patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2663461PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/vhrm.s3822DOI Listing
April 2009