Publications by authors named "Nagendra Prasad M N"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Biosorption of oxybenzene using biosorbent prepared by raw wastes of and comparative study by using commercially available activated carbon.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jun 17;28(6):3469-3476. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Biotechnology, SJCE, JSS Science and Technology University, Mysore 570006, India.

Organic pollutants present in waste water have undesirable effect on the environment. Industry activities are the key sources of organic pollutants. Prime pollutants released from various sources react instantly with the environment and become derived (secondary) pollutants, which stay for an elongated time. The present research work has been carried out using biosorbent prepared from various wastes for elimination of oxybenzene. Different parameters viz contact time, initial concentration; adsorbent dose, temperature and pH were optimized for the biosorption of oxybenzene on to the biosorbent samples. BCS (Baby corn silk) showed higher percentage of biosorption at optimum contact time of 3 h, pH between 5 and 6 and temperature at 25 °C. Analysis of equilibrium biosorption data in terms of several isotherm models revealed that Langmuir isotherm and Freundlich isotherm indicates better agreement with the experimental data. The kinetics of oxybenzene biosorption on to the biosorbents was described with the pseudo-first-order model. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that biosorption onto biosorbent was feasible in nature, spontaneous, and endothermic for some biosorbents, but on contrary not feasible, exothermic and non spontaneous for other biosorbents. The result of this study showed that the biosorbent derived from can be used as a prospective biosorbent for oxybenzene in wastewater and also can be an alternative for the commercially activated carbon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.03.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176127PMC
June 2021

Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) as a contraceptive: An evidence-based review on its pharmacological efficiency.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jul 19;88:153596. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Biotechnology, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, JSS Science and Technology University, JSS Technical Institutional Campus, Mysore, 570006, Karnataka, India.

Background: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. is an Indian medicinal plant with innumerable pharmacological properties. Studies have proven that the phytochemicals from neem possess remarkable contraceptive abilities with limited knowledge on its mechanism of action.

Purpose: The present review aims to summarize the efficiency of A. indica treatment as a contraceptive.

Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used. Published scientific articles on antifertility, antispermatogenic, antiovulation, hormone altering, contraceptive, and abortifacient activities of A. indica were collected from reputed Journals from 1980 to 2020 using electronic databases. Specific keywords search was completed to collect numerous articles with unique experiment design and significant results. This was followed by the selection of the requisite articles based on the criteria designed by the authors. Data extraction was based on the common research elements included in the articles.

Results: A total of 27 studies were considered for reviewing, which included key pharmacological investigations. In the beginning, authors evaluated a number of publications on the contraceptive properties of A. indica, in which it was revealed that most of the publications were made between 2005 and 2009. All the collected articles were categorised and reviewed as antifertility, antispermatogenic, antiovulation, hormone altering, contraceptive, and abortifacient. Authors also assessed studies based on the plant parts used for pharmacological evaluations including leaves, seeds, stem-bark, and flowers. The article was primarily divided into different sections based on the previous works of authors on phytochemistry and pharmacological review articles.

Conclusion: Although A. indica is not reported with the complete alleviation of reproductive system in both male and female animal models, studies have proven its efficacy as a contraceptive. Extracts and phytochemicals from neem neither reduced the libido nor retarded the growth of secondary sexual characters, thus indicating only a temporary and reversible contraceptive activity. However, there is a dearth for clinical studies to prove the efficacy of A. indica as a herbal contraceptive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153596DOI Listing
July 2021

Bioconjugated nano-bactericidal complex for potent activity against human and phytopathogens with concern of global drug resistant crisis.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Oct 9;637-638:274-281. Epub 2018 May 9.

Bionanotechnological Laboratory, Department of Studies in Microbiology, Manasagangotri, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:

The present study emphasizes the need for novel antimicrobial agents to combat the global drug resistant crisis. The development of novel nanomaterials is reported to be of the alternative tool to combat drug resistant pathogens. In present investigation, bioconjugated nano-complex was developed from secondary metabolite secreted from endosymbiont. The endosymbiont capable of secreting antimicrobial metabolite was subjected to fermentation and the culture supernatant was assessed for purification of antimicrobial metabolite via bio-assay guided fraction techniques such as thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and column chromatography. The metabolite was characterized as 2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4 DAPG) which was used to develop bioconjugated nano-complex by treating with 1 mM silver nitrate under optimized conditions. The purified metabolite 2,4 DAPG reduced silver nitrate to form bioconjugated nano-complex to form association with silver nanoparticles. The oxidized form of DAPG consists of four hard ligands that can conjugate on to the surface of silver nanoparticles cluster. The bioconjugation was confirmed with UV-visible spectroscopy which displayed the shift and shoulder peak in the absorbance spectra. This biomolecular interaction was further determined by the Fourier-transform spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses which displayed different signals ascertaining the molecular binding of 2,4,DAPG with silver nanoparticles. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed the cluster formation due to bioconjugation. The XRD analysis revealed the crystalline nature of nano-complex with the characteristic peaks indexed to Bragg's reflection occurring at 2θ angle which indicated the (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. The activity of bioconjugated nano-complex was tested against 12 significant human and phytopathogens. Among all the test pathogens, Shigella flexneri (MTCC 1457) was the most sensitive organisms with 38.33 ± 0.33 zone of inhibition. The results obtained in the present investigation attribute development of nano-complex as one of the effective tools against multi-drug resistant infections across the globe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.405DOI Listing
October 2018

