Publications by authors named "Nafarizal Nayan"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cytotoxicity of MXene-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications: A mini review.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 25;201:111592. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.

MXene based nanomaterial is an uprising two-dimensional material gaining tremendous scientific attentions due to its versatile properties for the applications in electronic devices, power generation, sensors, drug delivery, and biomedicine. However, the cytotoxic effects of MXene still remained a huge concern. Therefore, stringent analysis of biocompatibility of MXene is an essential requirement before introduction to human physiological system. Several in vitro and in vivo toxicological studies have been reported to investigate the interactions between MXenes with living organisms such as microbes, mammalian cells and animal models. The biological response and cytotoxicity reported were dependent on the physicochemical properties of MXene. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of MXene were dependent on size, dose, and surface coating. This review demystifies the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility studies associated with MXene. Various methods proposed to mitigate the cytotoxicity of MXene for in vivo applications were revealed. The machine learning methods were developed to predict the cytotoxicity of experimentally synthesized MXene compounds. Finally, we also discussed the current research gaps of applying MXenes in biomedical interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111592DOI Listing
June 2021

Advanced Nanoscale Surface Characterization of CuO Nanoflowers for Significant Enhancement of Catalytic Properties.

Molecules 2021 May 4;26(9). Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bharu 81310, Malaysia.

In this work, advanced nanoscale surface characterization of CuO Nanoflowers synthesized by controlled hydrothermal approach for significant enhancement of catalytic properties has been investigated. The CuO nanoflower samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), high-angular annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) with elemental mapping, energy dispersive spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. The nanoscale analysis of the surface study of monodispersed individual CuO nanoflower confirmed the fine crystalline shaped morphology composed of ultrathin leaves, monoclinic structure and purified phase. The result of HR-TEM shows that the length of one ultrathin leaf of copper oxide nanoflower is about ~650-700 nm, base is about ~300.77 ± 30 nm and the average thickness of the tip of individual ultrathin leaf of copper oxide nanoflower is about ~10 ± 2 nm. Enhanced absorption of visible light ~850 nm and larger value of band gap energy (1.68 eV) have further supported that the as-grown material (CuO nanoflowers) is an active and well-designed surface morphology at the nanoscale level. Furthermore, significant enhancement of catalytic properties of copper oxide nanoflowers in the presence of H2O2 for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) with efficiency ~96.7% after 170 min was obtained. The results showed that the superb catalytic performance of well-fabricated CuO nanoflowers can open a new way for substantial applications of dye removal from wastewater and environment fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124738PMC
May 2021

Surface Study of CuO Nanopetals by Advanced Nanocharacterization Techniques with Enhanced Optical and Catalytic Properties.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Jul 2;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Microelectronics and Nanotechnology-Shamsuddin Research Centre (MiNT-SRC), Institute for Integrated Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Parit Raja, Batu Pahat Johor 86400, Malaysia.

In the present work, a facile one-step hydrothermal synthesis of well-defined stabilized CuO nanopetals and its surface study by advanced nanocharacterization techniques for enhanced optical and catalytic properties has been investigated. Characterization by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed existence of high crystalline CuO nanopetals with average length and diameter of 1611.96 nm and 650.50 nm, respectively. The nanopetals are monodispersed with a large surface area, controlled morphology, and demonstrate the nanocrystalline nature with a monoclinic structure. The phase purity of the as-synthesized sample was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. A significantly wide absorption up to 800 nm and increased band gap were observed in CuO nanopetals. The valance band (VB) and conduction band (CB) positions at CuO surface are measured to be of +0.7 and -1.03 eV, respectively, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which would be very promising for efficient catalytic properties. Furthermore, the obtained CuO nanopetals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide ( H 2 O 2 ) achieved excellent catalytic activities for degradation of methylene blue (MB) under dark, with degradation rate > 99% after 90 min, which is significantly higher than reported in the literature. The enhanced catalytic activity was referred to the controlled morphology of monodispersed CuO nanopetals, co-operative role of H 2 O 2 and energy band structure. This work contributes to a new approach for extensive application opportunities in environmental improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10071298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408456PMC
July 2020

Structural optical and electrical properties of a transparent conductive ITO/Al-Ag/ITO multilayer contact.