Assessment of Nutritional Quality and Global Antioxidant Response of Banana ( sp. CV. Nanjangud Rasa Bale) Pseudostem and Flower.

Pharmacognosy Res 2017 Dec;9(Suppl 1):S74-S83

Department of Biotechnology, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, Mysore, India.

Background: The assessment of the nutritional composition and phytochemical screening of banana pseudostem (PB) and flower (FB) advocate this nonconventional food source for routine consumption, considering its various health benefits.

Objectives: The aim is to assess the proximate nutrient composition, fatty acids, minerals, amino acid profile, and global antioxidant response (GAR) of PB and FB.

Methods: Standard analytical procedures were used to determine the nutritional quality and GAR of PB and FB.

Results: The chemical analysis illustrated that functional profile (water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, swelling power, and solubility), and proximate (ash, moisture, protein, fat, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) contents were substantially high in FB than PB. With a well-proportionate amino acid profile, PB (0.56) and FB (0.54) comprised of a high ratio of essential to nonessential amino acids than those of FAO/WHO requirement (0.38). The mineral analysis revealed that PB and FB were rich in macro and micro minerals in the order K > Ca > Mg > P > Na and K > Mg > Na > Ca > P, respectively. Linoleic acid was found to be the major component in PB and FB. Besides, total antioxidant activity conducted for PB and FB by GAR method, measuring both bio-accessible and insoluble fractions, revealed that the soluble fraction fared better than the chemical extracts.

Conclusion: The results revealed high nutritional qualities of the byproducts of banana and the low cost of its production promotes their use as a prospective nonconventional food resource with high nutraceutical value.

Summary: AOAC: Association of Analytical CommunitiesFAO/WHO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World health organization Banana flower was more potent than banana pseudostem in terms of its nutritional quality and total antioxidant capacity affirming their usefulness (of both the secondary products) in the pharmaceutical sector as a nutritional supplement due to the health-related properties of dietary fibre and associated bioactive compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/pr.pr_67_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5757331PMC
December 2017

Investigation of Antihyperglycaemic Activity of Banana ( sp. Var. Nanjangud rasa bale) Flower in Normal and Diabetic Rats.

Pharmacogn Mag 2017 Oct 11;13(Suppl 3):S417-S423. Epub 2017 Oct 11.

Department of Biotechnology, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, JSS Institution Camp, Manasagangothri, Mysore, Karnataka, India.

Background: The vital enzymes of starch digestion and absorption are intestinal α-glucosidases and their inhibition improves postprandial hyperglycaemia, constituting an effective mode of therapy in diabetes.

Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the inhibitory potential of ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) on mammalian α-glucosidases and its pharmacological effects on postprandial hyperglycaemia in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Materials And Methods: EF was evaluated for its inhibitory potential and mode of inhibition on mammalian α-glucosidases. Further, the role of EF and its constituents Umbelliferone (C1) and Lupeol (C2) on glucose uptake using isolated rat hemi-diaphragm and insulinotropic activity using RINm5F (rat insulinoma) cell lines were determined. The phytocomponents in EF were also evaluated using GC-MS.

Results: EF illustrated a dose-dependent inhibition for rat intestinal sucrase, maltase and -nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG) hydrolysis (IC values: 18.76±0.22, 25.54±0.10 and 76.42±1.12 µg/ml, respectively) and the mode of inhibition was non-competitive with low Ki values. Oral administration (100-200 mg/kg b.wt.) of EF significantly improved the maltose/glucose-induced postprandial hyperglycaemia in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. EF, C1 and C2 exhibited stimulation of glucose uptake and a dose-dependent glucose-induced insulin secretion at both 4.5 and 16.7 mM glucose concentrations. Further, GC-MS analysis revealed significant levels of steroids (25.61%), diazoprogesterone (21.31%), sesquiterpene (11.78%) and other phytocomponents.