Beilstein J Nanotechnol 2020 27;11:695-702. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Shamsuddin Research Centre (MiNT-SRC), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.

Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a widely used material for transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films due to its good optical and electrical properties. Improving the optoelectronic properties of ITO films with reduced thickness is crucial and quite challenging. ITO-based multilayer films with an aluminium-silver (Al-Ag) interlayer (ITO/Al-Ag/ITO) and a pure ITO layer (as reference) were prepared by RF and DC sputtering. The microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the ITO/Al-Ag/ITO (IAAI) films were investigated before and after annealing at 400 °C. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the insertion of the Al-Ag intermediate bilayer led to the crystallization of an Ag interlayer even at the as-deposited stage. Peaks attributed to ITO(222), Ag(111) and Al(200) were observed after annealing, indicating an enhancement in crystallinity of the multilayer films. The annealed IAAI film exhibited a remarkable improvement in optical transmittance (86.1%) with a very low sheet resistance of 2.93 Ω/sq. The carrier concentration increased more than twice when the Al-Ag layer was inserted between the ITO layers. The figure of merit of the IAAI multilayer contact has been found to be high at 76.4 × 10 Ω compared to a pure ITO contact (69.4 × 10 Ω). These highly conductive and transparent ITO films with Al-Ag interlayer can be a promising contact for low-resistance optoelectronics devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.11.57DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214864PMC
April 2020

One-step wet chemical synthesis of gold nanoplates on solid substrate using poly-l-lysine as a reducing agent.

MethodsX 2018 4;5:1618-1625. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

A one-step wet chemical approach or seedless growth process has several advantages compared to the traditional seed-mediated growth method (SMGM), such as being simpler and not requiring a multistep growth of seeds. This study had introduced a one-step wet chemical method to synthesis gold nanoplates on a solid substrate. The synthesis was carried out by simply immersing clean ITO substrate into a solution, which was made from mixing of gold chloride (precursor), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or CTAB (stabilizing agent), and poly-l-lysine or PLL (reducing agent). Consequently, the size of the nanoplates in the range of (0.40 - 0.89) μm and a surface density within the range (21.89-57.19) % can be easily controlled by changing the concentration of PLL from 0.050 to 0.100 w/v % in HO. At low PLL concentrations, the reduction of the gold precursor by PLL is limited, leading to the formation of gold nanoplates with a smaller size and surface density. The study on the sample by using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed that gold peaks occurred. The optical properties of the samples were examined by a UV-vis Spectrophotometer and showed that there was no strong surface plasmon resonance band observed at UV-vis and infrared regions, which agreed to micron-sized gold nanoplates. •Gold nanoplates synthesized on the substrate using a simple one-step wet chemical synthesis approach with poly-l-lysine (PLL) as a reducing agent and CTAB as a stabilizing agent.•The nanoplate's size and surface density was strongly dependent on the concentration of PLL.•Gold nanoplates synthesized using PLL with a concentration 0.050% showed perfect triangular shape, less by-products and more homogenous in size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2018.12.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290129PMC
December 2018

Comparison of biophysical properties characterized for microtissues cultured using microencapsulation and liquid crystal based 3D cell culture techniques.

Cytotechnology 2018 Feb 30;70(1):13-29. Epub 2017 Nov 30.

Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, Medical and Healthcare Technology Department, University of Bradford, Bradford, BD7 1DP, UK.