Conclusion: EF inhibited α-glucosidases besides promoting glucose uptake and insulin secretion, resulting in antihyperglycaemic effect determining EF as a potent anti-diabetic agent. mg/dl: milligramsper deciliter, mM: millimolar, b.wt.: body weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.216331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5669076PMC
October 2017

Molecular diversity among viroids infecting chrysanthemum in India.

Virus Genes 2017 Aug 19;53(4):636-642. Epub 2017 May 19.

Plant Pathology Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, 036-8561, Aomori, Japan.

Association of Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) and Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd) with the Chrysanthemum plants exhibiting severe stunting, distinct yellow leaf mottling, and chlorosis was detected in the main chrysanthemum-growing regions of India. Sequence analysis of 90 cDNA clones obtained for CSVd and CChMVd, representing the chrysanthemum-growing regions of India, revealed the high degree of sequence variation throughout the genome under natural conditions. Additionally, all the analyzed CChMVd clones revealed the presence of UUUC in the tetraloop, a signature of symptomatic variants in susceptible cultivars. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Indian CSVd is closely related to European isolates from ornamentals, whereas CChMVd clustered along with the isolates reported from the East Asian countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-017-1468-5DOI Listing
August 2017

Nanoagroparticles emerging trends and future prospect in modern agriculture system.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Jul 23;53:10-17. Epub 2017 Apr 23.

Department of Biotechnology, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, JSS Science and Technology University, JSS Technical Institutional Campus, Mysore 570006, India.

Increment of technical knowledge has remarkably uplifted logical thinking among scientific communities to shape the theoretical concepts into near product-oriented research. The concept of nanotechnology has overwhelmed almost all forms of lives and has traded its applications in myriad fields. Despite rapid expansion of nanotechnology, sustainable competitions still do exist in the field of agriculture. In current scenario, agriculture is a manifestation demand to provide adequate nutrition for relentless growing global population. It is estimated that nearly one-third of the global crop production is destroyed annually. The loss owes to various stresses such as pest infestation, microbial pathogens, weeds, natural calamities, lack of soil fertility and much more. In order to overcome these limitations, various technological strategies are implemented but a majority of these have their own repercussions. Hence there is a scrawling progress on the evaluation of nanoparticles into agriculture sector which can reform the modern agricultural system. Applications of these nanomaterials can add tremendous value in the current scenario of a global food scarcity. Nanotechnology can address the adverse effects posed by the abundant use of chemical agrochemicals which are reported to cause biomagnification in an ecosystem. Based on these facts and consideration, present review envisages on nanoparticles as nanoherbicides, nanopesticides, onsite detection agro-pathogens and nanoparticles in post harvest management. The review also elucidates on the importance of nanoparticles in soil fertility, irrigation management and its influence on improving crop yield. With scanty reports available on nanotechnology in agriculture system, present review attributes toward developing nanoagroparticles as the future prospect which can give new facelift for existing agriculture system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2017.04.012DOI Listing
July 2017

Endo-symbiont mediated synthesis of gold nanobactericides and their activity against human pathogenic bacteria.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Jun 27;52:143-149. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Biotechnological Laboratory, Department of Studies in Microbiology, Manasagangotri, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:

Synthesis of gold nanobactericides (AuNBs) were achieved by treating 1mM chloroaurate with cell free supernatant of Aneurinibacillus migulanus. Formation of AuNBs was initially was monitored with change in colour to ruby red. Further confirmation was assessed with UV-visible spectra with maximum absorption occurring at 510nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed the polydispersity of AuNBs with size distribution ranging from 10 to 60nm with an average size of 30nm. Crystalline nature was studied using X-ray diffraction which exhibited characteristic peaks indexed to Bragg's reflection at 2θ angle which confers (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes suggesting AuNBs were face-centred cubic. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed absorption peaks occurring at 3341cm, 1635cm and 670cm which corresponds to functional groups attributing to synthesis. The antibacterial efficacy of AuNBs was tested against selective human pathogenic bacteria and activity was measured as zone of inhibition by using disc and well diffusion. Bactericidal activity was interpreted with standard antibiotics gentamicin and kanamycin. Micro broth dilution assay expressed the minimal concentration of AuNBs to inhibit the growth of test pathogens. Highest activity was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 7903) with 21.00±0.57mm compared to other pathogens. The possible mode of action of AuNBs on DNA was carried out with in vitro assay as preliminary test against pathogenic DNA isolated from P. aeruginosa. Further studies will be interesting enough to reveal the exact interactive mechanism of AuNBs with DNA. Overall study contributes towards biogenic synthesis of AuNBs as one of the alternative in combating drug resistant pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2017.03.016DOI Listing
June 2017

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by endosymbiont Pseudomonas fluorescens CA 417 and their bactericidal activity.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2016 Dec 5;95:128-136. Epub 2016 Oct 5.