Growing three dimensional (3D) cells is an emerging research in tissue engineering. Biophysical properties of the 3D cells regulate the cells growth, drug diffusion dynamics and gene expressions. Scaffold based or scaffoldless techniques for 3D cell cultures are rarely being compared in terms of the physical features of the microtissues produced. The biophysical properties of the microtissues cultured using scaffold based microencapsulation by flicking and scaffoldless liquid crystal (LC) based techniques were characterized. Flicking technique produced high yield and highly reproducible microtissues of keratinocyte cell lines in alginate microcapsules at approximately 350 ± 12 pieces per culture. However, microtissues grown on the LC substrates yielded at lower quantity of 58 ± 21 pieces per culture. The sizes of the microtissues produced using alginate microcapsules and LC substrates were 250 ± 25 μm and 141 ± 70 μm, respectively. In both techniques, cells remodeled into microtissues via different growth phases and showed good integrity of cells in field-emission scanning microscopy (FE-SEM). Microencapsulation packed the cells in alginate scaffolds of polysaccharides with limited spaces for motility. Whereas, LC substrates allowed the cells to migrate and self-stacking into multilayered structures as revealed by the nuclei stainings. The cells cultured using both techniques were found viable based on the live and dead cell stainings. Stained histological sections showed that both techniques produced cell models that closely replicate the intrinsic physiological conditions. Alginate microcapsulation and LC based techniques produced microtissues containing similar bio-macromolecules but they did not alter the main absorption bands of microtissues as revealed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cell growth, structural organization, morphology and surface structures for 3D microtissues cultured using both techniques appeared to be different and might be suitable for different applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10616-017-0168-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5809678PMC
February 2018

Biophysical characteristics of cells cultured on cholesteryl ester liquid crystals.

Micron 2014 Jan 24;56:73-9. Epub 2013 Oct 24.

Biosensor and Bioengineering Laboratory, MiNT-SRC Research Center, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia; School of Medical Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

This study aimed at examining the biophysical characteristics of human derived keratinocytes (HaCaT) cultured on cholesteryl ester liquid crystals (CELC). CELC was previously shown to improve sensitivity in sensing cell contractions. Characteristics of the cell integrin expressions and presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on the liquid crystals were interrogated using various immunocytochemical techniques. The investigation was followed by characterization of the chemical properties of the liquid crystals (LC) after immersion in cell culture media using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface morphology of cells adhered to the LC was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Consistent with the expressions of the integrins α2, α3 and β1, extracellular matrix proteins (laminin, collagen type IV and fibronectin) were found secreted by the HaCaT onto CELC and these proteins were also secreted by cells cultured on the glass substrates. FTIR analysis of the LC revealed the existence of spectrum assigned to cholesterol and ester moieties that are essential compounds for the metabolizing activities of keratinocytes. The immunostainings indicated that cell adhesion on the LC is mediated by self-secreted ECM proteins. As revealed by the AFM imaging, the constraint in cell membrane spread on the LC leads to the increase in cell surface roughness and thickness of cell membrane. The biophysical expressions of cells on biocompatible CELC suggested that CELC could be a new class of biological relevant material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2013.10.011DOI Listing
January 2014

Interfacial study of cell adhesion to liquid crystals using widefield surface plasmon resonance microscopy.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2013 Oct 25;110:156-62. Epub 2013 Apr 25.

Biosensor and Bioengineering Laboratory, MiNT-SRC Research Center, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.

Widefield surface plasmon resonance (WSPR) microscopy provides high resolution imaging of interfacial interactions. We report the application of the WSPR imaging system in the study of the interaction between keratinocytes and liquid crystals (LC). Imaging of fixed keratinocytes cultured on gold coated surface plasmon substrates functionalized with a thin film of liquid crystals was performed in air using a 1.45NA objective based system. Focal adhesion of the cells adhered to glass and LC were further studied using immunofluorescence staining of the vinculin. The imaging system was also simulated with 2×2 scattering matrix to investigate the optical reflection of the resonant plasmonic wave via the glass/gold/cell and glass/gold/LC/cell layers. WSPR imaging indicated that keratinocytes are less spread and formed distinct topography of cell-liquid crystal couplings when cultured on liquid crystal coated substrates. The simulation indicates that glass/LC shifted the surface plasmon excitation angle to 75.39° as compared to glass/air interface at 44°. The WSPR microcopy reveals that the cells remodelled their topography of adhesion at different interfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2013.04.012DOI Listing
October 2013
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