Bionanotechnological Laboratory, Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore, India. Electronic address:

The present study emphasizes on biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their bactericidal activity against human and phytopathogens. Nanoparticle synthesis was performed using endosymbiont Pseudomonas fluorescens CA 417 inhabiting Coffea arabica L. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using hyphenated spectroscopic techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy which revealed maximum absorption 425nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the possible functional groups mediating and stabilizing silver nanoparticles with predominant peaks occurring at 3346 corresponding to hydroxyl group, 1635 corresponding carbonyl group and 680 to aromatic group. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the Bragg's diffraction pattern with distinct peaks at 38° 44°, 64° and 78° revealing the face-centered cubic (fcc) metallic crystal corresponding to the (111), (200), (220) and (311) facets of the crystal planes at 2θ angle. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed presence of high intense absorption peak at 3keV is a typical characteristic of nano-crystalline silver which confirmed the presence of elemental silver. TEM analysis revealed the size of the nanoparticles to be in the range 5-50nm with polydisperse nature of synthesized nanoparticles bearing myriad shapes. The particle size determined by Dynamic light scattering (DLS) method revealed average size to be 20.66nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited significant antibacterial activity against panel of test pathogens. The results showed Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 7407) and Xanthomonas campestris to be more sensitive among the test human pathogen and phyto-pathogen respectively. The study also reports synergistic effect of silver nanoparticles in combination with kanamycin which displayed increased fold activity up to 58.3% against Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 7407). The results of the present investigation are promising enough and attribute towards growing scientific knowledge on development of new antimicrobial agents to combat drug resistant microorganisms. The study provides insight on emerging role of endophytes towards reduction of metal salts to synthesize nanoparticles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2016.10.004DOI Listing
December 2016

Biomimetic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Endosymbiotic Bacterium Inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. and Their Bactericidal Potential.

Scientifica (Cairo) 2016 14;2016:9020239. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

Bionanotechnological Laboratory, Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore, Karnataka 570006, India.

The present investigation aims to evaluate biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using endophytic bacterium EH 419 inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. The synthesized nanoparticles were initially confirmed with change in color from the reaction mixture to brown indicating the synthesis of nanoparticles. Further confirmation was achieved with the characteristic absorption peak at 440 nm using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were subjected to biophysical characterization using hyphenated techniques. The possible role of biomolecules in mediating the synthesis was depicted with FTIR analysis. Further crystalline nature of synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) with prominent diffraction peaks at 2θ which can be indexed to the (111), (200), (220), and (311) reflections of face centered cubic structure (fcc) of metallic silver. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed morphological characteristics of synthesized silver nanoparticles to be polydisperse in nature with size ranging from 10 to 60 nm and different morphological characteristics such as spherical, oval, hexagonal, and cubic shapes. Further silver nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity against panel of significant pathogenic bacteria among which Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most sensitive compared to other pathogens. To the best of our knowledge, present study forms first report of bacterial endophyte inhabiting Euphorbia hirta L. in mediating synthesizing silver nanoparticles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9020239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4923596PMC
July 2016

Inhibition of Group IIA Secretory Phospholipase A2 and its Inflammatory Reactions in Mice by Ethanolic Extract of Andrographis paniculata, a Well-known Medicinal Food.

Pharmacognosy Res 2016 Jul-Sep;8(3):213-6

Toxinology/Toxicology and Drug Discovery Unit, Centre for Emerging Technologies, Jain University, Kanakapura, Karnataka, India.

Unlabelled: Andrographis paniculata Nees is an important medicinal plant found in the tropical regions of the world, which has been traditionally used in Indian and Chinese medicinal systems. It is also used as medicinal food. A. paniculata is found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities; however, its inhibitory potential on inflammatory Group IIA phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and its associated inflammatory reactions are not clearly understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory/neutralizing potential of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata on the isolated inflammatory PLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) from Daboii rusellii pulchella (belonging to Group IIA inflammatory secretory PLA2 [sPLA2]) and its associated edema-induced activities in Swiss albino mice. A. paniculata extract dose dependently inhibited the Group IIA sPLA2 enzymatic activity with an IC50 value of 10.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml. Further, the extract dose dependently inhibited the edema formation, when co-injected with enzyme indicating that a strong correlation exists between lipolytic and pro-inflammatory activities of the enzyme. In conclusion, results of this study shows that the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata effectively inhibits Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate its anti-inflammatory properties. The results of the present study warranted further studies to develop bioactive compound (s) in ethanolic extract of A. paniculata as potent therapeutic agent (s) for inflammatory diseases.

Summary: This study emphasis the anti-inflammatory effect of A. paniculata by inhibiting the inflammatory Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities such as edema. It was found that there is a strong correlation between lipolytic activity and pro-inflammatory activity inhibition. Therefore, the study suggests that the extract processes potent anti-inflammatory agents, which could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammatory and related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.182916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4908853PMC
July 2016

Assessment of In Vivo Antidiabetic Properties of Umbelliferone and Lupeol Constituents of Banana (Musa sp. var. Nanjangud Rasa Bale) Flower in Hyperglycaemic Rodent Model.

PLoS One 2016 22;11(3):e0151135. Epub 2016 Mar 22.

Department of Biotechnology, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, JSS Technical Institutions Campus, Mysore - 570 006, Karnataka, India.

Banana is an extensively cultivated plant worldwide, mainly for its fruit, while its ancillary product, the banana flower is consumed as a vegetable and is highly recommended for diabetics in the traditional Indian medicine system. This study is based on an investigation of the in vivo antihyperglycaemic activity of Umbelliferone (C1) and Lupeol (C2) isolated from the ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) in alloxan induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats which were administered with C1, C2 and EF (100 and 200 mg/kg b. wt.) for 4 weeks showed deterioration in fasting hyperglycaemia and reversal of abnormalities in serum/urine protein, urea and creatinine, when compared to the diabetic control group of rats. The diabetic group of rats fed with EF, C1 and C2 (100 mg/kg b. wt.) once daily, for a period of 28 days resulted in a significant reduction of diabetic symptoms viz., polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria and urine sugar together with an improved body weight. HbA1c extent was reduced whereas levels of insulin and Hb were increased. Both the extract and compounds wielded positive impacts in diabetic rats by reversal of altered activities of hepatic marker enzymes viz., aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP); glycolytic enzyme (hexokinase); shunt enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase); gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase) and pyruvate kinase. The characteristic diabetic complications such as hypercholesterolemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia also significantly reverted to normal in the serum/liver of diabetic rats. Besides these, the treatment increased the activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the serum and liver. The histological observations revealed a marked regeneration of the β-cells in the drug treated diabetic rats. In conclusion, the present study illustrates that EF, C1 and C2 enhances the glycolytic activities, besides increasing the hepatic glucose utilization in diabetic rats by stimulating insulin secretion from the remnant β-cells along with potential enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151135PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4803188PMC
August 2016

Evaluating the inhibitory potential of Withania somnifera on platelet aggregation and inflammation enzymes: An in vitro and in silico study.

Pharm Biol 2016 Sep 24;54(9):1936-41. Epub 2015 Dec 24.

f Department of Studies in Biotechnology, Biochemistry and Microbiology , Pooja Bhagavat Memorial Mahajana Post Graduate Centre, Mahajana Research Foundation, Affiliated to University of Mysore , Mysore , Karnataka , India.

Context Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is traditionally used for treating various ailments, but lacks scientific evaluation. Objective This study evaluates Withania somnifera (WS) for its effect on platelet activity and inflammatory enzymes. Materials and methods Aqueous and ethanolic (1:1) leaf extracts were subjected to in vitro indirect haemolytic activity using Naja naja venom, human platelet aggregation was quantified for lipid peroxidation using arachidonic acid (AA) as agonist and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) levels were determined using standard spectrometric assays. Further, molecular docking was performed by the ligand fit method using molegro software package (Molegro ApS, Aarhus, Denmark). Results The study found that aqueous and ethanol extracts have very negligible effect (15%) with an IC50 value of 13.8 mg/mL on PLA2 from Naja naja venom. Further, extracts of WS also had very little effect (18%) with an IC50 value of 16.6 mg/mL on malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. However, a 65% inhibition of 5-LOX with an IC50 value of 0.92 mg/mL was observed in 1:1 ethanol extracts. The same was evident from SAR model with the active ingredient withaferin A binding predominantly on Phe 77, Tyr 98, Arg 99, Asp 164, Leu 168, Ser 382, Arg 395, Tyr 396 and Tyr 614 with an atomic contact energy value of -128.96 compared to standard phenidone (-103.61). Thus, the current study validates the application of WS for inflammatory diseases. Conclusion This study reveals the inhibitory potential of W. somnifera on inflammatory enzymes and platelet aggregation. Thus, WS can serve as a newer, safer and affordable medicine for inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2015.1123729DOI Listing
September 2016
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